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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053272/cardiotoxins-functional-role-of-local-conformational-changes
#1
Anastasia G Konshina, Nikolay A Krylov, Roman G Efremov
Cardiotoxins (CTs) from snake venoms are a family of homologous highly basic proteins that have extended hydrophobic patterns on their molecular surfaces. CTs are folded into three β-structured loops stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Being well-structured in aqueous solution, most of these proteins are membrane-active, although the exact molecular mechanisms of CT-induced cell damage are still poorly understood. To elucidate the structure-function relationships in CTs, a detailed knowledge of their spatial organization and local conformational dynamics is required...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048530/population-genomic-analysis-of-a-pitviper-reveals-microevolutionary-forces-underlying-venom-chemistry
#2
Steven D Aird, Jigyasa Arora, Agneesh Barua, Lijun Qiu, Kouki Terada, Alexander S Mikheyev
Venoms are among the most biologically active secretions known, and are commonly believed to evolve under extreme positive selection. Many venom gene families, however, have undergone duplication, and are often deployed in doses vastly exceeding the LD50 for most prey species, which should reduce the strength of positive selection. Here, we contrast these selective regimes using snake venoms, which consist of rapidly evolving protein formulations. Though decades of extensive studies have found that snake venom proteins are subject to strong positive selection, the greater action of drift has been hypothesized, but never tested...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045429/preclinical-antivenom-efficacy-testing-reveals-potentially-disturbing-deficiencies-of-snakebite-treatment-capability-in-east-africa
#3
Robert A Harrison, George O Oluoch, Stuart Ainsworth, Jaffer Alsolaiss, Fiona Bolton, Ana-Silvia Arias, José-María Gutiérrez, Paul Rowley, Stephen Kalya, Hastings Ozwara, Nicholas R Casewell
BACKGROUND: Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042014/effects-of-cathelicidin-derived-peptide-from-reptiles-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-weaned-piglets
#4
Haiwen Zhang, Bingxi Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Kebang Wu, Qingfeng Guan
Cathelicidins are the largest family of antimicrobial peptides. C-BF, which is short for Cathelicidin-Bungarus Fasciatus, was isolated from snake venom. C-BF was found to be the most potential substitutes for antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cathelicidin-derived peptide C-BF, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal damage in weaned piglets, to evaluate the therapeutic effect of C-BF on infectious disease of piglets. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned into four groups: control, C-BF, LPS, and C-BF+LPS...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037876/photobiomodulation-of-local-alterations-induced-by-bthtx-i-a-phospholipase-a2-myotoxin-from-bothrops-jararacussu-snake-venom-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#5
Adriano Silvio Dos Santos, Ludmila Guimarães-Sousa, Maricilia Silva Costa, Luis Fernando Zamuner, Norma Cristina Sousa, Stephen Hyslop, Andreimar M Soares, Maria Cristina Chavantes, José Carlos Cogo, Stella Regina Zamuner
This report describes the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on edema formation, leukocyte influx, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis and cytotoxicity caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom. Swiss mice or C2C12 cells were irradiated with low-level laser (LLL) at 685nm wavelength, an energy density of 4.6J/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 13s. To evaluate the effect on edema formation and leukocyte influx, LLL was applied to the site of inoculation 30min and 3h post-injection...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027956/combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-and-venom-peptidomic-analysis-of-the-predatory-ant-odontomachus-monticola
#6
Kohei Kazuma, Keiichi Masuko, Katsuhiro Konno, Hidetoshi Inagaki
Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To date, 13,258 ant species have been reported. They have been classified into 333 genera and 17 subfamilies. Except for a few Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and members of other subfamilies, most ant species have a sting with venom. The venoms are composed of formic acid, alkaloids, hydrocarbons, amines, peptides, and proteins. Unlike the venoms of other animals such as snakes and spiders, ant venoms have seldom been analyzed comprehensively, and their compositions are not yet completely known...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#7
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024773/an-improved-technique-for-the-assessment-of-venom-induced-haemorrhage-in-a-murine-model
#8
Timothy P Jenkins, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Trenton K Stewart, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
Haemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in envenomings caused by bites from snakes of the family Viperidae. Therefore, knowing the haemorrhagic potential of venoms and the capacity of antivenoms to neutralise this effect are of paramount relevance in toxinology. The most widely used method for quantifying haemorrhage involves the intradermal injection of venom (or a mixture of venom/antivenom) in mice, and the assessment of the resulting haemorrhagic area in the inner side of the skin. Although this method allows a straightforward assessment of the haemorrhagic activity of a venom, it does not account for haemorrhagic lesions having a similar area but differing in the depth and intensity of haemorrhage...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024771/development-of-dot-elisa-for-the-detection-of-venoms-of-major-indian-venomous-snakes
#9
Innus K Shaikh, Prashant P Dixit, Balasaheb S Pawade, Indrasen G Waykar
