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Snake venom

Jörg Fischer, Bernadette Eberlein, Christiane Hilger, Florian Eyer, Stephanie Eyerich, Markus Ollert, Tilo Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Antivenoms are mammalian immunoglobulins with the ability to neutralize snake venom components and to mitigate the progression of toxic effects. Immediate hypersensitivity to antivenoms often occurs during the first administration of these heterologous antibodies. A comparable clinical situation occurred after introduction of cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human antibody, for cancer treatment. The carbohydrate epitope galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, located on the Fab region of cetuximab, was identified as the target responsible for IgE reactivity...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
Aleksandra Bocian, Małgorzata Urbanik, Konrad Hus, Andrzej Łyskowski, Vladimír Petrilla, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Monika Petrillová, Jaroslav Legath
Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Morné A Strydom, Janette Bester, Sthembile Mbotwe, Etheresia Pretorius
A significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. Here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (N = 32), caused significant physiological changes to platelet activity using a hematology analyzer, and measuring occlusion time, as well as lyses time, with the global thrombosis test (GTT)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Tur-Fu Huang, Chun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Ju Kuo
Snake venoms affect blood coagulation and platelet function in a complex manner. However, two classes of venom proteins, snaclecs and disintegrins have been shown to specifically target receptors including GPIb, α2β1, GPVI, CLEC-2 and integrins αIIbβ3, αvβ3, α5β1 expressed on platelets, endothelial cells, phagocytes, tumor cells, thus affecting cell-matrices and cell-cell interactions. Here, we focus on disintegrins, a class of low molecular mass Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)/Lys-Gly-Asp(KGD)-containing, cysteine-rich polypeptide derived from various viper snake venoms...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV)...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Emmanuel Bourinet, Gerald W Zamponi
Venoms from various predatory species, such as fish hunting mollusks scorpions, snakes and arachnids contain a large spectrum of toxins that include blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels. These peptide blockers act by two principal manners - physical occlusion of the pore and prevention of activation gating. Many of the calcium channel-blocking peptides have evolved to tightly occupy their binding pocket on the principal pore forming subunit of the channel, often rendering block poorly reversible. Moreover, several of the best characterized blocking peptides have developed a high degree of channel subtype selectivity...
October 15, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Erika Camacho, Libia Sanz, Teresa Escalante, Alicia Pérez, Fabián Villalta, Bruno Lomonte, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Andrés Feoli, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play key biological roles in prey immobilization and digestion. The majority of these activities depend on the hydrolysis of relevant protein substrates in the tissues. Hereby, we describe several isoforms and a cDNA clone sequence, corresponding to PII SVMP homologues from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothriechis lateralis, which have modifications in the residues of the canonical sequence of the zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH. As a consequence, the proteolytic activity of the isolated proteins was undetectable when tested on azocasein and gelatin...
October 12, 2016: Toxins
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Lei Chen, Yang Lu, Jun Wen, Xu Wang, Lingling Wu, Di Wu, Xuefeng Sun, Bo Fu, Zhong Yin, Hongli Jiang, Xiangmei Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Individuals possessing a single kidney are at greater risk of renal injury upon exposure to harmful stimuli. This study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of renal injury in glomerulonephritis with versus without unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). METHODS: Histological analysis and label-free quantitative proteomics were performed on two models-the Habu snake venom-induced glomerulonephritis model with versus without UNX (HabuU and Habu models, respectively)...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Carlos H M Oliveira, Anderson A Simão, Marcus V C Trento, Pedro H S César, Silvana Marcussi
The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Pramod Sagar Bk, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves Soares Cruz, Nayanna de Mello Amorim, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Luiz Carlos Simas Pereira Junior, Eladio Oswaldo Flores Sanchez, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Rafael Garrett, Leandro Machado Rocha, André Lopes Fuly
Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L...
October 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rupinder Sharma, Varundeep Dogra, Gurudutt Sharma, Vivek Chauhan
INTRODUCTION: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
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