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anti convulsants

Minju Im, Aeyung Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
Gardeniae Fructus (GF, Zhi Zi in China), a fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has been used in traditional medicine to reduce inflammation and headache and to treat hepatic disorders, hypertension, and icterus. In recent studies, extract of raw or stir-baked GF was shown to have pharmacological activities for viral infection, thrombosis, hyperlipidemia, convulsion, inflammation, oxidative stress, and others. In addition, baked GF extract suppressed the proteolytic activities and altered the cellular morphology of tumor cells...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The review summarizes the efforts to fabricate inclusion complexes of different therapeutic agents based on a versatile material . is a macrocyclic nano-basket which is the marvelous host with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. and its derivatives are used as carriers (host-guest) for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-psychotic drugs, etc. They are the important biocompatible materials to improve solubility and chemical reactivity, and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan, Orinya Agbaji Orinya
Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Gollapalle L Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Godavarthi Ashok
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to examine the anti-epileptic activity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum in experimental models of epilepsy in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether leaf extract of P. granatum (PLPG), methanolic LPG (MLPG), and aqueous LPG (ALPG) extracts of P. granatum leaves was initially evaluated against 6-Hz-induced seizure model; the potent extract was further evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yiye Shao, Yonghao Feng, Yangmei Xie, Qiong Luo, Long Chen, Bing Li, Yinghui Chen
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black seed (Nigella sativa) oil, which has anti-inflammatory properties in the context of various diseases. This study explored the protective effects of TQ in SE and used a lithium-pilocarpine model of SE to investigate the underlying mechanism, which was related to inflammation mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with the SE group, and the incidence of SE was significantly reduced...
October 18, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Varinder Singh, Aditi Kahol, Inder Pal Singh, Isha Saraf, Richa Shri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ocimum species are traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety, nerve pain, convulsions and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of O. basilicum L., O. sanctum L. and O. gratissimum L. extracts using in-vitro and in-vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydro-methanol extracts of plants were evaluated using Ellman and DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Charlotte Laurent, Jean Capron, Bluenn Quillerou, Guy Thomas, Sonia Alamowitch, Olivier Fain, Arsène Mekinian
BACKGROUND: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and associated autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) is characterized by encephalopathy and the presence of antithyroid antibodies. We describe the clinical presentation, outcome and treatments for SREAT by a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published until 2015. Inclusion criteria were unexplained encephalopathy with antithyroid antibodies...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Michelle R Peace, Karen E Butler, Carl E Wolf, Justin L Poklis, Alphonse Poklis
Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Francesca Tomaciello, Karine Leclercq, Rafal M Kaminski
Resveratrol (3,4',5-stilbenetriol) is a natural product having diverse anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The compound has a wide spectrum of pharmacological and metabolic activity, including cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic and anti-aging effects reported in numerous studies. Some reports also suggest potential anticonvulsant properties of resveratrol. In the present study, we used in mice three different seizure models which are routinely applied in preclinical drug discovery...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Danielle A J E Lambrechts, Evelyn Brandt-Wouters, Pauline Verschuure, Hans S H Vles, Marian J M Majoie
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in serum CCK-8 and leptin levels in patients with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet (KD). METHODS: In this prospective study, patients aged between one and 40 years with refractory epilepsy were included. CCK-8 and leptin were measured in serum at baseline and after three and 12 months of treatment with the KD using an enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbant Assay. Seizure frequency and responsiveness were calculated. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included; 26 patients (48%) were still on the KD at 12 months...
August 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Lie Yang, Hui Shen, Lisa R Merlin, Sheryl S Smith
More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
N E Scholpa, R T Kolli, M Moore, R D Arnold, T C Glenn, B S Cummings
This study determined the anti-neoplastic activity and nephrotoxicity of epigenetic inhibitors in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of epigenetic inhibitors was determined in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and LNCaP) using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Cells were also treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-convulsant with histone deacetylase inhibitor-like properties. 5-Aza, TSA or CBZ alone did not decrease MTT staining in PC-3 or LNCaP cells after 48 h...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Shino Oikawa, Yuko Kai, Masayuki Tsuda, Hisayuki Ohata, Asuka Mano, Naoko Mizoguchi, Shuei Sugama, Takahiro Nemoto, Kenji Suzuki, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Kazuyo Muramoto, Makoto Kaneda, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
We previously developed cardiac ventricle-specific choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene-overexpressing transgenic mice (ChAT tgm), i.e. an in vivo model of the cardiac non-neuronal acetylcholine (NNA) system or non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system (NNCCS). By using this murine model, we determined that this system was responsible for characteristics of resistance to ischaemia, or hypoxia, via the modulation of cellular energy metabolism and angiogenesis. In line with our previous study, neuronal ChAT-immunoreactivity in the ChAT tgm brains was not altered from that in the wild-type (WT) mice brains; in contrast, the ChAT tgm hearts were the organs with the highest expression of the ChAT transgene...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Berrin Oztas, Deniz Sahin, Hale Kir, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Mert Musul, Sevinç Kuskay, Nurbay Ates
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained...
August 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
Nina Javadian, Nastaran Rahimi, Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Vasopressin neuropeptides play an important role in the several cognitive, social, and neuroendocrine functions. Also, several studies report the involvement of nitrergic system in the vasopressin functions in central nervous system. This study investigates the effect of Arginine-Vasopressin (AVP) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures threshold and the probable role of nitric oxide (NO). AVP is administered intraperitoneally (0.01-20μg/kg, i.p.) 30min before induction of seizures. Administration of AVP (0...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
A González-Mira, I Varó, M Solé, A Torreblanca
The alerted presence in recent decades of pharmaceuticals has become an issue of environmental concern, and most of the mechanisms of biotransformation and biochemical and physiological responses to them in fish are still unknown, as well as the influence of water temperature in their ability to cope with them. This study aims to detect the main effects of two of the most widespread drugs on a set of physiological and biochemical markers in Solea senegalensis. Sole juveniles acclimatized at 15 and 20 °C were administered an intraperitoneal injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IB; 10 mg/kg) and the anti-convulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ; 1 mg/kg)...
August 3, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ray Dingledine, Bjørnar Hassel
About one-third of the 65 million people worldwide affected by epilepsy are treatment-resistant, and the degree to which they suffer from seizures and convulsions can vary widely. Problems occur when nerve cells in the brain fail to communicate properly. A new study has found that inhibiting an enzyme that is critical in metabolic communication has an anti-seizure effect in epileptic mice. These findings, the authors believe, may very well initiate a shift to new therapeutic approaches.
May 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Régis Bouquié, Eric Dailly, Danièle Bentué-Ferrer
Oxcarbazepine is an analogue of carbamazepine, used for the treatment of partial seizure with or without secondary generalization. The two forms R and S of the mono-hydroxylated derivatives (MHD) are responsible for most of the anti-convulsant activity and it is the concentrations of MHD that are relevant in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Analysis of currently literature provides no well-established relationship between plasma concentration of MHD and efficiency or toxicity. Although there is not a validated therapeutic range, the residual concentrations of usually observed therapeutic MHD are situated between 12 and 30 mg/L...
January 2010: Thérapie
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