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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938056/short-term-effects-of-light-quality-on-leaf-gas-exchange-and-hydraulic-properties-of-silver-birch-betula-pendula
#1
Aigar Niglas, Kaisa Papp, Maciej Sekiewicz, Arne Sellin
Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937067/histopathological-patterns-of-renal-diseases-in-egyptian-children-a-single-center-experience
#2
Maher Ahmed Abdel-Hafez, Hend Abdel-Nabi, Mohamed El-Gamasy, Hossam Zayton, Ibrahim Nassar
The present cross-sectional, retrospective study was aimed to determine the histopathological spectrum of renal diseases in Egyptian children and to evaluate the indications, safety, and efficacy of percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in a large tertiary center in Egypt. PRBs performed at the Department of Pediatrics, Tanta University Hospital over a period of nine years (from January 2007 to December 2015) were included. Light microscopic (LM) examination was performed in all cases while immunofluorescence and electron microscopic examination were performed in selected cases...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932233/three-key-sub-leaf-modules-and-the-diversity-of-leaf-designs
#3
Le Li, Zeqing Ma, Ülo Niinemets, Dali Guo
Earth harbors a highly diverse array of plant leaf forms. A well-known pattern linking diverse leaf forms with their photosynthetic function across species is the global leaf economics spectrum (LES). However, within homogeneous plant functional groups such as tropical woody angiosperms or temperate deciduous woody angiosperms, many species can share a similar position in the LES but differ in other vital leaf traits, and thus function differently under the given suite of environmental drivers. How diverse leaves differentiate from each other has yet to be fully explained...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932079/nano-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-in-pancreatic-cancer-current-evidences-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Guido Giordano, Massimo Pancione, Nunzio Olivieri, Pietro Parcesepe, Marianna Velocci, Tania Di Raimo, Luigi Coppola, Giuseppe Toffoli, Mario Rosario D'Andrea
Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is an aggressive and chemoresistant disease, representing the fourth cause of cancer related deaths in western countries. Majority of patients have unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis and the 5-year survival rate in these conditions is extremely low. For more than a decade gemcitabine has been the cornerstone of metastatic PDAC treatment, although survival benefit was very poor. PDAC cells are surrounded by an intense desmoplastic reaction that may create a barrier to the drugs penetration within the tumor...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931040/newborn-skin-reflection-proof-of-concept-for-a-new-approach-for-predicting-gestational-age-at-birth-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Zilma Silveira Nogueira Reis, Gabriela Luiza Nogueira Vitral, Ingrid Michelle Fonseca de Souza, Maria Albertina Santiago Rego, Rodney Nascimento Guimaraes
BACKGROUND: Current methods to assess the gestational age during prenatal care or at birth are a global challenge. Disadvantages, such as low accessibility, high costs, and imprecision of clinical tests and ultrasonography measurements, may compromise health decisions at birth, based on the gestational age. Newborns' organs and tissues can indirectly indicate their physical maturity, and we hypothesized that evolutionary changes in their skin, detected using an optoelectronic device meter, may aid in estimating the gestational age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930977/fourier-based-diffraction-analysis-of-live-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Jenny Magnes, Harold M Hastings, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Clara Alivisatos, Adam Warner, Miranda Hulsey-Vincent
This manuscript describes how to classify nematodes using temporal far-field diffraction signatures. A single C. elegans is suspended in a water column inside an optical cuvette. A 632 nm continuous wave HeNe laser is directed through the cuvette using front surface mirrors. A significant distance of at least 20-30 cm traveled after the light passes through the cuvette ensures a useful far-field (Fraunhofer) diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern changes in real time as the nematode swims within the laser beam...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929590/enhancing-photocurrent-generation-in-photosynthetic-reaction-center-based-photoelectrochemical-cells-with-biomimetic-dna-antenna
#7
Anne-Marie Carey, Haojie Zhang, Minghui Liu, Daiana Sharaf, Natalie Akram, Hao Yan, Su Lin, Neal Woodbury, Dong-Kyun Seo
3 to 4 times higher performance of biohybrid photoelectrochemical cells with photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) has been achieved by using a DNA-based biomimetic antenna. Synthetic dyes Cy3 and Cy5 were chosen and strategically placed in the anntena in such a way that they can collect additional light energy in the visible region of the solar spectrum and transfer it to RC through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The antenna, a DNA templated multiple dye system, is attached to each Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC near the primary donor, P, to facilitate the energy transfer process...
