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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821132/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-on-poly-pseudo-rotaxane-nanoparticles-self-assembled-by-protoporphyrin-modified-poly-ethylene-glycol-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#1
Taotao Xu, Junhua Li, Jun Cao, Wenxia Gao, Li Li, Bin He
Poly(pseudo)rotaxane (PPR) nanoparticles was facilely prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified with protoporphyrin (PpIX) and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) via host-guest interaction, the effect of α-CD number on the nanoparticle properties was investigated. The PEG with protoporphyrin (PEG-PpIX) end capping was synthesized via coupling reaction and the poly(pseudo)rotaxane nanoparticles with different amount of α-CD were fabricated by host-guest interaction between mPEG-PpIX and α-CDs. The final product was characterized by nuclear magnetic spectrum ((1)H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819962/monte-carlo-simulations-support-non-cerenkov-radioluminescence-production-in-tissue
#2
Nicole L Ackerman, Federico Boschi, Antonello E Spinelli
There is experimental evidence for the production of non-Cerenkov radioluminescence in a variety of materials, including tissue. We constructed a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation from P32 and Tc99m interacting in chicken breast and used experimental imaging data to model a scintillation-like emission. The same radioluminescence spectrum is visible from both isotopes and cannot otherwise be explained through fluorescence or filter miscalibration. We conclude that chicken breast has a near-infrared scintillation-like response with a light yield three orders of magnitude smaller than BGO...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819798/functional-organometallic-poly-arylene-ethynylene-s-from-synthesis-to-applications
#3
REVIEW
Jie Zhang, Linli Xu, Cheuk-Lam Ho, Wai-Yeung Wong
This review focuses on the recent development in the rigid-rod metallopolymers of late transition metals based on triple-bond building blocks. The synthesis, structure-property relationships and potential applications of organometallic poly(arylene ethynylene)s will be discussed in detail. These functional metal-based polymers can exhibit intriguing optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Considerable focus is placed on the design strategies towards tuning the optical bandgap and emission color (spanning almost the whole visible spectrum) of this class of metallopolymers, and the investigation of their use as active materials for light/electrical energy conversion and energy and information storage...
August 17, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818478/mutations-in-ddhd1-encoding-a-phospholipase-a1-is-a-novel-cause-of-retinopathy-and-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#4
Rodolphe Dard, Claire Meyniel, Valérie Touitou, Giovanni Stevanin, Foudil Lamari, Alexandra Durr, Claire Ewenczyk, Fanny Mochel
Defects of phospholipids remodelling and synthesis are inborn errors of metabolism responsible for various clinical presentations including spastic paraplegia, retinopathy, optic atrophy, myo- and cardiomyopathies, and osteo-cutaneous manifestations. DDHD1 encodes a phospholipase A1, which is involved in the remodelling of phospholipids. We previously described a relatively pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) phenotype associated with mutations in DDHD1. Here we report a complex form of HSP associated with retinal dystrophy and a pattern of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) on brain MRI, due to a novel homozygous mutation in DDHD1...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817078/measurement-of-the-verdet-constant-of-polarization-maintaining-air-core-photonic-bandgap-fiber
#5
Ningfang Song, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiaobin Xu, Wei Cai, Chunxiao Wu
We propose a method based on the white-light interference technique for measuring the Verdet constant of a polarization-maintaining air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PM-PBF). The experimental results show that the Verdet constant of the PM-PBF is ~3.3 mrad/T/m for the broadband light with a spectral width of ~38 nm and a mean wavelength of ~1550 nm, which is ~124 times less than that of a conventional stress-induced birefringent fibers called PANDA fibers (~0.41 rad/T/m for the same broad-spectrum light). The results indicate that the nonreciprocal error induced by the Faraday effect in a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) made of the PM-PBF is theoretically ~25 times less than that of a conventional FOG made of the PANDA fiber when other conditions, such as the fiber twist, fiber coil area, and so on, are the same...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#6
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815594/differential-effects-of-changes-in-spectral-irradiance-on-photoacclimation-primary-productivity-and-growth-in-rhodomonas-salina-cryptophyceae-and-skeletonema-costatum-bacillariophyceae-in-simulated-blackwater-environments
#7
Evelyn Lawrenz, Tammi L Richardson
The underwater light field in blackwater environments is strongly skewed towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum due to blue light absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Exposure of phytoplankton to full spectrum irradiance occurs only when cells are mixed up to the surface. We studied the potential effects of mixing-induced changes in spectral irradiance on photoacclimation, primary productivity and growth in cultures of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the diatom Skeletonema costatum...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814865/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-sn-38-nanocrystals-with-different-particle-sizes
