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Regulated Alternative Translocation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156304/water-management-regimes-alter-pb-uptake-and-translocation-in-fragrant-rice
#1
Umair Ashraf, Saddam Hussain, Nadeem Akbar, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Waseem Hassan, Xiangru Tang
Rice cultivation in lead (Pb) polluted soils often leads to high Pb contents in rice grains. The present study investigated the dynamics of Pb uptake under different water regimes in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Guixiangzhan and Nongxiang-18. Results revealed that water dynamics regulated the antioxidant activities in both rice cultivars under Pb toxicity. Compared to continuous ponding (CP), taken as control, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) reduced the Pb contents in roots, stems, leaves, and grains up to 17%, 41%, 22%, and 52% in Guixiangzhan and 23%, 19%, 17%, and 37% in Nongxiang-18, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155216/communication-between-genomic-and-non-genomic-signaling-events-coordinate-steroid-hormone-actions
#2
Sandi R Wilkenfeld, Chenchu Lin, Daniel E Frigo
Steroid hormones are lipophilic molecules produced in one cell that can travel great distances within the body to elicit biological effects in another cell. In the canonical pathway, steroid hormone binding to a nuclear receptor (NR), often in the cytoplasm, causes the receptor to undergo a conformational change and translocate to the nucleus, where it interacts with specific sequences of DNA to regulate transcription. In addition to the classical genomic mechanism of action, alternate mechanisms of steroid activity have emerged that involve rapid, non-genomic signaling...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091322/a-novel-diterpenoid-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-and-promotes-osteogenesis-by-inhibiting-ifrd1-and-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-mediated-p65-nuclear-translocation
#3
Zi'ang Xie, Hejun Yu, Xuewu Sun, Pan Tang, Zhiwei Jie, Shuai Chen, Jiying Wang, An Qin, Shunwu Fan
Osteoporosis develops due to impaired bone formation and/or excessive bone resorption. Although the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis has been extensively developed, alternative treatments are still needed. Here, we showed that oridonin (ORI), a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, can suppress osteoclastogenesis and enhance osteogenesis. ORI inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption through the inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077485/the-splicing-factor-hnrnpa1-regulates-alternate-splicing-of-the-mylk-gene
#4
Joseph B Mascarenhas, Alex Y Tchourbanov, Sergei M Danilov, Tong Zhou, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia
Profound lung vascular permeability is a cardinal feature of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Ventilator-Induced Lung injury (VILI), two syndromes known to centrally involve the non-muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in vascular barrier dysregulation. Two main splice variants, nmMLCK1 and nmMLCK2, are well represented in human lung endothelial cells and encoded by MYLK and differ only in the presence of exon 11 in nmMLCK1 which contains critical phosphorylation sites (Y464 and Y471) that influence nmMLCK enzymatic activity, cellular translocation, and localization in response to vascular agonists...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058711/the-helicase-domain-of-pol%C3%AE-counteracts-rpa-to-promote-alt-nhej
#5
Pedro A Mateos-Gomez, Tatiana Kent, Sarah K Deng, Shane McDevitt, Ekaterina Kashkina, Trung M Hoang, Richard T Pomerantz, Agnel Sfeir
Mammalian polymerase theta (Polθ) is a multifunctional enzyme that promotes error-prone DNA repair by alternative nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ). Here we present structure-function analyses that reveal that, in addition to the polymerase domain, Polθ-helicase activity plays a central role during double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our results show that the helicase domain promotes chromosomal translocations by alt-NHEJ in mouse embryonic stem cells and also suppresses CRISPR-Cas9- mediated gene targeting by homologous recombination (HR)...