September 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928761/hormonal-regulation-in-shade-avoidance
#8
REVIEW
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928682/differences-in-action-style-recognition-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Giuseppe Di Cesare, Laura Sparaci, Annalisa Pelosi, Luigi Mazzone, Giulia Giovagnoli, Deny Menghini, Emanuele Ruffaldi, Stefano Vicari
Vitality form is a term, originally introduced by Stern (2010), to describe "how" an action is performed. The capacity to perceive the vitality form of others' actions is a fundamental element of social interactions and a basic way of relating to and understanding others' behaviors. Although vitality forms characterize all human interactions, few studies have addressed their role in social and communicative disorders such as autism. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the ability to recognize different vitality forms during the observation of different motor actions in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to typically developing controls (TD)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926201/effect-of-topical-application-of-black-seed-oil-on-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-lesions-in-the-thin-skin-of-adult-male-albino-rats
#10
Ebtsam F Okasha, Naglaa A Bayomy, Eman Z Abdelaziz
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 1-3% of the world's population. Black seed oil, i.e the oil extracted from black seeds (Nigella sativa seeds), possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seed oil on imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasis-like skin lesions. To this end, 30 male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, control group; group II, psoriasis-induced group receiving daily topical applications of IMQ cream (5%) on the shaved back skin for 10 consecutive days; and group III, black seed oil group receiving a daily topical dose of black seed oil 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days after induction of psoriasis...
September 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925376/quantification-of-nanoparticle-concentration-in-colloidal-suspensions-by-a-non-destructive-optical-method
#11
Sandhya Clement, Brint Gardner, Wan Aizuddin W Razali, Victoria Coleman, Åsa Jämting, Heather Catchpoole, Ewa M Goldys, Jan Herrmann, Andrei V Zvyagin
The estimation of nanoparticle number concentration in colloidal suspensions is a prerequisite in many procedures, and in particular in multi-stage, low-yield reactions. Here, we describe a rapid, non-destructive method based on optical extinction and dynamic light scattering, which combines measurements using common bench-top instrumentation with a numerical algorithm to calculate the particle size distribution and concentration. These quantities were derived from Mie theory applied to measurements of the optical extinction spectrum of homogeneous, non-absorbing nanoparticles, and the relative particle size distribution of a colloidal suspension...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924230/two-step-excitation-in-hot-atomic-sodium-vapor
#12
Bernd Docters, Jörg Wrachtrup, Ilja Gerhardt
A two step excitation scheme in hot atomic sodium vapor is experimentally investigated. The observed effects reflect a coupling between the 3(2)S, 3(2)P and the 3(2)D states. We present the relative dependence on detuning of the two utilized lasers around λ = 589 nm and 819 nm. Unlike expected, we achieve a higher detuning dependence of the probe and the coupling laser by a factor of approximately three. The presented work aimed for a Rydberg excitation and quantum light storage. Such schemes are usually implemented with a red laser on the D-line transition and a coupling laser of shorter (typically blue) wavelength...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921058/the-influence-of-task-demands-verbal-ability-and-executive-functions-on-item-and-source-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Sara Semino, Melanie Ring, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is generally associated with difficulties in contextual source memory but not single item memory. There are surprising inconsistencies in the literature, however, that the current study seeks to address by examining item and source memory in age and ability matched groups of 22 ASD and 21 comparison adults. Results show that group differences in source memory are moderated by task demands but not by individual differences in verbal ability, executive function or item memory. By contrast, unexpected group differences in item memory could largely be explained by individual differences in source memory...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920706/do-night-and-around-the-clock-firefighters-shift-schedules-induce-deviation-in-tau-from-24-hours-of-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-circadian-rhythms
#14
Alain E Reinberg, Michael H Smolensky, Marc Riedel, Cedric Riedel, Eric Brousse, Yvan Touitou
Systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressures (BP) [SBP and DBP] are circadian rhythmic with period (τ) in healthy persons assumed to be maintained at 24.0h. We tested this assumption in a sample of 30 healthy career (mean >12 yrs) 30-to-46 yr-old male Caucasian French firefighters (FFs) categorized into three groups according to work schedule and duties: Group A - 12 FFs working 12h day, 12h night, and occasionally 24h shifts and whose primary duties are firefighting plus paramedical and road rescue services; Group B - 9 FFs working mostly 12h day and 12h night shifts and whose duties are answering incoming emergency calls and coordinating service vehicle dispatch from fire stations with Group A personnel; Group C - 9 day shift (09:00-17:00h) FFs charged with administrative tasks...