#8
Min Chen, Wanqing Li, Xun Zhang, Ye Dong, Yabing Hua, Hui Zhang, Jing Gao, Liang Zhao, Ying Li, Aiping Zheng
7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) is a potent broad-spectrum antitumor drug derived from irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11). Due to its poor solubility and instability of the active lactone ring, its clinical use is significantly limited. As one of the most promising formulations for poorly water-soluble drugs, nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention. In order to solve these problems and evaluate the antitumor effect of SN-38 in vitro and in vivo, two nanocrystals with markedly different particle sizes were prepared...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813714/effects-of-riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-illumination-on-the-biomechanical-properties-of-conjunctiva
#9
Harrison Man Hin Chan, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai
PURPOSE: Our experiment evaluated the biomechanical effects of riboflavin and ultraviolet A illumination, in terms of covalent bonding, permeability, and indentation rupture force, on excised cattle conjunctiva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cattle conjunctiva was extracted and divided into the treatment group, which was soaked in riboflavin, followed by ultraviolet light illumination, and the control group. Samples were subsequently analysed on a Fourier transform infrared spectrum test to identify the presence of amide bonds, a permeability test to assess the diffusion of methylene blue across conjunctiva, and an indentation rupture force test...
August 17, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813619/age-related-changes-in-the-chorioretinal-junction-an-immunohistochemical-study
#10
Tulika Gupta, Narbada Saini, Jasbir Arora, Daisy Sahni
The chorioretinal junction comprises the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane (BM), and adjacent choroidal capillaries. Its significance lies in its ability to support the retina mechanically and metabolically. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to record the senescent changes affecting all the constituents of the chorioretinal junction in 40 histological specimens across the whole spectrum of the adult age range. This study included light microscopy, with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS stains, and fluorescent microscopy...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813588/insight-to-the-thermal-decomposition-and-hydrogen-desorption-behaviors-of-nanh2-nabh4-hydrogen-storage-composite
#11
Ziwei Pei, Ying Bai, Yue Wang, Feng Wu, Chuan Wu
The light-weight compound material NaNH2-NaBH4 is regarded as a promising hydrogen storage composite due to the high hydrogen density. Mechanical ball-milling was employed to synthesize the composite NaNH2-NaBH4 (2/1 molar ratio), and the samples were investigated utilizing Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis-mass spectroscopy (TG-DTA-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The full-spectrum test (range of the ratio of mass to charge: 0-200) shows that the released gaseous species contain H2, NH3, B2H6 and N2 in the heating process from room temperature to 400 °C, and possibly the impurity gas B6H12 also exists...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813456/a-simple-molecular-mechanism-explains-multiple-patterns-of-cell-size-regulation
#12
Morgan Delarue, Daniel Weissman, Oskar Hallatschek
Increasingly accurate and massive data have recently shed light on the fundamental question of how cells maintain a stable size trajectory as they progress through the cell cycle. Microbes seem to use strategies ranging from a pure sizer, where the end of a given phase is triggered when the cell reaches a critical size, to pure adder, where the cell adds a constant size during a phase. Yet the biological origins of the observed spectrum of behavior remain elusive. We analyze a molecular size-control mechanism, based on experimental data from the yeast S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813152/coherent-exciton-delocalization-in-a-two-state-dna-templated-dye-aggregate-system
#13
Brittany L Cannon, Donald L Kellis, Lance Kenneth Patten, Paul H Davis, Jeunghoon Lee, Elton Graugnard, Bernard Yurke, William B Knowlton
Coherent exciton delocalization in dye aggregate systems gives rise to a variety of intriguing optical phenomena, including J- and H-aggregate behavior and Davydov splitting. Systems that exhibit coherent exciton delocalization at room temperature are of interest for the development of artificial light-harvesting devices, colorimetric detection schemes, and quantum computers. Here, we report on a simple dye system templated by DNA that exhibits tunable optical properties. At low salt and DNA concentrations, a DNA duplex with two internally functionalized Cy5 dyes (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809885/two-photon-absorption-and-subband-photodetection-in-monolayer-mos2
#14
Feng Zhou, Wei Ji
