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Puff adder venom

Catherine A Vulfius, Ekaterina N Spirova, Marina V Serebryakova, Irina V Shelukhina, Denis S Kudryavtsev, Elena V Kryukova, Vladislav G Starkov, Nina V Kopylova, Maxim N Zhmak, Igor A Ivanov, Ksenia S Kudryashova, Tatyana V Andreeva, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipase A2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Vance G Nielsen, Marc A Cerruti, Olivia M Valencia, Quinlan Amos
Since the introduction of antivenom administration 120 years ago to treat venomous snake bit, it has been the gold standard for saving life and limb. However, this therapeutic approach is not always effective and not without potential life-threatening side effects. We tested a new paradigm to abrogate the plasmatic anticoagulant effects of fibrinogenolytic snake venom metalloproteinases by modification of fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide and by inhibiting these Zn(2+) dependent metalloproteinases directly with carbon monoxide exposure...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
M J Kipanyula, W H Kimaro
BACKGROUND: Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characteristics of snakes and snakebites in various countries is relevant for designing and implementing public health interventions. METHODS: This study was performed to identify types of snakes and some of the characteristics of snakebite cases in two communities, an agricultural and a pastoralist, in Arusha region, northern Tanzania...
2015: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Vladislav G Starkov, Alexey V Osipov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Sergey Yu Filkin, Elena V Gorbacheva, Maxim E Astashev, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins...
2014: PloS One
John Archer, Gareth Whiteley, Nicholas R Casewell, Robert A Harrison, Simon C Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: Within many research areas, such as transcriptomics, the millions of short DNA fragments (reads) produced by current sequencing platforms need to be assembled into transcript sequences before they can be utilized. Despite recent advances in assembly software, creating such transcripts from read data harboring isoform variation remains challenging. This is because current approaches fail to identify all variants present or they create chimeric transcripts within which relationships between co-evolving sites and other evolutionary factors are disrupted...
2014: BMC Bioinformatics
Rodrigo J Carbajo, Libia Sanz, Alicia Perez, Juan J Calvete
Extant disintegrins, as found in the venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae snakes (vipers and rattlesnakes, represent a family of polypeptides that block the function of β1 and β3 integrin receptors, both potently and with a high degree of selectivity. This toxin family owes its origin to the neofunctionalization of the extracellular region of an ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) molecule recruited into the snake venom gland proteome in the Jurassic. The evolutionary structural diversification of the disintegrin scaffold, from the ancestral long disintegrins to the more recently evolved medium-sized, dimeric and short disintegrins, involved the stepwise loss of pairs of class-specific disulfide linkages and the processing of the N-terminal region...
January 2015: FEBS Journal
Steven Fernandez, Wayne Hodgson, Janeyuth Chaisakul, Rachelle Kornhauser, Nicki Konstantakopoulos, Alexander Ian Smith, Sanjaya Kuruppu
This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 µg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19% ± 2% of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 µg/µL; 67% ± 4%; P < 0.05; n = 3-5, unpaired t-test)...
May 2014: Toxins
Rebecca Langhorn, Frida Persson, Björn Ablad, Amelia Goddard, Johan P Schoeman, Jakob L Willesen, Inge Tarnow, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of myocardial injury in dogs hospitalized for snake envenomation and to examine its relationship with systemic inflammation. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: University teaching hospital and small animal referral hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs naturally envenomed by the European viper (Vipera berus; n = 24), African puff adder (Bitis arietans; n = 5), or snouted cobra (Naja annulifera; n = 9)...
March 2014: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Abdulrazaq G Habib
Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences...
October 17, 2013: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Kurt G M de Cramer, Garreth A van Bart, Freek Huberts
In South Africa dogs are frequently presented to veterinarians following snakebite. The offending snakes are usually puff adders (Bitis arietans), cobras (Naja spp.) and mambas (Dendroaspis spp.). Night adder (Causus rhombeatus) bites in dogs have not yet been reported in South Africa. This article deals with three cases of dogs bitten by night adders in which extensive tissue damage was noted and one fatality occurred. Night adder bites may be indistinguishable from puff adder bites. Non-specific treatment included addressing the hypovolaemia and swelling...
2012: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Catherine A Vulfius, Elena V Gorbacheva, Vladislav G Starkov, Alexey V Osipov, Igor E Kasheverov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Maxim E Astashev, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
The venoms of snakes from Viperidae family mainly influence the function of various blood components. However, the published data indicate that these venoms contain also neuroactive components, the most studied being neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s). Earlier we have shown (Gorbacheva et al., 2008) that several Viperidae venoms blocked nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and voltage-gated Ca²+ channels in isolated identified neurons of the fresh-water snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we report on isolation from puff adder Bitis arietans venom and characterization of a novel protein bitanarin that reversibly blocks nAChRs...
