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anti convulsants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727818/efficacy-and-safety-of-ketogenic-diet-for-treatment-of-pediatric-convulsive-refractory-status-epilepticus
#1
Ravindra Arya, Katrina Peariso, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Jessica Harvey, Ann Bergin, J Nicholas Brenton, Brian T Burrows, Tracy Glauser, Howard P Goodkin, Yi-Chen Lai, Mohamad A Mikati, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy and safety of ketogenic diet (KD) for convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE). METHODS: RSE patients treated with KD at the 6/11 participating institutions of the pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group from January-2011 to December-2016 were included. Patients receiving KD prior to the index RSE episode were excluded. RSE was defined as failure of ≥2 anti-seizure medications, including at least one non-benzodiazepine drug...
April 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727742/cytokine-levels-in-febrile-seizure-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Aram Kwon, Byung Ok Kwak, Kyungmin Kim, Jongseok Ha, Soo-Jin Kim, Sun Hwan Bae, Jae Sung Son, Soo-Nyung Kim, Ran Lee
PURPOSE: Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common form of childhood seizures. During infection, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are produced. Complex interactions among immune-inflammatory process, cytokine activation, and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of FSs. The association between cytokines and FSs during childhood is inconclusive due to inconsistent results reported in different studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine an association between cytokines and FS in children...
April 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699515/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-alzheimer-pathology-presenting-with-status-epilepticus-following-repeated-partial-seizures-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Keita Miyake, Takashi Hara, Etsuko Oshima, Kiyohiro Kawada, Hideki Ishizu, Yuko Yamauchi, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Common first symptoms are dementia, cerebellar ataxia, visual disturbance, and psychiatric symptoms. Seizure as the first symptom of CJD is a very rare finding. CASE PRESENTATION: We experienced an elderly woman who presented initially with status epilepticus following repeated partial seizures in the course of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. Anti-convulsive therapy had no effect...
April 25, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690727/-clinical-experience-and-next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-encephalitis-caused-by-pseudorabies-virus
#4
W L Zhao, Y H Wu, H F Li, S Y Li, S Y Fan, H L Wu, Y J Li, Y L Lü, J Han, W C Zhang, Y Zhao, G L Li, X D Qiao, H T Ren, Y C Zhu, B Peng, L Y Cui, H Z Guan
Objective: To detect potential pathogens including pseudorabies virus in patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology in China and describe novel encephalitic entities. Methods: Patients with clinically suspected infectious encephalitis were enrolled in a multicenter study to identify the pathogens in PUMCH Encephalitis Program.Next-generation sequencing(NGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was used in patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology enrolled from 2016 to 2017.The patients diagnosed as PRV encephalitis were studied to describe this novel entity...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656203/an-overview-of-quinazolines-pharmacological-significance-and-recent-developments
#5
REVIEW
V Alagarsamy, K Chitra, G Saravanan, V Raja Solomon, M T Sulthana, B Narendhar
Most of the drugs and pharmacologically relevant molecules possess heterocyclic ring structures and presence of hetero atoms or groupings divulges privileged specificities in their pharmacological targets. Especially the heterocyclic systems, quinazoline is a biologically imperative scaffold known to be linked with several pharmacological activities. Some of the protuberant pharmacological responses attributed to this system are analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, sedative-hypnotic, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-tubercular and anti-viral activities...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651178/transformation-products-of-carbamazepine-cbz-after-ozonation-and-their-toxicity-evaluation-using-pseudomonas-sp-strain-ksh-1-in-aqueous-matrices
#6
Kshitiz Dwivedi, Ashwinkumar P Rudrashetti, Tapan Chakrabarti, R A Pandey
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anti-epileptic and anti-convulsant drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and other bipolar disorders. Ozone as an advanced oxidation process has been widely used for the degradation of CBZ resulting in the formation of transformation products (ozonides). The present research aims to isolate and identify potential microorganism, capable of degradation of CBZ and its transformation products. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of pure CBZ and their ozone transformation products were evaluated using the cells of Pseudomonas sp...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650833/-a-case-of-local-recurrence-of-descending-colon-cancer-with-ileus-obstruction-and-lung-liver-and-brain-metastasis
#7
Ryouichi Tomita, Shigeru Fujisaki, Kenichi Sakurai, Takeo Azuhata, Yuko Takamoto
We report a 50-year-old man with local recurrence of descending colon cancer with ileus obstruction and brain metastasis, 2 years 6 months after initial resection due to perforation of descending colon cancer(Hartmann procedure, D2 lymph node resection, Stage II, tub2). He complained of left upper abdominal pain and abdominal fullness. He also complained of paresis of the right upper extremity and of experiencing convulsions 1 month before admission. He was diagnosed with local recurrence of descending colon cancer, based on findings of contrast radiography and the presence of colonic fiber...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624207/large-differences-in-neonatal-drug-use-between-nicus-are-common-practice-time-for-consensus