We develop a theoretical model to quantify the two-photon absorption (2 PA) coefficients of monolayer MoS2. Based on two-dimensional excitons, our model reveals the 2 PA coefficient spectrum on the order of 0.01-0.1 cm/MW in the near-infrared for monolayer MoS2. As compared to the band theory for bulk semiconductors, these coefficients are enhanced by at least one order of magnitude. Our model is in agreement with light-intensity-dependent photocurrent measurements on a monolayer MoS2, subband photodetector with femtosecond laser pulses...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809874/three-dimensional-object-visualization-and-detection-in-low-light-illumination-using-integral-imaging
#15
Adam Markman, Xin Shen, Bahram Javidi
Conventional two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems that operate in the visible spectrum may perform poorly in environments under low light illumination. In this work, we present the potential of passive three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging (II) to perform 3D imaging of a scene under low light conditions in the visible spectrum and without the need for a photon counting or cooled CCD camera. Using dedicated algorithms, we demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D integral image is naturally optimum in a maximum likelihood sense in low light levels and in the presence of detector noise enabling object visualization in the scene...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807479/multifactorial-analyses-revealed-optimal-aquaculture-modalities-improving-husbandry-fitness-without-clear-effect-on-stress-and-immune-status-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca
#16
Sébastien Baekelandt, Baptiste Redivo, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Thibaut Bournonville, Alexis Houndji, Benoît Bernard, Najlae El Kertaoui, Mélodie Schmitz, Pascal Fontaine, Jean-Noël Gardeur, Yannick Ledoré, Patrick Kestemont
High mortality and impairment in growth rate during pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) ongrowing are among the major bottlenecks for its development in aquaculture. These failures may be related to high stress responsiveness since the rearing conditions are not yet optimized for this species. The objectives were to characterize the stress and immunological responses of pikeperch to major aquaculture modalities, and to identify the optimal aquaculture conditions for improving its welfare status. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (2(8-4))...
August 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805937/new-data-on-hyperpigmentation-disorders
#17
REVIEW
S Schalka
Recently visible light (VL) and vascularization triggered by infrared light (IR) play a role in hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the aetiology of hyperpigmentation disorders and means of prevention against UV, visible (VL) and infrared light (IR). The author conducted a literature review of the most recent data about hyperpigmentation disorders and means of prevention and protection. VL impacts on pigmentation, especially in individuals with phototype III, IV or V and also causes the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), erythema and DNA damage through ROS production as well as photodermatoses...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801622/decoupling-frequencies-amplitudes-and-phases-in-nonlinear-optics
#18
Bruno E Schmidt, Philippe Lassonde, Guilmot Ernotte, Matteo Clerici, Roberto Morandotti, Heide Ibrahim, François Légaré
In linear optics, light fields do not mutually interact in a medium. However, they do mix when their field strength becomes comparable to electron binding energies in the so-called nonlinear optical regime. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra where their amplitudes and phases are mutually coupled in a convolution process. Here, we describe a regime of nonlinear interactions without mixing of different frequencies. We demonstrate both in theory and experiment how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from the convolution in conventional time domain interactions...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801603/identifying-the-tilt-angle-and-correcting-the-orbital-angular-momentum-spectrum-dispersion-of-misaligned-light-beam
#19
Peng Zhao, Shikang Li, Yu Wang, Xue Feng, Cui Kaiyu, Liu Fang, Wei Zhang, Yidong Huang
The axis tilt of light beam in optical system would introduce the dispersion of orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum. To deal with it, a two-step method is proposed and demonstrated. First, the tilt angle of optical axis is identified with a deduced relation between the tilt angle and the variation of OAM topological charges with different reference axes, which is obtained with the help of a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. In our experiments, the precision of measured tilt angle is about 10(-4) rad with topological charges of -3~3...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800416/the-enigma-of-male-eating-disorders-a-critical-review-and-synthesis
#20
REVIEW
Stuart B Murray, Jason M Nagata, Scott Griffiths, Jerel P Calzo, Tiffany A Brown, Deborah Mitchison, Aaron J Blashill, Jonathan M Mond
Historically, male presentations of eating disorders (EDs) have been perceived as rare and atypical - a perception that has resulted in the systematic underrepresentation of males in ED research. This underrepresentation has profoundly impacted clinical practice with male patients, in which i) stigmatization and treatment non-engagement are more likely, ii) a distinct array of medical complexities are faced, and iii) symptom presentations differ markedly from female presentations. Further, the marginalization of males from ED research has hindered the assessment and clinical management of these presentations...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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