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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819275/a-novel-in-vitro-potency-assay-of-antisera-against-thai-naja-kaouthia-based-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-binding
#1
Kavi Ratanabanangkoon, Pavinee Simsiriwong, Kritsada Pruksaphon, Kae Yi Tan, Sukanya Eursakun, Choo Hock Tan, Bunkuea Chantrathonkul, Wongsakorn Wongwadhunyoo, Sirida Youngchim, Nget Hong Tan
Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811229/necrotizing-fasciitis-following-venomous-snakebites-in-a-tertiary-hospital-of-southwest-taiwan
#2
Yao-Hung Tsai, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Kuo-Chin Huang, Pei-An Yu, Chi-Lung Chen, Liang Tseng Kuo
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis following venomous snakebites is uncommon. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial clinical features of necrotizing fasciitis after snakebites, and to identify the risk factors for patients with cellulitis who later developed necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with surgically-confirmed necrotizing fasciitis and 25 patients diagnosed with cellulitis following snakebites were retrospectively reviewed over a 6-year period...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808936/-envenomation-by-micrurus-psyches-in-french-guiana
#3
X Heckmann, C Marty, F Starace, J-D Louembé, S Larréché
We report here the first known envenomation by Micrurus psyches, the so-called Carib coral snake, which occurred on April 2016 in the surroundings of Saint- Laurent-du-Maroni, Western French Guiana. Besides local neurological symptoms, it featured unexpected electrocardiogram changes, which were emergence of a first-degree atrioventricular block and biphasic T waves, both transient. NewWorld elapid venoms were not known for being cardiotoxic so far. The possible reasons of this cardiac injury are discussed.
August 14, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807018/the-neglected-burden-of-snakebites-in-cameroon-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-management-and-public-health-challenges
#4
Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Mazou N Temgoua, Tsi Njim, Danwang Celestin, Ronni Tankeu, Njinkeng J Nkemngu
OBJECTIVES: Snakebite is an underestimated medical and surgical emergency in developing countries responsible for a high disease burden. Optimal management of snake envenomation in these resource-limited settings is precluded by several public health challenges. In this review, we discuss the disease burden of snakebites in Cameroon and the public health challenges of its management in view of making recommendations essential for policy-making. MEDLINE, African Journals Online and Google Scholar were searched from January 1990 to February 2017 for studies addressing snakebite in Cameroon...
August 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803057/cross-reactivity-and-cross-immunomodulation-between-venoms-of-the-snakes-bothrops-asper-crotalus-simus-and-lachesis-stenophrys-and-its-effect-in-the-production-of-polyspecific-antivenom-for-central-america
#5
Cynthia Arroyo, Sergio Solano, Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Ricardo Estrada, Mauren Villalta, Mariángela Vargas, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A2, coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration...
August 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803055/aristolochic-acid-and-its-derivatives-as-inhibitors-of-snake-venom-l-amino-acid-oxidase
#6
Payel Bhattacharjee, Indrani Bera, Subhamoy Chakraborty, Nanda Ghoshal, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Snake venom L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) exerts toxicity by inducing hemorrhage, pneumorrhagia, pulmonary edema, cardiac edema, liver cell necrosis etc. Being well conserved, inhibitors of the enzyme may be synthesized using the template of the substrate, substrate binding site and features of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Previous findings showed that aristolochic acid (AA), a major constituent of Aristolochia indica, inhibits Russell's viper venom LAAO enzyme activity since, AA interacts with DNA and causes genotoxicity, derivatives of this compound were synthesized by replacing the nitro group to reduce toxicity while retaining the inhibitory potency...
August 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801827/rapid-screening-and-identification-of-ace-inhibitors-in-snake-venoms-using-at-line-nanofractionation-lc-ms
#7
Marija Mladic, Tessa de Waal, Lindsey Burggraaff, Julien Slagboom, Govert W Somsen, Wilfried M A Niessen, R Manjunatha Kini, Jeroen Kool
This study presents an analytical method for the screening of snake venoms for inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and a strategy for their rapid identification. The method is based on an at-line nanofractionation approach, which combines liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS), and pharmacology in one platform. After initial LC separation of a crude venom, a post-column flow split is introduced enabling parallel MS identification and high-resolution fractionation onto 384-well plates...