India remained an epicenter for the snakebite-related mortality and morbidities due to widespread agricultural activities across the country and a considerable number of snakebites offended by Indian cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). Presently, there is no selective test available for the detection of snake envenomation in India before the administration of snake antivenin. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop rapid, sensitive assay for the management of snakebite, which can detect venom, responsible snake species and serve as a tool for the reasonable administration of snake antivenin, which have scarcity across the world...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024770/biochemical-biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-laao-purified-from-bothrops-pictus-peruvian-snake-venom
#10
Fanny Lazo, Dan E Vivas-Ruiz, Gustavo A Sandoval, Edith F Rodríguez, Edgar E G Kozlova, F Costal-Oliveira, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Ruperto Severino, Armando Yarlequé, Eladio F Sanchez
An L-amino acid oxidase from Peruvian Bothrops pictus (Bpic-LAAO) snake venom was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Bpic-LAAO is a homodimeric glycosylated flavoprotein with molecular mass of ∼65 kDa under reducing conditions and ∼132 kDa in its native form as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed highly conserved residues in a glutamine-rich motif related to binding substrate. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards L-Leu at pH 8...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023569/pancreatic-and-snake-venom-presynaptically-active-phospholipases-a2-inhibit-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#11
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Elena V Kryukova, Ekaterina N Spirova, Irina V Shelukhina, Vladislav G Starkov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Grazyna Faure, Marios Zouridakis, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021904/a-study-of-ribonuclease-activity-in-venom-of-vietnam-cobra
#12
Thiet Van Nguyen, A V Osipov
BACKGROUND: Ribonuclease (RNase) is one of the few toxic proteins that are present constantly in snake venoms of all types. However, to date this RNase is still poorly studied in comparison not only with other toxic proteins of snake venom, but also with the enzymes of RNase group. The objective of this paper was to investigate some properties of RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra. METHODS: Kinetic methods and gel filtration chromatography were used to investigate RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975491/the-epidemiology-clinical-course-and-management-of-snakebites-in-the-north-american-snakebite-registry
#13
Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Spencer Greene, Meghan B Spyres, Jeffrey Brent, Paul Wax, Angela Padilla-Jones, Sharan Campleman
The American College of Medical Toxicology established the North American Snakebite Registry (NASBR), a national database of detailed, prospectively collected information regarding snake envenomation in the United States, in 2013. This report describes the epidemiology, clinical course, and management of snakebites in the NASBR. All cases entered into the NASBR between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were identified. Descriptive statistics are used to report results. Fourteen sites in 10 states entered 450 snakebites...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962655/a-unique-heterologous-fibrin-sealant-hfs-as-a-candidate-biological-scaffold-for-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteoporotic-rats
#14
Patrícia Rodrigues Orsi, Fernanda Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Luis Antônio Justulin, Ramon Kaneno, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos, Camila Fernanda Zorzella Creste, Eunice Oba, Leandro Maia, Benedito Barraviera, Rui Seabra Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) directly into the bone of osteoporotic (OP) patients for rapid recovery has been studied worldwide. Scaffolds associated with MSCs are used to maintain and avoid cell loss after application. A unique heterologous fibrin sealant (HFS) derived from snake venom was evaluated for the cytotoxicity of its main components and as a three-dimensional biological scaffold for MSCs to repair a critical femur defect in osteoporotic rats. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of HFS was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and transmission electron microscopy...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962003/quantity-not-quality-rapid-adaptation-in-a-polygenic-trait-proceeded-exclusively-through-expression-differentiation
#15
Mark J Margres, Kenneth P Wray, Alyssa T B Hassinger, Micaiah J Ward, James J McGivern, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Darin R Rokyta
A trait's genomic architecture can affect the rate and mechanism of adaptation, and although many ecologically-important traits are polygenic, most studies connecting genotype, phenotype, and fitness in natural populations have focused on traits with relatively simple genetic bases. To understand the genetic basis of polygenic adaptation, we must integrate genomics, phenotypic data, ecology, and fitness effects for a genetically tractable, polygenic trait; snake venoms provide such a system for studying polygenic adaptation because of their genetic tractability and vital ecological role in feeding and defense...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956818/alternagin-c-alt-c-a-disintegrin-like-cys-rich-protein-isolated-from-the-venom-of-the-snake-rhinocerophis-alternatus-stimulates-angiogenesis-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-fish-hoplias-malabaricus
#16
Diana Amaral Monteiro, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araújo, Driele Tavares, Marisa Narciso Fernandes, Ana Lúcia Kalinin, Francisco Tadeu Rantin
Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like protein isolated from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom, which induces endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5 mg·kg(-1), via intra-arterial) on oxidative stress biomarkers, histological alterations, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and the degree of vascularization in the liver of the freshwater fish traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, seven days after the initiation of therapy...
