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Regulated Alternative Translocation

Anil Prasad, Nagina Khudaynazar, Ramana V Tantravahi, Amanda M Gillum, Benjamin S Hoffman
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Treatment failure, drug resistance and chemoradiation toxicity have necessitated the development of alternative treatment strategies. Styryl benzyl sulfones, a family of novel small molecule inhibitors, are being evaluated as anti-neoplastic agents in multiple clinical trials. The activity of these compounds has been well characterized in several preclinical tumor studies, but their activity has yet to be fully examined in HNSCC...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Bo Wu, Bomin Guo, Jie Kang, Xianzhao Deng, Youben Fan, Xiaoping Zhang, Kaixing Ai
Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and is implicated in a wide range of cellular responses. However, the exact mechanism whereby Smurf2 controls TGF-β-induced signaling pathways remains unknown. Here, we identified the relationship between the alternate TGF-β signaling pathways: TGF-β/PI3K/Akt/β-catenin and TGF-β/Smad2/3/FoxO1/PUMA and Smurf2. The results showed that TGF-β promoted proliferation, invasion, and migration of human pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1) cells through the PI3K/Akt/β-catenin pathway...
October 11, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Chen-Jei Hong, Bruce A Hamilton
Zfp423 encodes a 30-zinc finger transcription factor that intersects several canonical signaling pathways. Zfp423 mutations result in ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including agenesis of the cerebellar vermis in mice and Joubert syndrome (JBTS19) and nephronophthisis (NPHP14) in humans. Unlike most ciliopathy genes, Zfp423 encodes a nuclear protein and its developmental expression is complex, leading to alternative proposals for cellular mechanisms. Here we show that Zfp423 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors, that loss of Zfp423 in these precursors leads to cell-intrinsic reduction in proliferation, loss of response to Shh, and primary cilia abnormalities that include diminished frequency of both Smoothened and IFT88 localization...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Zhengyi Zhao, Hui Zhang, Dan Shu, Carlo Montemagno, Baoquan Ding, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo
The significance of bionanomotors in nanotechnology is analogous to mechanical motors in daily life. Here the principle and approach for designing and constructing biomimetic nanomotors with continuous single-directional motion are reported. This bionanomotor is composed of a dodecameric protein channel, a six-pRNA ring, and an ATPase hexamer. Based on recent elucidations of the one-way revolving mechanisms of the phi29 double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) motor, various RNA and protein elements are designed and tested by single-molecule imaging and biochemical assays, with which the motor with active components has been constructed...
October 6, 2016: Small
T Uo, H Dvinge, C C Sprenger, R K Bradley, P S Nelson, S R Plymate
The presence of intact ligand-binding domain (LBD) ensures the strict androgen-dependent regulation of androgen receptor (AR): binding of androgen induces structural reorganization of LBD resulting in release of AR from HSP90, suppression of nuclear export which otherwise dominates over import and nuclear translocation of AR as a transcription factor. Thus, loss or defects of the LBD abolish constraint from un-liganded LBD as exemplified by constitutively active AR variants (AR-Vs), which are associated with emerging resistance mechanism to anti-AR therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)...
October 3, 2016: Oncogene
Piere Rodriguez-Aliaga, Luis Ramirez, Frank Kim, Carlos Bustamante, Andreas Martin
ATP-dependent proteases of the AAA+ family, including Escherichia coli ClpXP and the eukaryotic proteasome, contribute to maintenance of cellular proteostasis. ClpXP unfolds and translocates substrates into an internal degradation chamber, using cycles of alternating dwell and burst phases. The ClpX motor performs chemical transformations during the dwell and translocates the substrate in increments of 1-4 nm during the burst, but the processes occurring during these phases remain unknown. Here we characterized the complete mechanochemical cycle of ClpXP, showing that ADP release and ATP binding occur nonsequentially during the dwell, whereas ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release occur during the burst...
