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Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yibo Yan, Jie Chen, Nan Li, Jingqi Tian, Kaixin Li, Jizhou Jiang, Jiyang Liu, Qinghua Tian, Peng Chen
Graphene quantum dot (GQD), which is the latest addition to the nanocarbon material family, promises a wide spectrum of applications. Herein, we demonstrate two different functionalization strategies to systematically tailor the bandgap structures of GQDs whereby making them snugly suitable for particular applications. Furthermore, the functionalized GQDs with a narrow bandgap and intramolecular Z-scheme structure are employed as the efficient photocatalysts for water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction under visible light...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Cheryl Suwen Law, Siew Yee Lim, Abel Santos
This study presents a nanofabrication approach that enables the production of nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs) with finely engineered light filtering features across the spectral regions. The photonic stopband (PSB) of these NAA-based photonic crystal (PC) structures is precisely tuned by an apodization strategy applied during stepwise pulse anodization with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA-DBRs in depth. We systematically assess the effect of different fabrication parameters such as apodization function (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Nigel Scrutton, Uzma Choudry, Derren Heyes, Samantha Hardman, Michiyo Sakuma, Igor Sazanovich, Joyce Woodhouse, Eugenio De La Mora, Martin Pederson, Michael Wulff, Martin Weik, Giorgio Schiro
Phytochromes are bilin-containing photoreceptors that are typically sensitive to the red / far-red region of the visible spectrum. Recently phytochromes from certain eukaryotic algae have become attractive targets for optogenetic applications because of their unique ability to respond to multiple wavelengths of light. Here, we have used a combination of time-resolved spectroscopy and structural approaches across picosecond to second timescales to map photochemical mechanisms and structural change in this atypical group of phytochromes...
March 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Rai Kou, Taiki Hatakeyama, Jason Horng, Ji-Hun Kang, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Feng Wang
Mid-infrared light provides numerous unexpected opportunities in scientific discoveries because this wavelength region covers the fingerprints of various molecular vibrational resonances. However, the light generation efficiency and bandwidth have been a long-standing bottleneck which has limited the development so far. Moreover, the light source that can be integrated with other components such as wavelength filters, detectors, and electronics, will be the key factor toward the future practical applications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Shi-Hao Zhang, Bang-Gui Liu
We propose through first-principles investigation that the GaTeCl monolayer is an excellent two-dimensional (2D) multiferroic with giant mechanical anisotropy. The calculated phonon spectrum, molecular dynamic simulations, and elastic moduli confirm its dynamic and mechanical stability, and our cleavage energy analysis shows that exfoliating one GaTeCl monolayer from the existing GaTeCl bulk is feasible. The calculated in-plane ferroelectric polarization reaches 578 pC m-1 . The energy barriers per formula unit of the ferroelastic 90° rotational and ferroelectric reversal transitions are 476 meV and 754 meV, respectively, being the greatest in the 2D multiferroics family so far...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Yi Wang, Jian-Ning Zhang, Wei Hu, Ji-Jun Li, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Jian-Ping Zhang, Guo-Feng Shi, Ping He, Zai-Wang Li, Ming Li
Introduction: Subjective chronic tinnitus is a common medical syndrome with a high frequency of cognitive impairment; however, the characteristics of cognitive impairment in chronic tinnitus are poorly understood. Investigating the scope of cognitive impairment across the severity spectrum of tinnitus patients may shed light on the issue. Methods: A consecutive series of 207 subjective chronic tinnitus patients were classified into mild tinnitus group ( n  = 95) and severe tinnitus group ( n  = 112) by THI score (the cutoff THI scores were 37/38)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Guoqing Tong, Huan Li, Zhifeng Zhu, Yan Zhang, Linwei Yu, Jun Xu, Yang Jiang
Hybrid perovskite photodetectors (PDs) exhibit outstanding performance in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum but have poor detectability in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region (200-350 nm). In this work, a novel inorganic-hybrid architecture that incorporates a dual-phase (CsPbBr3-Cs4PbBr6) inorganic perovskite material as a down-conversion window layer and a hybrid perovskite as light capture layer was prepared to achieve faster, highly sensitive photodetection in the DUV spectrum. A dual-phase inorganic perovskite film coated on the back surface of photodetector enables strong light absorption and tunes the incident energy into emission bands that are optimized for the perovskite photodetector...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yue Yang, Long Chen, Yuan Jia, Yang Liu, Lei Wen, Yaoxian Liang, Yuan An, Shi Chen, Yin Su, Zhanguo Li
To analyze the clinical spectrum, laboratory characteristics, and outcomes of monoclonal gammopathy (MG) in patients with rheumatic diseases. Screening for the presence of MG was performed in 872 inpatients with rheumatic diseases from January 2010 to July 2017. A total of 41 patients were enrolled. Their clinical and biological features in addition to outcomes were described. For each patient with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 2 age- and sex-matched pSS patients without MG were selected as controls. Risk factors for the presence of MG and malignant hematological neoplasias were assessed...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Maria Eugenia Correa-Cano, Bárbara Goettsch, James P Duffy, Jonathan Bennie, Richard Inger, Kevin J Gaston