September 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954193/rapid-and-reliable-method-for-determining-irradiation-histories-of-ground-beef-and-prawns-by-measuring-5-6-dihydrothymidine
#17
Naoki Fukui, Satoshi Takatori, Yoko Kitagawa, Takuya Fujiwara, Etsuko Ishikawa, Takatomo Fujiyama, Keiji Kajimura, Masakazu Furuta, Hirotaka Obana
A rapid and reliable method for determining irradiation histories of ground beef and prawns was developed on the basis of a method for determining the irradiation history of beef liver by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of 5,6-dihydrothymidine (DHdThd). Improvements in the method included the following: (1) 50% ethanol precipitation in the DNA extraction step was conducted before the RNase step, (2) snake venom phosphodiesterase I was used for DNA digestion to boost liberation of DHdThd, and (3) a matrix-matched calibration curve was used for determining DHdThd by LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951306/anti-platelet-aggregation-activity-of-two-novel-acidic-asp49-phospholipases-a2-from-bothrops-brazili-snake-venom
#18
Juliana C Sobrinho, Anderson M Kayano, Rodrigo Simões-Silva, Jorge J Alfonso, Ana F Gomez, Maria C Vega Gomez, Fernando B Zanchi, Laura A Moura, Vivian R Souza, André L Fuly, Eliandre de Oliveira, Saulo L da Silva, José R Almeida, Juliana P Zuliani, Andreimar M Soares
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are important enzymes present in snake venoms and are related to a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, however the toxic potential and therapeutic effects of acidic isoforms have not been fully explored and understood. Due to this, the present study describes the isolation and biochemical characterization of two new acidic Asp49-PLA2s from Bothrops brazili snake venom, named Braziliase-I and Braziliase-II. The venom was fractionated in three chromatographic steps: ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and reversed phase...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943445/the-effects-of-cissampelos-pareira-extract-on-envenomation-induced-by-bothropsdiporus-snake-venom
#19
Bárbara Ricciardi Verrastro, Ana Maria Torres, Gabriela Ricciardi, Pamela Teibler, Silvana Maruñak, Chiara Barnaba, Roberto Larcher, Giorgio Nicolini, Eduardo Dellacassa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophidian accidents are a serious public health problem in Argentina; the Bothrops species is responsible for 97% of these accidents, and in particular, B. diporus is responsible for 80% of them. In the northeast of the country (Corrientes Provinces), Cissampelos pareira L. (Menispermaceae) is commonly used against the venom of B. diporus; its use is described in almost all ethnobotanical literature from countries where the plant grows,. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antivenom activities of C...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936710/cloning-expression-purification-and-bioactivity-evaluation-of-a-thrombin-like-enzyme-from-deinagkistrodon-acutus-venom-gland-library
#20
An Li, Chuan Zhang, Jie Wang, Junjie Wang, Hailong Jiang, Jianzhong Li, Xingyuan Ma, Wen Zhang, Yiming Lu
OBJECTIVES: To identify a new member of serine proteases from Deinagkistrodon acutus via phage display technique and appraise its biocatalytic activities. RESULTS: A novel thrombin-like enzyme gene was cloned by screening the phage display library of D. acutus venom gland. The gene has a 783 bp ORF encoding 260 amino acids. A recombinant enzyme expression vector was constructed and the fused protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified showing a single band of approx...
September 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
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