September 26, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Toshiharu Shikanai, Hiroshi Yamamoto
Photosynthetic electron transport is coupled to proton translocation across the thylakoid membrane, resulting in the formation of trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH) and membrane potential (Δψ). Ion transporters and channels localized to the thylakoid membrane regulate the contribution of each component to the proton motive force (pmf). Although both ΔpH and Δψ contribute to ATP synthesis as pmf, only ΔpH downregulates photosynthetic electron transport via the acidification of thylakoid lumen by inducing thermal dissipation of excessive absorbed light energy from photosystem II antennae and slowing down of the electron transport through the cytochrome b6f complex...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Plant
Antonio Daniel Barbosa, Symeon Siniossoglou
Survival during starvation depends largely on metabolic energy, which is stored in the form of neutral lipids in specialized organelles known as lipid droplets. The precursors for the synthesis of neutral lipids are also used for membrane biogenesis, which is required for cell growth and proliferation. Therefore cells must possess mechanisms to preferentially channel lipid precursors toward either membrane synthesis or lipid droplet storage, in response to nutrient status. How this partitioning is spatially regulated within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where lipid droplets co-localize, remains poorly understood...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
David S Rogawski, Jolanta Grembecka, Tomasz Cierpicki
Methylation at histone 3, lysine 36 (H3K36) is a conserved epigenetic mark regulating gene transcription, alternative splicing and DNA repair. Genes encoding H3K36 methyltransferases (KMTases) are commonly overexpressed, mutated or involved in chromosomal translocations in cancer. Molecular biology studies have demonstrated that H3K36 KMTases regulate oncogenic transcriptional programs. Structural studies of the catalytic SET domain of H3K36 KMTases have revealed intriguing opportunities for design of small molecule inhibitors...
September 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Qiuyue Chen, Bray Denard, Ching-En Lee, Sungwon Han, James S Ye, Jin Ye
TM4SF20 (transmembrane 4 L6 family 20) is a polytopic membrane protein that inhibits proteolytic processing of CREB3L1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 3-like 1), a membrane-bound transcription factor that blocks cell division and activates collagen synthesis. Here we report that ceramide stimulates CREB3L1 cleavage by inverting the orientation of TM4SF20 in membranes. In the absence of ceramide, the N terminus of the first transmembrane helix of TM4SF20 is inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Cell
Kevin A Link, Shan Lin, Mahesh Shrestha, Melissa Bowman, Mark Wunderlich, Clara D Bloomfield, Gang Huang, James C Mulloy
Chromosomal translocation 8;21 is found in 40% of the FAB M2 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The resultant in-frame fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) acts as an initiating oncogene for leukemia development. AE immortalizes human CD34(+) cord blood cells in long-term culture. We assessed the transforming properties of the alternatively spliced AE isoform AE9a (or alternative splicing at exon 9), which is fully transforming in a murine retroviral model, in human cord blood cells. Full activity was realized only upon increased fusion protein expression...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ahalieyah Anantharajah, Emmanuel Faure, Julien M Buyck, Charlotta Sundin, Tuulikki Lindmark, Joan Mecsas, Timothy L Yahr, Paul M Tulkens, Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq, Benoît Guery, Françoise Van Bambeke
With the rise of multidrug resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections require alternative therapeutics. The injectisome (iT3SS) and flagellar (fT3SS) type III secretion systems are 2 virulence factors associated with poor clinical outcomes. iT3SS translocates toxins, rod, needle, or regulator proteins, and flagellin into the host cell cytoplasm and causes cytotoxicity and NLRC4-dependent inflammasome activation, which induces interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release and reduces interleukin 17 (IL-17) production and bacterial clearance...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Asaf Shilo, Zahava Siegfried, Rotem Karni
In past decades, cancer research has focused on genetic alterations that are detected in malignant tissues and contribute to the initiation and progression of cancer. These changes include mutations, copy number variations, and translocations. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic changes, including alternative splicing, play a major role in cancer development and progression. There are relatively few studies on the contribution of alternative splicing and the splicing factors that regulate this process to cancer development and progression...