April 2011: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Peter P Rainer, Peter Kaufmann, Freyja M Smolle-Juettner, Guenter J Krejs
INTRODUCTION: The puff adder (Bitis arietans) is a venomous viper mainly found in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its common occurrence and potent venom, it is considered to be the most dangerous snake in Africa, responsible for most snakebite fatalities there. Puff adder bites outside Africa are rare and involve captive vipers. We present the unusual case of puff adder envenomation in an Austrian man. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old Austrian man was bitten by a puff adder that he kept illegally in his home...
November 2010: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Darren A N Cook, Timothy Owen, Simon C Wagstaff, Joerg Kinne, Ulrich Wernery, Robert A Harrison
Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. The objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neutralising effectiveness of IgG from camels immunised with venoms, individually or in combination, of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, the puff adder, Bitis arietans and the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis - the most medically-important snake species in West Africa...
September 1, 2010: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Darren A N Cook, Timothy Owen, Simon C Wagstaff, Joerg Kinne, Ulrich Wernery, Robert A Harrison
Snake envenoming is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The only effective treatment, antivenom, has been in short supply since the 1990s. Whilst the humanitarian response by some antivenom producers has significantly improved the situation, strategies to ensure the long term stability of antivenom supply are still necessary. We are investigating whether the potential safety and logistic advantages of camel IgG antivenom can be exploited to improve antivenom provision in many countries where snakebite is endemic...
September 1, 2010: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Elisa Fasoli, Libia Sanz, Simon Wagstaff, Robert A Harrison, Pier Giorgio Righetti, Juan J Calvete
We report the 2DE-based proteomic characterization of the venom of the medically important African puff adder, Bitis arietans, after prefractionation by incubation with a solid-phase combinatorial hexapeptide ligand library (CPLL) at three different pH values. This approach yielded partially overlapping yet clearly distinct sets of proteins. The B. arietans venom proteome, merged from the four sets of proteins comprises at least 43 distinct proteins from 9 toxin families. In line with a previous reverse-phase HPLC-based venomic characterization on the same species, SVMPs, serine proteinases, C-type lectin-like proteins, and to a minor extent PLA(2), disintegrin bitistatin, and cystatin, comprise the major toxins in the venom of B...
March 10, 2010: Journal of Proteomics
Rachel B Currier, Robert A Harrison, Paul D Rowley, Gavin D Laing, Simon C Wagstaff
Bitis arietans is considered one of the most medically significant snakes in Africa, primarily due to a combination of its extensive geographical distribution, common occurrence and highly potent haemorrhagic and cytotoxic venom. Our investigation has revealed a remarkable degree of intra-species variation between pooled venom samples from different geographical origins across sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia, and within a group of individual specimens from the same origin in Nigeria as determined by a combination of immunological, biochemical and proteomic assays...
April 1, 2010: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
T Strubel, A Birkhofer, F Eyer, K D Werber, H Förstl
Unusual suicide attempts often remain undetected, and bizarre methods can be a clue to psychotic origin. We report a suicide attempt by proxy--the bite of a puff adder--and provide a brief literature survey about further archaic self-injurious behaviour. Due to the easy availability of venomous snakes and the close networking of suicidal patients via the Internet, an increase in similar cases can be anticipated. A failed suicide attempt should always be considered in patients surviving bizarre accidents.
May 2008: Der Nervenarzt
Juan J Calvete, José Escolano, Libia Sanz
The protein composition of the venoms of the West African Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica rhinoceros), the rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis), and the horned puff adder (Bitis caudalis) were analyzed by RP-HPLC, N-terminal sequencing, SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting, and CID-MS/MS. In line with previous proteomic and transcriptomic analyses showing that snake venom proteins belong to only a few major protein families, the venom proteomes of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros, Bitis nasicornis, and Bitis caudalis comprise, respectively, toxins from 11, 9, and 8 toxin families...
July 2007: Journal of Proteome Research
Robert A Harrison, Frances Ibison, Davina Wilbraham, Simon C Wagstaff
The immobilisation of prey by snakes is most efficiently achieved by the rapid dissemination of venom from its site of injection into the blood stream. Hyaluronidase is a common component of snake venoms and has been termed the "venom spreading factor". In the absence of nucleotide or protein sequence data to confirm the functional identity of this venom component, we interrogated a venom gland EST database for the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus (Nigeria), using the gene ontology (GO) term "carbohydrate metabolism"...
May 1, 2007: Gene
Paula Juárez, Simon C Wagstaff, Jenny Oliver, Libia Sanz, Robert A Harrison, Juan J Calvete
We report the cloning and sequence analysis of BA-5A from a venom gland cDNA library of the puff adder, Bitis arietans, that encodes a novel ECD-disintegrin-like domain. BA-5A is a unique PII disintegrin. It contains the 16 cysteine residues that are conserved in all known disintegrin-like domains of ADAM proteins and snake venom metalloproteinases but lacks the cysteine-rich domain. These features suggest that BA-5A may represent an intermediate in the evolutionary pathway of the long disintegrin bitistatin and that removal of the cysteine-rich domain and loss of the PIII-specific disulfide bond were separate events along the structural diversification pathway of disintegrins, the former predating the latter...
July 2006: Journal of Molecular Evolution
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