August 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799310/venomous-snake-bite-in-india-why-do-50-000-indians-die-every-year
#8
Jaideep C Menon, Joseph K Joseph, Romulus E Whitaker
Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. An estimated 50,000 Indians die due to venomous snakebite every year, seventy percent of whom are males between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Along with the associated morbidity and mortality, snakebite leads to a significant financial burden on the victim, both by way of hospital bills and labour hours lost. Snakebite is also a cause for considerable psychological stress among survivors...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793021/the-epidemiology-of-snakebite-in-the-rio-grande-do-norte-state-northeastern-brazil
#9
Aluska Vieira Tavares, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de Araújo, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos Marques, Alecxandro Alves Vieira, Renner de Souza Leite
This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of snakebite cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte. A total of 3,019 cases were studied. Cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in rural areas. Snakes of the genus Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus, Lachesis and non-venomous snakes were responsible for 1,507, 185, 52, 6 and 673 cases, respectively...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790503/mast-cells-and-ige-can-enhance-survival-during-innate-and-acquired-host-responses-to-venoms
#10
Stephen J Galli, Philipp Starkl, Thomas Marichal, Mindy Tsai
Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are thought to promote health by contributing to host responses to certain parasites, but other beneficial functions have remained obscure. Venoms provoke innate inflammatory responses and pathology reflecting the activities of the contained toxins. Venoms also can induce allergic sensitization and development of venom-specific IgE antibodies, which can predispose some subjects to exhibit anaphylaxis upon subsequent exposure to the relevant venom. We found that innate functions of mast cells, including degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, enhanced survival in mice injected with venoms from the honeybee, two species of scorpion, three species of poisonous snakes, or the Gila monster...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783135/enzymatic-and-pro-inflammatory-activities-of-bothrops-lanceolatus-venom-relevance-for-envenomation
#11
Marie Delafontaine, Isadora Maria Villas-Boas, Laurence Mathieu, Patrice Josset, Joël Blomet, Denise V Tambourgi
Bothrops lanceolatus, commonly named 'Fer-de-Lance', is an endemic snake of the French Caribbean Island of Martinique. Envenomations by B. lanceolatus present clinical aspects characterized by systemic thrombotic syndrome and important local inflammation, involving edema and pain but limited hemorrhage. To investigate mechanisms of venom-induced inflammation, B. lanceolatus venom was characterized, its cross-reactivity with bothropic antivenom explored, its cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes and vascular cells, and the production of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed...
August 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783084/enter-the-dragon-the-dynamic-and-multifunctional-evolution-of-anguimorpha-lizard-venoms
#12
Ivan Koludarov, Timothy Nw Jackson, Bianca Op den Brouw, James Dobson, Daniel Dashevsky, Kevin Arbuckle, Christofer J Clemente, Edward J Stockdale, Chip Cochran, Jordan Debono, Carson Stephens, Nadya Panagides, Bin Li, Mary-Louise Roy Manchadi, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Iwan Hendrikx, Amanda Nouwens, Judith Clements, Paolo Martelli, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
While snake venoms have been the subject of intense study, comparatively little work has been done on lizard venoms. In this study, we have examined the structural and functional diversification of anguimorph lizard venoms and associated toxins, and related these results to dentition and predatory ecology. Venom composition was shown to be highly variable across the 20 species of Heloderma, Lanthanotus, and Varanus included in our study. While kallikrein enzymes were ubiquitous, they were also a particularly multifunctional toxin type, with differential activities on enzyme substrates and also ability to degrade alpha or beta chains of fibrinogen that reflects structural variability...
August 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782616/ec-piii-a-novel-non-hemorrhagic-procoagulant-metalloproteinase-purification-and-characterization-from-indian-echis-carinatus-venom
#13
Manisha Choudhury, Kanve Nagaraj Suvilesh, Bannikuppe Sannanayak Vishwanath, Devadasan Velmurugan
Procoagulant snake venom toxins find extensive use as reagents in laboratory tests and diagnostic kits. In the present study we report a novel P-III class procoagulant SVMP, EC-PIII from Echis carinatus venom. EC-PIII was purified using a combination of gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. It has a molecular mass of 110kDa and is a dimeric protein as determined by SDS-PAGE. DLS results show that the protein is homogenous and stable in solution. Peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that the peptides obtained show high homology to the other members of SVMP family...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782568/assessing-survival-of-wild-caught-snakes-in-open-venom-production-systems
#14
Mahmood Sasa, Jazmín Arias Ortega, Fabián Bonilla-Murillo
We evaluate adaptation of eleven species of wild-caught snakes maintained in captivity for venom production using two procedures for estimating survival rates. Kaplan-Meier estimations of survival time provide a better account of subsistence in captivity than estimations based solely on mean time to death. Highland and mid-elevation species are better adapted to our captive settings, but factors such as body condition at admission, locality of origin, seasonality, and maintenance protocol, affect the studied species differently...