October 23, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033244/iaspp-is-an-antioxidative-factor-and-drives-cancer-growth-and-drug-resistance-by-competing-with-nrf2-for-keap1-binding
#6
Wenjie Ge, Kunming Zhao, Xingwen Wang, Huayi Li, Miao Yu, Mengmeng He, Xuting Xue, Yifu Zhu, Cheng Zhang, Yiwei Cheng, Shijian Jiang, Ying Hu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important signaling molecules that play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and cytotoxic responses. Nrf2 is the master regulator of ROS balance. Thus, uncovering mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation is important for the development of alternative treatment strategies for cancers. Here, we demonstrate that iASPP, a known p53 inhibitor, lowers ROS independently of p53. Mechanistically, iASPP competes with Nrf2 for Keap1 binding via a DLT motif, leading to decreased Nrf2 ubiquitination and increased Nrf2 accumulation, nuclear translocation, and antioxidative transactivation...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031599/interaction-of-dj-1-with-lyn-is-essential-for-ige-mediated-stimulation-of-human-mast-cells
#7
Do-Kyun Kim, Michael A Beaven, Dean D Metcalfe, Ana Olivera
BACKGROUND: DJ-1 is a redox-sensitive protein with multiple roles in cell homeostasis whose levels are altered in mast cell (MC)-related disorders. However, whether DJ-1 can regulate human MC function is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the potential role of DJ-1 in the responses of human MCs to antigen stimulation. METHODS: DJ-1 was silenced in human CD34(+)-derived and LAD2 MCs using lentiviral sh-RNA constructs. Release of β-hexosaminidase, PGD2 and GM-CSF and changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured after FcεRI engagement...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027792/multifunctional-cytochrome-c-learning-new-tricks-from-an-old-dog
#8
REVIEW
Damián Alvarez-Paggi, Luciana Hannibal, María A Castro, Santiago Oviedo-Rouco, Veronica Demicheli, Veronica Tórtora, Florencia Tomasina, Rafael Radi, Daniel H Murgida
Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a small soluble heme protein characterized by a relatively flexible structure, particularly in the ferric form, such that it is able to sample a broad conformational space. Depending on the specific conditions, interactions, and cellular localization, different conformations may be stabilized, which differ in structure, redox properties, binding affinities, and enzymatic activity. The primary function is electron shuttling in oxidative phosphorylation, and is exerted by the so-called native cyt c in the intermembrane mitochondrial space of healthy cells...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021383/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-promoted-macrophage-alternative-activation-contributes-to-kidney-fibrosis
#9
Ye Feng, Jiafa Ren, Yuan Gui, Wei Wei, Bingyan Shu, Qingmiao Lu, Xian Xue, Xiaoli Sun, Weichun He, Junwei Yang, Chunsun Dai
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is crucial in normal development and throughout life, but aberrant activation of this pathway has been linked to kidney fibrosis, although the mechanisms involved remain incompletely determined. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt/β-catenin in regulating macrophage activation and the contribution thereof to kidney fibrosis. Treatment of macrophages with Wnt3a exacerbated IL-4- or TGFβ1-induced macrophage alternative (M2) polarization and the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in vitro Conversely, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented these IL-4- or TGFβ1-induced processes...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986802/re-expressing-epigenetically-silenced-genes-by-inducing-dna-demethylation-through-targeting-of-ten-eleven-translocation-2-to-any-given-genomic-locus
#10
Julio Cesar Rendón, David Cano-Rodríguez, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetic editing is a novel methodology to modify the epigenetic landscape of any genomic location. As such, the approach might reprogram expression profiles, without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic alterations, including promoter hypermethylation, are associated with an increasing number of human diseases. To exploit this situation, epigenetic editing rises as a new alternative to specifically demethylate abnormally hypermethylated regions. Here, we describe a methodology to actively demethylate the hypermethylated ICAM-1 promoter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981454/hybrid-sequencing-of-full-length-cdna-transcripts-of-stems-and-leaves-in-dendrobium-officinale
#11
Liu He, Shuhua Fu, Zhichao Xu, Jun Yan, Jiang Xu, Hong Zhou, Jianguo Zhou, Xinlian Chen, Ying Li, Kin Fai Au, Hui Yao
Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has been carried out on their alternatively spliced isoforms in D. officinale. In addition, information regarding the translocation of sugars from leaves to stems in D. officinale also remains limited. We analyzed the polysaccharide content of D...
October 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943877/%C3%AE-catenin-directs-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-output-via-creb-binding-protein-p300-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle
#12
Tim Koopmans, Roos Eilers, Mark Menzen, Andrew Halayko, Reinoud Gosens
β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that apart from its role in proliferative and differentiation events, also acts upon inflammatory processes, mainly via interaction with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). However, there is still controversy as to whether β-catenin facilitates or represses NF-κB output. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between β-catenin and NF-κB have highlighted the cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 as important candidates. Here, we hypothesized that the interaction of β-catenin with CBP/p300 directs NF-κB output...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899762/the-role-of-non-endothelial-cells-on-the-penetration-of-nanoparticles-through-the-blood-brain-barrier
#13
REVIEW
Rui Pedro Moura, Andreia Almeida, Bruno Sarmento
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a well-established cell-based membrane that circumvents the central nervous system (CNS), protecting it from harmful substances. Due to its robustness and cell integrity, it is also an outstanding opponent when it comes to the delivery of several therapeutic agents to the brain, which requires the crossing through its highly-organized structure. This regulation and cell-cell communications occur mostly between astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells. Therefore, alternative ways to deliver drugs to the CNS, overcoming the BBB are required, to improve the efficacy of brain target drugs...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837798/lymphotoxins-promote-the-progression-of-human-lymphatic-malformation-by-enhancing-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-proliferation
#14
Jie-Gang Yang, Yan-Fang Sun, Ke-Fei He, Jian-Gang Ren, Zhuo-Jue Liu, Bing Liu, Wei Zhang, Yi-Fang Zhao
Formation of inflammation-related tertiary lymphoid organs promotes human lymphatic malformation (LM) development. However, the role of lymphotoxins (LTs) and LT-related inducible ligand, the crucial mediators for tertiary lymphoid organ formation, is undetermined in LMs. Herein, we show that LTs and LT-related inducible ligand promote LM development by enhancing lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation via activating NF-κB pathways. The expression of LTs and their receptors was increased in LMs, especially the infected ones, when compared with normal skins...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825698/a-regulated-pnuts-mrna-to-lncrna-splice-switch-mediates-emt-and-tumour-progression
#15
Simon Grelet, Laura A Link, Breege Howley, Clémence Obellianne, Viswanathan Palanisamy, Vamsi K Gangaraju, J Alan Diehl, Philip H Howe
The contribution of lncRNAs to tumour progression and the regulatory mechanisms driving their expression are areas of intense investigation. Here, we characterize the binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) to a nucleic acid structural element located in exon 12 of PNUTS (also known as PPP1R10) pre-RNA that regulates its alternative splicing. HnRNP E1 release from this structural element, following its silencing, nucleocytoplasmic translocation or in response to TGFβ, allows alternative splicing and generates a non-coding isoform of PNUTS...
