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Light quality

Renfeng Xu, Huachun Wang, Feng Jiang, Chunyan Xue, Zhenping Huang, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the typically narrower palpebral apertures of East Asian eyes in combination with the narrowing of this aperture during down-gaze combine to reduce light levels and image contrast in the inferior retina during near work, thus creating peripheral deprivation in these eyes that could generate deprivation myopia in children culturally encouraged to perform near work. METHODS: We photographed the right eyes of 53 Chinese children during down-gaze (from 10 to 40 degrees) from the fixation point and the primary gaze position...
October 18, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Ying Liu, Kesheng Wang, Mildred Maisonet, Liang Wang, Shimin Zheng
BACKGROUND: A long term of unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study is to determine the associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) with type 2 diabetes in American adults (≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data were from 12987 American adults who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Todd P Chang, Sheree M Schrager, Alyssa J Rake, Michael W Chan, Phung K Pham, Grant Christman
Multimedia in assessing clinical decision-making skills (CDMS) has been poorly studied, particularly in comparison to traditional text-based assessments. The literature suggests multimedia is more difficult for trainees. We hypothesize that pediatric residents score lower in diagnostic skill when clinical vignettes use multimedia rather than text for patient findings. A standardized method was developed to write text-based questions from 60 high-resolution, quality multimedia; a series of expert panels selected 40 questions with both a multimedia and text-based counterpart, and two online tests were developed...
October 17, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Thamir M Alshammari
Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
October 18, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Swarup China, Bingbing Wang, Johannes Weis, Luciana Rizzo, Joel Brito, Glauber G Cirino, Libor Kovarik, Paulo Artaxo, Mary K Gilles, Alexander Laskin
Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Belén Sotillo, Vibhav Bharadwaj, J P Hadden, Masaaki Sakakura, Andrea Chiappini, Toney Teddy Fernandez, Stefano Longhi, Ottavia Jedrkiewicz, Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Luigino Criante, Roberto Osellame, Gianluca Galzerano, Maurizio Ferrari, Kiyotaka Miura, Roberta Ramponi, Paul E Barclay, Shane Michael Eaton
Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV's states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
John E Stone, William R Sherman, Klaus Schulten
Immersive molecular visualization provides the viewer with intuitive perception of complex structures and spatial relationships that are of critical interest to structural biologists. The recent availability of commodity head mounted displays (HMDs) provides a compelling opportunity for widespread adoption of immersive visualization by molecular scientists, but HMDs pose additional challenges due to the need for low-latency, high-frame-rate rendering. State-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations produce terabytes of data that can be impractical to transfer from remote supercomputers, necessitating routine use of remote visualization...
May 2016: IEEE International Symposium on Parallel & Distributed Processing, Workshops and Phd Forum: [proceedings]
Erica Roitero, Federico Lasserre, Marc Anglada, Frank Mücklich, Emilio Jiménez-Piqué
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to generate micrometric linear patterns with different topography on dental grade zirconia by means of UV laser interference and to assess the quality of the produced surface, both in term of the geometry produced and of the surface damage induced in the material. METHODS: The third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (355nm, pulse duration of 10ns and repetition rate of 1Hz) was employed to pattern the surface of 3Y-TZP with micrometric-spaced lines...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Guiqian Tang, Na Chao, Yuesi Wang, Jiashan Chen
Vehicular emissions in China in 2006 and 2010 were calculated at a high spatial resolution based on the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, by taking the emission standards into consideration. China's vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matters (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) were 30,113.9, 4593.7, 6838.0, 20.9, 400.2, 430.5, 285.6, and 105...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, Li Li, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Qian Wang, Shikang Tao, Cheng Huang, Changhong Chen
In this work, a one-year observation focusing on high time resolution characteristics of components in fine particles was conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Contributions of different components on visibility impairment were also studied. Our research indicates that the major components of PM2.5 in Shanghai are water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosol, accounting for about 60% and 30% respectively. Higher concentrations of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 occurred in fall and summer, while higher concentrations of nitrate (NO3(-)) were observed in winter and spring...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ana V Ferreira, Ilana Perelshtein, Nina Perkas, Aharon Gedanken, Joana Cunha, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
