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Bacterial prostatitis

Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Eddy Van de Leur, Steffen K Meurer, Eva M Buhl, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a highly conserved secreted adipokine acting as a serum transport protein for small hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. In addition, LCN2 limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores and further protects against intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis associated with alterations in the microbiota. Human LCN2 contains one N -glycosylation site conserved in other species. It was postulated that this post-translational modification could facilitate protein folding, protects from proteolysis, is required for proper trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface, and might be relevant for effective secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Marcello Locatelli, Nicola Macchione, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Lucia Recinella, Simone Carradori, Gokhan Zengin, Stefania Cesa, Lidia Leporini, Sheila Leone, Luigi Brunetti, Luigi Menghini, Giustino Orlando
Prostatitis, a general term describing prostate inflammation, is a common disease that could be sustained by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. The efficacy of herbal extracts with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects for blunting the burden of inflammation and oxidative stress, with possible improvements in clinical symptoms, is under investigation. Pollen extracts have been previously reported as promising agents in managing clinical symptoms related to prostatitis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of Graminex pollen (GraminexTM , Deshler, OH, USA), a commercially available product based on standardized pollen extracts, in rat prostate specimens, ex vivo...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tommaso Cai, Francesco Tessarolo, Iole Caola, Federico Piccoli, Giandomenico Nollo, Patrizio Caciagli, Sandra Mazzoli, Alessandro Palmieri, Paolo Verze, Gianni Malossini, Vincenzo Mirone, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
Purpose: Prostate calcifications are a common finding during transrectal prostate ultrasound in both healthy subjects and patients, but their etiopathogenesis and clinical significance are not fully understood. We aimed to establish a new methodology for evaluating the role of microbial biofilms in the genesis of prostate calcifications. Materials and Methods: Ten consecutive patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. All of the patients presented with prostate calcifications during transrectal ultrasound evaluation before surgery and underwent Meares-Stamey tests and clinical evaluation with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the International Prostate Symptom Score...
May 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
M B Frungieri, R S Calandra, A Bartke, M E Matzkin
Ageing is usually characterised by a mild chronic proinflammatory state. Despite the tight association between both processes, the phenomenon has recently been termed inflammageing. Inflammation in the male reproductive tract is frequently linked with bacterial or virus infections but also with a broad range of noninfectious processes. Prostatitis, epididymitis and orchitis, among others, can lead to infertility. However, in spite of the inflammation theory of disease, chronic inflammation in male urogenital system does not always cause symptoms...
May 8, 2018: Andrologia
Ahmed M Elshal, Ahmed M Atwa, Ahmed R El-Nahas, Mohamed A El-Ghar, Asaad Gaber, Essam Elsawy, Abdelwahab Hashem, Yasser Farag, Hashim Farg, Ali Elsorougy, Mohamed Fouda, Hossam Nabeeh, Ahmed Mosbah
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of three chemoprophylaxis approaches in prevention of post-transrectal biopsy infectious complications (TBICs). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 3 days 500 mg B.I.D 3 days starting the night prior to biopsy (standard prophylaxis), augmented prophylaxis using ciprofloxacin and single preprocedure shot of 160 mg gentamicin IM (augmented prophylaxis) and rectal swab culture-based prophylaxis (targeted prophylaxis)...
May 7, 2018: World Journal of Urology
William M Mendenhall, Gail Sarto, Curtis M Bryant, Christopher G Morris, Christopher R Williams, Joseph A Costa, Mark Bandyk, Bradford S Hoppe, Randal H Henderson, R Charles Nichols, Nancy P Mendenhall
PURPOSE: Placement of fiducial markers for prostate radiotherapy (RT) is associated with a 2% to 3% risk of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) that may progress to sepsis necessitating hospitalization. These bacterial UTIs are primarily due to flouroquinolone (FQ) resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). The incidence of this complication has increased in recent years. The purpose of this study is to determine whether rectal culture and sensitivity (C&S) to identify FQ resistant E...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
L Fan, X Shang, J Zhu, B Ma, Q Zhang
In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments...
May 2, 2018: Andrologia
Mónica Fernández-Cancio, Núria Camats, Christa E Flück, Adam Zalewski, Bernhard Dick, Brigitte M Frey, Raquel Monné, Núria Torán, Laura Audí, Amit V Pandey
The CYP17A1 gene regulates sex steroid biosynthesis in humans through 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase activities and is a target of anti-prostate cancer drug abiraterone. In a 46, XY patient with female external genitalia, together with a loss of function mutation S441P, we identified a novel missense mutation V366M at the catalytic center of CYP17A1 which preferentially impaired 17,20 lyase activity. Kinetic experiments with bacterially expressed proteins revealed that V366M mutant enzyme can bind and metabolize pregnenolone to 17OH-pregnenolone, but 17OH-pregnenolone binding and conversion to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was impaired, explaining the patient’s steroid profile...
April 29, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Tianzhong Peng, Ying Cheng, Yuhao Jin, Na Xu, Taipin Guo
BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a prevalent genitourinary condition. Considering its safety profile, acupuncture can be an option treating CP symptoms. The aim of this review is to undertake a systematic review to estimate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on CP. METHODS: We will search all randomized controlled trials for CP in August 2018 in the databases of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, Springer, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan fang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), PsycInfo, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and other available resources...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Caroline Loïez, Rosario Pilato, Adeline Mambie, Sylvie Hendricx, Karine Faure, Frédéric Wallet
We report a case of aortic native valve endocarditis due to Actinotignum schaalii in an 89-year-old man with prostatism history but no signs of urinary infection. Actinotignum schaalii was isolated not only from positive blood culture but also from cardiac valve culture using mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing. Actinotignum schaalii is recognized as commensal of genitourinary tract, but it was underdiagnosed. The advances in bacterial identification such as MALDI-TOF MS probably explain the increasing described cases of infections due to A...