September 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811582/a-new-class-of-hybrid-secretion-system-is-employed-in-pseudomonas-amyloid-biogenesis
#16
Sarah L Rouse, William J Hawthorne, Jamie-Lee Berry, Dror S Chorev, Sandra A Ionescu, Sebastian Lambert, Fisentzos Stylianou, Wiebke Ewert, Uma Mackie, R Marc L Morgan, Daniel Otzen, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Per H Nielsen, Morten Dueholm, Hagan Bayley, Carol V Robinson, Stephen Hare, Stephen Matthews
Gram-negative bacteria possess specialised biogenesis machineries that facilitate the export of amyloid subunits for construction of a biofilm matrix. The secretion of bacterial functional amyloid requires a bespoke outer-membrane protein channel through which unfolded amyloid substrates are translocated. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography, native mass spectrometry, single-channel electrical recording, molecular simulations and circular dichroism measurements to provide high-resolution structural insight into the functional amyloid transporter from Pseudomonas, FapF...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733032/pilose-antler-peptide-potentiates-osteoblast-differentiation-and-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-via-manipulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Guangwang Liu, Chao Ma, Peian Wang, Peiying Zhang, Xinhua Qu, Shen Liu, Zanjing Zhai, Degang Yu, Juan Gao, Jun Liang, Weixiang Dai, Lindong Zhou, Mengjiao Xia, Huilin Yang
Bones are inflexible yet ever-changing metabolic organs, and bone homeostasis is maintained through two delicately regulated processes: bone construction and bone reabsorption. An imbalance in bone metabolism is linked to most orthopedic diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocks osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteoclast formation, resulting in delayed deposition of new bone and accelerated bone resorption, especially in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inflammatory conditions...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698048/identification-and-functional-evaluation-of-two-stat3-variants-in-grass-carp-implication-for-the-existence-of-specific-alternative-splicing-of-stat3-gene-in-teleost
#18
Linyong Du, Hong Zhou, Lei Qin, He Wei, Anying Zhang, Kun Yang, Xinyan Wang
A STAT family member, STAT3, becomes activated as a DNA binding protein in response to cytokines and growth factors. In teleost, STAT3 cDNA has been cloned and identified in a few species, but only a single STAT3 transcript is revealed in these studies. In the present study, two variants of STAT3 gene generated by alternative splicing were isolated from grass carp and nominated as STAT3α1 and STAT3α2 based on the homology with their mammalian orthologs. In particular, the homologs of STAT3α1/2 were also found in various fish species, including zebrafish, takifugu, tilapia, medaka and goldfish...
July 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692601/recurrent-braf-gene-rearrangements-in-myxoinflammatory-fibroblastic-sarcomas-but-not-hemosiderotic-fibrolipomatous-tumors
#19
Yu-Chien Kao, Valentina Ranucci, Lei Zhang, Yun-Shao Sung, Edward A Athanasian, David Swanson, Brendan C Dickson, Cristina R Antonescu
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low grade soft tissue sarcoma with a predilection for acral sites, being associated with a high rate of local recurrence but very infrequent distant metastases. Although a t(1;10) translocation resulting in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion has been reported as a recurrent genetic event in MIFS, this abnormality is seen only in a subset of cases. As no studies to date have investigated the spectrum of alternative genetic alterations in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS, we undertook a genetic analysis of this particular cohort for further molecular classification...
November 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676202/hexacosanol-reduces-plasma-and-hepatic-cholesterol-by-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-suppression-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-2-in-hepg2-and-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Ji Hae Lee, Yaoyao Jia, Trung Thanh Thach, Yuri Han, Bobae Kim, Chunyan Wu, Yeonji Kim, Woo Duck Seo, Sung-Joon Lee
Policosanols have hypocholesterolemic activity; however, the molecular mechanism of the policosanol effects is currently poorly characterized. We hypothesized that hexacosanol, a policosanol compound derived from barley sprout, may decrease cellular and plasma cholesterol levels; we thus investigated the hypocholesterolemic activity and mechanism of hexacosanol on both hepatocytes and high-fat-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The reduction of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and cholesteryl ester concentrations was confirmed in hexacosanol-stimulated hepatocytes (-38%, -33%, and -53%, respectively)...
May 26, 2017: Nutrition Research
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