#8
R B Flint, F van Beek, P Andriessen, L Zimmermann, K D Liem, I K M Reiss, R de Groot, D Tibboel, D M Burger, S H P Simons
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for drug use in newborn is sparse, which may cause large differences in drug prescriptions. We aimed to investigate the differences between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Netherlands in currently prescribed drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter study included neonates admitted during 12 months to four different NICUs. Drugs were classified in accordance with the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and assessed for on/off-label status in relation to neonatal age...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566486/discovery-of-benzenesulfonamide-derivatives-as-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors-with-effective-anti-convulsant-action-design-synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation
#9
Chandra Bhushan Mishra, Shikha Kumari, Andrea Angeli, Silvia Bua, Manisha Tiwari, Claudiu T Supuran
Two series of novel benzenesulfonamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity against four isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA VII and hCA IX. It was found that compounds of both series showed low to medium nanomolar inhibitory potential against all isoforms. Some of these derivatives displayed selective inhibition against the epileptogenesis-associated isoforms hCA II and VII, within the nanomolar range. These potent hCA II and VII inhibitors were evaluated as anticonvulsant agents against MES as well as sc-PTZ induced convulsions...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555354/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-convulsive-status-epilepticus-clinical-features-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors
#10
Fang Yuan, Fang Yang, Wen Li, Xiai Yang, Qiong Gao, Lijie Bi, Yongli Jiang, Wen Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and determine risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive patients with NCSE after CSE over eight years in the neurological intensive care unit. Clinical presentations and the Salzburg EEG criteria for NCSE were used to identify patients with NCSE after CSE. Demographics, clinical features, and anti-epileptic treatment responses were collected and analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527169/-orthosiphon-stamineus-leaf-extract-affects-tnf-%C3%AE-and-seizures-in-a-zebrafish-model
#11
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512684/valproic-acid-prevents-glucocorticoid%C3%A2-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-of-rats
#12
Ding Zhou, Yi-Xuan Chen, Jun-Hui Yin, Shi-Cong Tao, Shang-Chun Guo, Zhan-Ying Wei, Yong Feng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) because their effect compromises the osteogenic capability of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. Previous studies have reported that VPA promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and osteogenesis in vivo as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of VPA as a precautionary treatment of ONFH after GC treatment in rats...
June 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500402/phenytoin-inhibits-necroptosis
#13
Anne von Mässenhausen, Wulf Tonnus, Nina Himmerkus, Simon Parmentier, Danish Saleh, Diego Rodriguez, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Rosalind L Ang, Joel M Weinberg, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Adrian Zierleyn, Jan Ulrich Becker, Blandine Baratte, Nathalie Desban, Stéphane Bach, Ina Maria Schiessl, Shoko Nogusa, Siddharth Balachandran, Hans Joachim Anders, Adrian T Ting, Markus Bleich, Alexei Degterev, Karl Kunzelmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Douglas R Green, Christian Hugo, Andreas Linkermann
Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1/3) have best been described for their role in mediating a regulated form of necrosis, referred to as necroptosis. During this process, RIPK3 phosphorylates mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) to cause plasma membrane rupture. RIPK3-deficient mice have recently been demonstrated to be protected in a series of disease models, but direct evidence for activation of necroptosis in vivo is still limited. Here, we sought to further examine the activation of necroptosis in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and from TNFα-induced severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), two models of RIPK3-dependent injury...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497610/cancer-chemoprevention-and-piperine-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Rafiq A Rather, Madhulika Bhagat
Cancer is a genetic disease characterized by unregulated growth and dissemination of malignantly transformed neoplastic cells. The process of cancer development goes through several stages of biochemical and genetic alterations in a target cell. Several dietary alkaloids have been found to inhibit the molecular events and signaling pathways associated with various stages of cancer development and therefore are useful in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer chemoprevention has long been recognized as an important prophylactic strategy to reduce the burden of cancer on health care system...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484389/mtor-is-involved-in-stroke-induced-seizures-and-the-anti-seizure-effect-of-mild-hypothermia
#15
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Stroke is considered an underlying etiology of the development of seizures. Stroke leads to glucose and oxygen deficiency in neurons, resulting in brain dysfunction and injury. Mild hypothermia is a therapeutic strategy to inhibit stroke‑induced seizures, which may be associated with the regulation of energy metabolism of the brain. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member (GLUT)‑1 are critical for energy metabolism. Furthermore, mTOR overactivation and GLUT‑1 deficiency are associated with genetically acquired seizures...