February 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Matteo Boltri, Vittorio Magri, Emanuele Montanari, Gianpaolo Perletti, Alberto Trinchieri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was the development of quantitative assessment of prostatic calcifications at prostatic ultrasound examination by the use of an image analyzer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 82 patients was evaluated by medical history, physical, and transrectal ultrasound examination. Patients had a urethral swab, a 4-specimen study and culture of the seminal fluid. Patients were classified according to National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/National Institutes of Health...
April 26, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Mohammed Zakariah, Shahanavaj Khan, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Christian Rolfo, Mohamed Maher Ben Ismail, Yousef Ajami Alotaibi
Cancer was initially considered a genetic disease. However, recent studies have revealed the connection between bacterial infections and growth of different types of cancer. The enteroinvasive strain of Mycoplasma hominis alters the normal behavior of host cells that may result in the growth of prostate cancer. The role of M. hominis in the growth and development of prostate cancer still remains unclear. The infection may regulate several factors that influence prostate cancer growth in susceptible individuals...
April 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yumi Seo, Gilho Lee
Background: The prostate is prone to infections. Hypothetically, bacteria can be inoculated into the prostate during a transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) and progress into chronic bacterial prostatitis. Therefore, we examined new bacterial infections in biopsied prostates after TRPB and whether they affect clinical characteristics in the biopsied patients. Methods: Of men whose prostate cultures have been taken prior to TRPB, 105 men with bacteria-free benign prostate pathology underwent an additional repeated prostate culture within a year after TRPB...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Taylor Wolfe, Cynthia Smith, Roy Jacob
Acute bacterial prostatitis is a common disease among adults. Acute bacterial prostatitis in the pediatric population is rare with only a few case reports in the literature. This case highlights an unusual presentation of prostatitis in a 16-year-old who presented with suprapubic pain and hematuria following blunt trauma to the lower abdomen.
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Jonathan F Anker, Anum F Naseem, Hanlin Mok, Anthony J Schaeffer, Sarki A Abdulkadir, Praveen Thumbikat
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have not been effective for immunologically "cold" tumors, such as prostate cancer, which contain scarce tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. We hypothesized that select tissue-specific and immunostimulatory bacteria can potentiate these immunotherapies. Here we show that a patient-derived prostate-specific microbe, CP1, in combination with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, increases survival and decreases tumor burden in orthotopic MYC- and PTEN-mutant prostate cancer models. CP1 administered intra-urethrally specifically homes to and colonizes tumors without causing any systemic toxicities...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
George G Zhanel, Michael A Zhanel, James A Karlowsky
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in outpatients is commonly treated with oral fluoroquinolones; however, the worldwide dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has resulted in therapeutic failures with fluoroquinolones. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin in the treatment of acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli . All English-language references on PubMed from 1986 to June 2017, inclusive, were reviewed from the search "fosfomycin prostatitis...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Holly Kramer, Gina Kuffel, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Kavitha Vellanki, David J Leehey, Vinod K Bansal, Linda Brubaker, Robert Flanigan, Julia Koval, Anuradha Wadhwa, Michael J Zilliox
PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with stage 3-5 non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and diuretic use were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. Midstream voided urine specimens were collected using the clean-catch method. The bacterial composition was determined by sequencing the hypervariable (V4) region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
April 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Pengbo Jiang, Michael A Liss, Richard J Szabo
PURPOSE: We compared the effectiveness of targeted prophylaxis (TP) to augmented empirical prophylaxis (AEP) and single agent empirical prophylaxis (SAEP) in preventing sepsis after transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed TRPB's performed over three years at 13 Southern California Kaiser Permanente Departments of Urology. TP was guided by rectal culture bacterial susceptibilities for use of a single prophylactic antibiotic while for empirical prophylaxis (EP), one antibiotic (SAEP) or multiple antibiotics (AEP) were given according to the urologist's usual practice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Urology
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Prakash Kulkarni, Keith Weninger, John Orban, Herbert Levine
It is well known that genetic mutations can drive drug resistance and lead to tumor relapse. Here, we focus on alternate mechanisms-those without mutations, such as phenotypic plasticity and stochastic cell-to-cell variability that can also evade drug attacks by giving rise to drug-tolerant persisters. The phenomenon of persistence has been well-studied in bacteria and has also recently garnered attention in cancer. We draw a parallel between bacterial persistence and resistance against androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa), the primary standard care for metastatic disease...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Stefan Heidler, Martin Drerup, Lukas Lusuardi, Ursula Bannert, Katharina Bretterbauer, Johannes Bures, Franz Dietersdorfer, Eva Dlouhy-Schütz, Clemens Hessler, Rainer Karpf, Lie-Anna Mittellehner, Barbara Mitlöhner, Stephan Schwarz, Günther Thomay, Georg Lösch, Christa Freibauer, Walter Albrecht
OBJECTIVE: To compare prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with bacterial growth in prostate tissue cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male patients who underwent transurethral prostate resection were investigated prospectively. Resection chips from the prostate gland were added to brain-heart infusion medium and incubated. PSA levels were determined preoperatively at our urology ward. The prostate gland volume was estimated by transabdominal ultrasound examination preoperatively...
May 2018: Urology
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