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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344595/alpha-type-phospholipase-a2-inhibitors-from-snake-blood
#1
REVIEW
Norival A Santos-Filho, Claudia T Santos
It is of popular and scientific knowledge that toxins from snake venom (among them the PLA2 and myotoxins) are neutralized by various compounds, such as antibodies and proteins purified from animal blood. Venomous and nonvenomous snakes have PLA2 inhibitory proteins, called PLIs, in their blood serum. One hypothesis that could explain the presence of these PLIs in the serum of venomous snakes would be self-protection against the enzymes of their own venom, which eventually could reach the circulatory system...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335411/how-the-cobra-got-its-flesh-eating-venom-cytotoxicity-as-a-defensive-innovation-and-its-co-evolution-with-hooding-aposematic-marking-and-spitting
#2
Nadya Panagides, Timothy N W Jackson, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Kevin Arbuckle, Rudolf Pretzler, Daryl C Yang, Syed A Ali, Ivan Koludarov, James Dobson, Brittany Sanker, Angelique Asselin, Renan C Santana, Iwan Hendrikx, Harold van der Ploeg, Jeremie Tai-A-Pin, Romilly van den Bergh, Harald M I Kerkkamp, Freek J Vonk, Arno Naude, Morné A Strydom, Louis Jacobsz, Nathan Dunstan, Marc Jaeger, Wayne C Hodgson, John Miles, Bryan G Fry
The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331489/reversible-atrial-fibrillation-following-crotalinae-envenomation
#3
Dan Quan, Kenneth Zurcher
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity is a documented complication of Crotalinae envenomation. Reported cardiac complications following snake envenomation have included acute myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram abnormalities and arrhythmias. Few reports exist describing arrhythmia induced by viper envenomation and to our knowledge none describe arrhythmia induced by Crotalinae envenomation. This report concerns the first known case of atrial fibrillation precipitated by rattlesnake bite. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old Caucasian man with a past medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and a baseline first-degree atrioventricular block presented to the emergency department following a rattlesnake bite to his left lower leg...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326549/the-three-finger-toxin-fold-a-multifunctional-structural-scaffold-able-to-modulate-cholinergic-functions
#4
REVIEW
Pascal Kessler, Pascale Marchot, Marcela Silva, Denis Servent
Three-finger fold toxins are miniproteins frequently found in Elapidae snake venoms. This fold is characterized by three distinct loops rich in β-strands and emerging from a dense, globular core reticulated by four highly conserved disulfide bridges. The number and diversity of receptors, channels, and enzymes identified as targets of three-finger fold toxins is increasing continuously. Such manifold diversity highlights the specific adaptability of this fold for generating pleiotropic functions. Although this toxin superfamily disturbs many biological functions by interacting with a large diversity of molecular targets, the most significant target is the cholinergic system...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323526/addiction-to-snake-venom
#5
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Tanay Maiti, Anand Ramasamy, Somnath Mondal, Dinesh Babu
The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316392/ascaridia-galli-infection-in-a-checkered-keelback-xenochrophis-piscator-snake
#6
Ananda K Javare Gowda, B Kavitha Rani, C Nandeesha, Yashaswi Naravi
The checkered keelback is also known as Asiatic water snake and is common species of non-venomous snake known to occur in India. The present study report the occurrence of Ascaridia galli infection in a checkered keelback snake, which was found dead near Veterinary College hostel premises. The post-mortem examination of the snake revealed catarrhal exudate without ingesta in the stomach and showed gastric ulcerations with edema. Large numbers of round worms were packed in the lumen of small intestine with petechial haemorrhages and necrotic enteritis...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315380/primary-structures-and-partial-toxicological-characterization-of-two-phospholipases-a2-from-micrurus-mipartitus-and-micrurus-dumerilii-coral-snake-venoms
#7
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Bruno Lomonte
Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA2s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA2s: MmipPLA2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia...
March 14, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306718/experimental-bothrops-atrox-envenomation-efficacy-of-antivenom-therapy-and-the-combination-of-bothrops-antivenom-with-dexamethasone
#8
Gabriella Neves Leal Santos Barreto, Sâmella Silva de Oliveira, Isabelle Valle Dos Anjos, Hipocrates de Menezes Chalkidis, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, Ana Maria Moura da Silva, Ida Sigueko Sano-Martins, Luis Roberto de Camargo Gonçalves
Bothrops atrox snakes are the leading cause of snake bites in Northern Brazil. The venom of this snake is not included in the antigen pool used to obtain the Bothrops antivenom. There are discrepancies in reports on the effectiveness of this antivenom to treat victims bitten by B. atrox snakes. However, these studies were performed using a pre-incubation of the venom with the antivenom and, thus, did not simulate a true case of envenomation treatment. In addition, the local lesions induced by Bothrops venoms are not well resolved by antivenom therapy...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302413/characterization-of-daboia-russelii-and-naja-naja-venom-neutralizing-ability-of-an-undocumented-indigenous-medication-in-sri-lanka
#9
Madhushika M Silva, Sampath S Seneviratne, Devaka K Weerakoon, Charitha L Goonasekara
BACKGROUND: Indigenous medicinal practice in Sri Lanka talks about powerful compounds extracted from native plants for treating venomous snake bites which are hardly documented in literature but are used by the indigenous doctors for thousand years. OBJECTIVE: We screened the neutralizing ability of a herbal preparation practiced in indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka, consisting of Sansevieria cylindrica, Jatropha podagrica and Citrus aurantiifolia, for its ability to neutralize venom toxins of Naja naja (Common Cobra) and Daboia russelii (Russell's viper)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298071/protective-effect-of-dracontium-dubium-against-bothrops-asper-venom
#10
Daneiva Caro, Yanet Ocampo, Jenny Castro, Lia Barrios, Rubén Salas, Luis A Franco
In Colombia, Bothrops asper is responsible for 70-90% of ophidians accidents reported annually. Envenoming occurs mainly in rural areas where both antivenom and health centers are scarce. Thus, patients are frequently treated by local healers that employ medicinal herbs; including several species belonging to Dracontium genus. In this work, we evaluated the neutralizing activity of Dracontium dubium Kunth against the lethal, inflammatory, coagulant and hemolytic effects produced by B. asper venom. Mice treated with D...