January 2015: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Chunlai Li, Liuqing Yang, Chunru Lin
A large proportion of the control of gene expression in humans is mediated by noncoding elements in the genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a new class of pivotal regulatory components, orchestrating extensive cellular processes and connections. LncRNAs play various roles from chromatin modification to alternative splicing and post-transcriptional processing and are involved in almost all aspects of eukaryotic regulation. LncRNA-based mechanisms modulate cell fates during development, and their dysregulation underscores many human disorders, especially cancer, through chromosomal translocation, deletion, and nucleotide expansions...
July 2014: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Joseph Casson, Michael McKenna, Stephen High
A well-defined co-translational pathway couples the synthesis and translocation of nascent polypeptides into and across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby minimizing the possibility of the hydrophobic signals and transmembrane domains that such proteins contain from being exposed to the cytosol. Nevertheless, a proportion of these co-translational substrates may fail to reach the ER, and therefore mislocalize to the cytosol where their intrinsic hydrophobicity makes them aggregation-prone...
June 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Bhavuk Garg, Gaurav Pathria, Christine Wagner, Margarita Maurer, Stephan N Wagner
Current therapy approaches in melanoma targeting have met with the development of resistance and tumour recurrence with a more aggressive phenotype. In a quest for alternative therapy targets, we had previously identified Signal Sequence Receptor 2 (SSR2) as a gene with high expression in a subgroup of human primary melanomas. Now we show that SSR2 exerts a prosurvival functionality in human melanoma cells and that high expression levels of SSR2 are associated with an unfavourable disease outcome in primary melanoma patients...
September 2016: Mutagenesis
Michael M Kunze, Fabienne Benz, Thilo F Brauß, Sebastian Lampe, Julia E Weigand, Johannes Braun, Florian M Richter, Ilka Wittig, Bernhard Brüne, Tobias Schmid
Translation is an energy-intensive process and tightly regulated. Generally, translation is initiated in a cap-dependent manner. Under stress conditions, typically found within the tumor microenvironment in association with e.g. nutrient deprivation or hypoxia, cap-dependent translation decreases, and alternative modes of translation initiation become more important. Specifically, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) facilitate translation of specific mRNAs under otherwise translation-inhibitory conditions...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gennady Ananyev, Colin Gates, G Charles Dismukes
We have measured flash-induced oxygen quantum yields (O2-QYs) and primary charge separation (Chl variable fluorescence yield, Fv/Fm) in vivo among phylogenetically diverse microalgae and cyanobacteria. Higher O2-QYs can be attained in cells by releasing constraints on charge transfer at the Photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side by adding membrane-permeable benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives that oxidize plastosemiquinone QB(-) and QBH2. This method allows uncoupling PSII turnover from its natural regulation in living cells, without artifacts of isolating PSII complexes...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive factor (NSF) associates with soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP), that binds to SNAP receptors (SNAREs) including syntaxin, SNAP25, and synaptobrevin. The complex of NSF/SNAP/SNAREs plays a critical role in the regulation of vesicular traffic. The present study investigated NEM-regulated α7 ACh receptor translocation. NSF associated with β-SNAP and the SNAREs syntaxin 1 and synaptobrevin 2 in the rat hippocampus. NSF also associated with the α7 ACh receptor subunit, the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2, and the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor γ2 subunit...
August 2016: Neurochemical Research
Katarzyna Blaszczyk, Hanna Nowicka, Kaja Kostyrko, Aleksandra Antonczyk, Joanna Wesoly, Hans A R Bluyssen
In the canonical pathway of IFN-I-mediated signaling, phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 leads to heterodimerization and interaction with IRF9. This complex, also known as IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), then translocates into the nucleus and binds the IFN-I-stimulated response element (ISRE) leading to the activation of transcription of over 300 interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition, STAT1 homodimers [known as γ-activated factor (GAF)] are formed and translocate to the nucleus, where they target genes containing the γ-activated sequence (GAS)...
March 18, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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