Chronic wound fluids have elevated concentration of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) which can be used as inflammation/infection marker. Our goal is to develop functional materials for fast diagnosis of wound inflammation/infection by using HNE as a specific marker. For that, fluorogenic peptides with a HNE-specific cleavage sequence were incorporated into traditional textile dressings, to allow real-time detection of the wound status. Two different fluorogenic approaches were studied in terms of intensity of the signal generated upon HNE addition: a fluorophore 7-amino-4-trifluormethylcoumarin (AFC) conjugated to a HNE-specific peptide and two fluorophore/quencher pairs (FAM/Dabcyl and EDANS/Dabcyl) coupled to a similar peptide as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J Luo, L Y Shen, H G Lei, K P Zhu, Y Z Jiang, L Bai, M Z Li, G Q Tang, X W Li, S H Zhang, L Zhu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Veerawat Phongtankuel, Prin X Amorapanth, Eugenia L Siegler
The World Health Organization, one of the leading authorities on pain management, stressed the need for further guidelines to help manage pain in patients with chronic disease. In light of the impact of pain on morbidity and quality of life, this article summarizes current knowledge about pain experienced by older adults in 3 advanced non-cancer-related chronic diseases (ie, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and stroke) in which pain is common but not typically a primary focus of disease management...
November 2016: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Gloria B Chiu, Christos Theophanous, John A Irvine
PURPOSE: To report a case of persistent epithelial defects in a patient with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease that required coordinated modulation of systemic immunosuppressive treatment and overnight wear of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (BostonSight PROSE, Needham, MA) devices to achieve ocular surface healing. CASE REPORT: The case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a 2-year history of ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease, ocular burning, pain, light sensitivity, and a 3-week history of bilateral corneal epithelial defects is presented...
October 12, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
M F Bieniosek, J W Cates, C S Levin
Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Monika M Safford
Although it makes up only 15-20% of all strokes, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly lethal form of this potentially disabling condition. A recent meta-analysis of 122 studies concluded that the 1-year survival following ICH was 46%, and the 5-year survival was only 29%.(1) Furthermore, quality of life for survivors is often very limited.(2) A thorough understanding of how to prevent these events is therefore a high priority.In this issue of Circulation, the study by Walsh and colleagues sheds light on several important findings that suggest where attention should be directed to prevent these types of strokes...
October 13, 2016: Circulation
Fidelis G Jaravani, Peter D Massey, Jenni Judd, Jason Allan, Natalie Allan
A crucial objective of the Australian Government's Closing the Gap program is to improve Aboriginal health, and to achieve morbidity and mortality rates similar to those for non-Indigenous Australians. Reducing public health risks due to drinking water of unknown quality will help to close the gap. Factors such as hardness, taste, colour and odour of water may influence perceptions of risk and quality. Increased contact and familiarity with a hazard is associated with individuals becoming desensitised and habituated to its presence, so that their risk judgements may reflect their behavioural experiences...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Zhouwei Xu, Robert David Henderson, Michael David, Pamela Ann McCombe
BACKGROUND: To allow early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression, there is a need for biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neurofilaments (NF) are emerging protein biomarkers in other neurological diseases, and are of possible use in ALS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of NF levels as blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker in patients with ALS. METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and Scopus was performed...
2016: PloS One
Liliana R Cisneros Castillo, Andrei-Dumitru Oancea, Christian Stüllein, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) embedded in a matrix are re-emerging as a powerful alternative to monolayer-based cultures. The primary information gained from a three-dimensional model is the invasiveness of treatment-exposed MCTSs through the acquisition of light microscopy images. The amount and complexity of the acquired data and the bias arisen by their manual analysis are disadvantages calling for an automated, high-throughput analysis. We present a universal algorithm we developed with the scope of being robust enough to handle images of various qualities and various invasion profiles...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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