March 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293722/pattern-of-cardiotoxin-induced-muscle-remodeling-in-distinct-tlr-4-deficient-mouse-strains
#11
Eustáquio Luiz Paiva-Oliveira, Rafael Ferreira da Silva, Maria Bellio, Thereza Quirico-Santos, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Tissue damage triggers innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR) that recognizes endogenous host danger molecules associated with cell death and tissue inflammation, although the precise role of TLR-4 signaling in muscle tissue repair is still uncertain. Previously, we observed that TLR-4 exerted a protective effect preventing excessive muscular damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu crude venom. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TLR-4 at early stages of muscular tissue remodeling in distinct mouse strains after injection of purified snake venom...
March 14, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293254/multiple-uses-of-fibrin-sealant-for-nervous-system-treatment-following-injury-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Natalia Perussi Biscola, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Suzana Ulian-Benitez, Roberta Barbizan, Mateus Vidigal Castro, Aline Barroso Spejo, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues Oliveira
Lesions to the nervous system often produce hemorrhage and tissue loss that are difficult, if not impossible, to repair. Therefore, scar formation, inflammation and cavitation take place, expanding the lesion epicenter. This significantly worsens the patient conditions and impairment, increasing neuronal loss and glial reaction, which in turn further decreases the chances of a positive outcome. The possibility of using hemostatic substances that also function as a scaffold, such as the fibrin sealant, reduces surgical time and improve postoperative recovery...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293253/can-anti-bothropstoxin-i-antibodies-discriminate-between-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-jararacussu-venoms
#13
Ricardo Teixeira Araujo, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, Leonora Brazil-Más, Caio Raony Farina Silveira, Irene Fernandes, Russolina Benedeta Zingali
BACKGROUND: Snakes of the genus Bothrops, popularly known as pit vipers, are responsible for most cases of snakebite in Brazil. Within this genus, Bothrops jararacussu and B. jararaca deserve special attention due to the severity of their bites and for inhabiting densely populated areas. Regarding the treatment of snakebites by Bothrops jararacussu, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of the specific bothropic antivenom in neutralizing myotoxic effects; however, there are no accurate data for humans...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289430/envenoming-by-viridovipera-stejnegeri-snake-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis-presenting-disruption-of-hemostatic-balance
#14
Chih-Ying Chien, Shu-Chen Liao, Chien-Hung Liao, Ting-Shuo Huang, Yu-Hsien Chen
BACKGROUND: In most cases of envenoming by the green habu Viridovipera stejnegeri in Taiwan coagulopathy is not observed. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who developed venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy after V. stejnegeri bite. Laboratory investigation revealed the following: prothrombin time > 100 s (international normalized ratio > 10), activated partial thromboplastin time > 100 s, fibrinogen < 50 mg/dL, and fibrin degradation product > 80 μg/mL...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288936/pathophysiological-significance-and-therapeutic-applications-of-snake-venom-protease-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Rupamoni Thakur, Ashis K Mukherjee
Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288817/animal-venoms-as-a-source-of-natural-antimicrobials-an-overview
#16
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Octavio L Franco, Gautam Sethi, Lina Hk Lim
Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens...
March 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284847/a-survey-on-some-biochemical-and-pharmacological-activities-of-venom-from-two-colombian-colubrid-snakes-erythrolamprus-bizona-double-banded-coral-snake-mimic-and-pseudoboa-neuwiedii-neuwied-s-false-boa
#17
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Rafael S Floriano, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E...
March 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275208/understanding-the-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-an-interview-with-jay-fox-and-jos%C3%A3-mar%C3%A3-a-guti%C3%A3-rrez
#18
EDITORIAL
Jay W Fox, José María Gutiérrez
Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic "Snake Venom Metalloproteinases" in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W...
January 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274896/functional-proteomic-analyses-of-bothrops-atrox-venom-reveals-phenotypes-associated-with-habitat-variation-in-the-amazon
#19
Leijiane F Sousa, José A Portes-Junior, Carolina A Nicolau, Juliana L Bernardoni, Milton Y Nishiyama-Jr, Diana R Amazonas, Luciana A Freitas-de-Sousa, Rosa Hv Mourão, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Richard H Valente, Ana M Moura-da-Silva
Venom variability is commonly reported for venomous snakes including Bothrops atrox. Here, we compared the composition of venoms from B. atrox snakes collected at Amazonian conserved habitats (terra-firme upland forest and várzea) and human modified areas (pasture and degraded areas). Venom samples were submitted to shotgun proteomic analysis as a whole or compared after fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography. Whole venom proteomes revealed a similar composition among the venoms with predominance of SVMPs, CTLs, and SVSPs and intermediate amounts of PLA2s and LAAOs...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268104/erratum-to-bothrops-fonsecai-snake-venom-activities-and-cross-reactivity-with-commercial-bothropic-antivenom-comp-biochem-physiol-c-191-2017-86-100
#20
Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Mariana L Tamascia, Igor Rapp F da Silva, Thalita Rocha, José C Cogo, Stephen Hyslop, Charles G Sanny, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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