August 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777331/structures-and-functions-of-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-svmp-from-protobothrops-venom-collected-in-japan
#15
REVIEW
Etsuko Oyama, Hidenobu Takahashi
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) are widely distributed among the venoms of Crotalinae and Viperidae, and are organized into three classes (P-I, P-II and P-III) according to their size and domain structure. P-I SVMP are the smallest SVMP, as they only have a metalloproteinase (M) domain. P-II SVMP contain a disintegrin-like (D) domain, which is connected by a short spacer region to the carboxyl terminus of the M domain. P-III SVMP contain a cysteine-rich (C) domain, which is attached to the carboxyl terminus of the D domain...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768797/has-snake-fang-evolution-lost-its-bite-new-insights-from-a-structural-mechanics-viewpoint
#16
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis
Venomous snakes-the pinnacle of snake evolution-are characterized by their possession of venom-conducting fangs ranging from grooved phenotypes characterizing multiple lineages of rear-fanged taxa to tubular phenotypes present in elapids, viperids and atractaspidines. Despite extensive research, controversy still exists on the selective pressures involved in fang phenotype diversification. Here, we test the hypothesis that larger fangs and consequently a shift to an anterior position in the maxilla evolved to compensate for the costs of structural changes, i...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767072/insights-into-the-mechanisms-involved-in-strong-hemorrhage-and-dermonecrosis-induced-by-atroxlysin-ia-a-pi-class-snake-venom-metalloproteinase
#17
Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Mônica Colombini, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Solange M T Serrano, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva
Hemorrhage is the most prominent effect of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in human envenomation. The capillary injury is a multifactorial effect caused by hydrolysis of the components of the basement membrane (BM). The PI and PIII classes of SVMPs are abundant in viperid venoms and hydrolyze BM components. However, hemorrhage is associated mostly with PIII-class SVMPs that contain non-catalytic domains responsible for the binding of SVMPs to BM proteins, facilitating enzyme accumulation in the tissue and enhancing its catalytic efficiency...
August 2, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764620/the-australian-snakebite-project-2005-2015-asp-20
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Colin B Page, Nicholas A Buckley, Simon Ga Brown, Margaret A O'Leary, Geoffrey K Isbister
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, circumstances of bites, clinical effects of envenoming, results of laboratory investigations and snake venom detection kit (SVDK) testing, antivenom treatment and adverse reactions, time to discharge, deaths...
August 7, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764224/paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-due-to-venomous-snake-bite
#19
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Raahat Kapur, Savio Dsouza
Snake bites are common all around the world with a great prevalence in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Although they are associated with common complications such as local swelling, bleeding at site of bite, coagulopathy, etc., few rare cardiac complications such as myocardial infarctions and arrhythmias have also been described in literature. The following is a case report of a patient who had a snake bite with a Russell's viper which resulted in atrial fibrillation, which resolved on treatment with anti snake venom...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760509/pulmonary-mechanic-and-lung-histology-induced-by-crotalus-durissus-cascavella-snake-venom
#20
Joselito de Oliveira Neto, João Alison de Moraes Silveira, Daniel Silveira Serra, Daniel de Araújo Viana, Diva Maria Borges-Nojosa, Célia Maria Souza Sampaio, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista
This study have analyzed the pulmonary function in an experimental model of acute lung injury, induced by the Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (C. d. cascavella) (3.0 μg/kg - i.p), in pulmonary mechanic and histology at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. The C. d. cascavella venom led to an increase in Newtonian Resistance (RN), Tissue Resistance (G) and Tissue Elastance (H) in all groups when compared to the control, particularly at 12 h and 24 h. The Histeresivity (η) increased 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation...
July 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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