April 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475094/effects-of-levetiracetam-and-sulthiame-on-eeg-in-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Moritz Tacke, Ingo Borggraefe, Lucia Gerstl, Florian Heinen, Katharina Vill, Michaela Bonfert, Thomas Bast, Bernd Axel Neubauer, Friedrich Baumeister, Martina Baethmann, Karl Bentele, Christian Blank, Harald M Blank, Harald Bode, Friedrich Bosch, Ulrich Brandl, Knut Brockmann, Peter Dahlem, Jan-Peter Ernst, Evemarie Feldmann, Andreas Fiedler, Michael Gerigk, Soeren Heß, Christiane Hikel, Hans-Georg Hoffmann, Matthias Kieslich, Joerg Klepper, Gerhard Kluger, Hartmut Koch, Walter Koch, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Ilona Krois, Hermann Kühne, Gerhard Kurlemann, Michaela Mandl, Ulrike Mause, Peter Navratil, Joachim Opp, Johann Penzien, Viola Prietsch, Axel Quattländer, Dietz Rating, Ulrike Schara, Mohammed G Shamdeen, Andreas Sprinz, Hildegard Wendker-Magrabi, Ulrich Stephani, Hiltrud Muhle, Hans-Michael Straßburg, Bärbel Töpke, Regina Trollmann, Elisabeth Tuschen-Hofstätter, Stephan Waltz, Gabriele Weber, Frank U Wien, Markus Wolff, Tilman Polster, Hedwig Freitag, Ötzcam Sönmez, Klaus Reinhardt, Marion Traus, Zeecam Hoovey
PURPOSE: BECTS (benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes) is associated with characteristic EEG findings. This study examines the influence of anti-convulsive treatment on the EEG. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial including 43 children with BECTS, EEGs were performed prior to treatment with either Sulthiame or Levetiracetam as well as three times under treatment. Using the spike-wave-index, the degree of EEG pathology was quantified. The EEG before and after initiation of treatment was analyzed...
March 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460700/the-lupus-patient-with-positive-rheumatoid-factor
#17
A Fedrigo, T A F G Dos Santos, R Nisihara, T Skare
Background Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may form clusters with clinical manifestations and autoantibodies. Objective The objective of this report is to study whether SLE patients with positive rheumatoid factor (RF) have a special clinical and/or serological profile. Methods A retrospective study of 467 SLE patients seen at a single rheumatology unit was conducted. Epidemiological data (age, gender, age at disease onset, ethnic background and tobacco use), clinical data (malar rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, discoid lesions, serositis, glomerulonephritis, convulsions, psychosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, arthritis and hypothyroidism) and serological profile (anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, anti-RNP, anti-Sm, IgG aCL, IgM aCL, lupus anticoagulant, direct Coombs and RF) were collected...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457829/species-specific-susceptibility-to-cannabis-induced-convulsions
#18
Benjamin J Whalley, Hong Lin, Lynne Bell, Thomas Hill, Amesha Patel, Roy A Gray, C Elizabeth Roberts, Orrin Devinsky, Michael Bazelot, Claire M Williams, Gary J Stephens
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous claims are made for cannabis' therapeutic utility upon human seizures, but concerns persist about risks. A potential confounder is the presence of both Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), variously reported to be pro- and anticonvulsant, and cannabidiol (CBD), widely confirmed as anticonvulsant. Therefore, we investigated effects of prolonged exposure to different THC/CBD cannabis extracts on seizure activity and associated measures of endocannabinoid (eCB) system signalling...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428604/experimental-neuropharmacology-of-gelsemium-sempervirens-recent-advances-and-debated-issues
#19
Paolo Bellavite, Clara Bonafini, Marta Marzotto
Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories...
January 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414525/electrographic-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-a-progressive-epilepsy-phenotype-in-female-mecp2-deficient-mice
#20
Robert G Wither, Sinisa Colic, Berj L Bardakjian, O Carter Snead, Liang Zhang, James H Eubanks
Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Spontaneous epileptiform activity is a common co-morbidity present in Rett syndrome, and hyper-excitable neural networks are present in MeCP2-deficient mouse models of Rett syndrome. In this study we conducted a longitudinal assessment of spontaneous cortical electrographic discharges in female MeCP2-deficient mice and defined the pharmacological responsiveness of these discharges to anti-convulsant drugs...
February 2018: Epilepsy Research
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