Naturally dark nighttime environments are being widely eroded by the introduction of artificial light at night (ALAN). The biological impacts vary with the intensity and spectrum of ALAN, but have been documented from molecules to ecosystems. How globally severe these impacts are likely to be depends in large part on the relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution of ALAN and that of the geographic ranges of species. Here, we determine this relationship for the Cactaceae family. Using maps of the geographic ranges of cacti and nighttime stable light composite images for the period 1992 to 2012, we found that a high percentage of cactus species were experiencing ALAN within their ranges in 1992, and that this percentage had increased by 2012...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaotian Zhang, Jiteng Sheng, Haibin Wu
We explore theoretically the optomechanical interaction between a light field and a mechanical mode mediated by a Kerr nonlinear medium inside a Fabry-Perot cavity. When the system is driven by a strong and fast amplitude-modulated light field, i.e., in the so-called temporal rocking region, the cavity field and the mechanical oscillator show the characteristics of multistability. The rocking breaks down the continuous phase symmetry of the cavity field to a bistable case of two equivalent states with exact π phase difference...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Venkata Jayasurya Yallapragada, Hervé Rigneault, Dan Oron
Supercontinuum generation using photonic crystal fibers is a useful technique to generate light spanning a broad wavelength range, using femtosecond laser pulses. For some applications, one may desire higher power density at specific wavelengths. Increasing the pump power results primarily in further broadening of the output spectrum and is not particularly useful for this purpose. In this paper we demonstrate that by applying a periodic spectral phase modulation to the input pulse using a pulse shaper, the spectral energy density of the output supercontinuum can be enhanced by nearly an order of magnitude at specific wavelengths, which are tunable...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Hassaan Majeed, Lihong Ma, Young Jae Lee, Mikhail Kandel, Eunjung Min, Woonggyu Jung, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gabriel Popescu
Label-free imaging of rapidly moving, sub-diffraction sized structures has important applications in both biology and material science, as it removes the limitations associated with fluorescence tagging. However, unlabeled nanoscale particles in suspension are difficult to image due to their transparency and fast Brownian motion. Here we describe a novel interferometric imaging technique referred to as Magnified Image Spatial Spectrum (MISS) microscopy, which overcomes these challenges. The MISS microscope provides quantitative phase information and enables dynamic light scattering investigations with an overall optical path length sensitivity of 0...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Markus Moessner, Kelsie T Forbush, Erin C Accurso, Daniel Le Grange
Classifying eating disorders in youth is challenging in light of developmental considerations and high rates of diagnostic migration. Understanding the transactional relationships among eating disorder symptoms, both across the transdiagnostic spectrum and within specific diagnostic categories, may clarify which core eating disorder symptoms contribute to, and maintain, eating-related psychopathology in youth. We utilized network analysis to investigate interrelationships among eating disorder symptoms in 636 treatment-seeking children and adolescents (90...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jingran Chen, Xingyu Yang, Chenyu Zhu, Xin Xie, Cuiping Lin, Yalei Zhao, Qishe Yan
Antibiotic ciprofloxacin is one of the commonly used broad spectrum fluoroquinolone human and veterinary drugs. Because of the overuse of human beings, the presence of ciprofloxacin has been detected in a variety of environmental matrices. To solve this problem, a facile, environmentally-friendly Ag3 PO4 /AgBr composite photocatalyst was synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). CTAB was served as surfactant and the source of bromide ions...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sascha Hein, Jaap J Ten Bosch
OBJECTIVE: Restorative and prosthetic materials should provide an appearance similar to natural teeth under all light conditions, including UV-rich environments and daylight. Various studies claim that UV-induced fluorescence makes teeth whiter and brighter in daylight. The aim of this paper is to determine experimentally the significance of tooth fluorescence in natural sunlight on perceived tooth color. METHODS: A total of 35 extracted, hydrated teeth without restorations or endodontic treatments were evaluated in an experimental setup...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Tiago E C Magalhães, José M Rebordão
We discuss how to simulate numerically the far-field propagation of the spectrum of light by propagating the cross-spectral density for a planar light source with a given coherence model. To test our approach, we performed simulations for two source models: a Gaussian Schell-model source and a nonuniformly Gaussian-correlated source. We show that our algorithm correctly reproduces the theoretical solutions by Emil Wolf for planar Gaussian Schell-model source, namely, the spectral shifts of spectral lines due to source correlations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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