September 18, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920580/sandwiched-zno-au-cds-nanorod-arrays-with-enhanced-visible-light-driven-photocatalytical-performance
#15
Shoutian Ren, Yingying Wang, Guanghua Fan, Renxi Gao, Wenjun Liu
The development of high-performance photocatalysts is central to take advantage of solar energy to overcome environmental and energy crises. Integrating different functional materials artfully into nanostructures can acquire more efficient photocatalytic activity. Here sandwiched ZnO@Au@CdS nanorod films were synthesized via successive ZnO nanorod electrodeposition, Au sputtering and CdS electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, x-ray diffractometer, scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
September 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918447/an-improved-crystal-structure-of-c-phycoerythrin-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-phormidium-sp-a09dm
#16
Ravi R Sonani, Aleksander W Roszak, Claire Ortmann de Percin Northumberland, Datta Madamwar, Richard J Cogdell
C-Phycoerythrin (PE) from Phormidium sp. A09DM has been crystallized using different conditions and its structure determined to atomic resolution (1.14 Å). In order for the pigment present, phycoerythrobilin (PEB), to function as an efficient light-harvesting molecule it must be held rigidly (Kupka and Scheer in Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:94-103, 2008) and, moreover, the different PEB molecules in PE must be arranged, relative to each other, so as to promote efficient energy transfer between them. This improved structure has allowed us to define in great detail the structure of the PEBs and their binding sites...
September 16, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917897/reduction-of-au-iii-by-a-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-polymer-in-acid-medium-a-stated-unattainable-reaction
#17
Rudy Martin-Trasanco, Roberto Cao, Hilda Esperanza Esparza-Ponce, Maria Elena Montero-Cabrera, Ramiro Arratia-Pérez
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be prepared from the reduction of Au(III) with cyclodextrins acting as both, reducing and capping agent. It has been stated that a basic medium (pH=9-12) is a mandatory condition to achieve such reduction. We demonstrated, for the first time, the reduction of Au(III) by a crosslinked β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (βCDP) in acid medium (pH ∼3). The coordination of Au(III) to the βCD in βCDP polymer required a βCD:[AuCl4](-) ratio of 4:1. The same ratio was necessary to achieve a 50% of the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) within the first 24h of reaction...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915504/in-situ-optical-properties-of-foliar-flavonoids-implication-for-non-destructive-estimation-of-flavonoid-content
#18
Anatoly Gitelson, Olga Chivkunova, Tatiana Zhigalova, Alexei Solovchenko
Flavonoids are a ubiquitous multifunctional group of phenolics of paramount importance for the terrestrial plants involved in protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, color and chemical signaling and other functions. Deciphering of in situ absorption of foliar Flv is important but was thought to be impossible due to a strong overlap with other pigments, complex in situ chemistry of Flv and sophisticated leaf optics. We deduced in situ absorbance of foliar Flv and introduced a concept of specific absorbance spectrum indicative of each pigment group contribution to light absorption and provided a rationale for the choice of spectral bands for non-destructive assessment of Flv in leaves with variable content of other pigments including anthocyanins...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915054/rapid-removal-and-mineralization-of-bisphenol-a-by-heterosupramolecular-plasmonic-photocatalyst-consisting-of-gold-nanoparticle-loaded-titanium-iv-oxide-and-surfactant-admicelle
#19
Shin-Ichi Naya, Junpei Yamauchi, Takashi Okubo, Hiroaki Tada
The establishment of the technology for rapidly and completely remove and mineralize harmful phenolic compounds from water is of great importance for environmental conservation. Visible-light irradiation ( > 430 nm, light intensity integrated from 420 to 485 nm = 6.0 mW cm-2) of Au nanoparticle (NP)-loaded TiO2 (Au/TiO2) in dilute aqueous solutions of bisphenol A (BPA) and p-cresol (PC) causes degradation of the phenols. The addition of trimethylstearylammonium chloride (C18TAC) enhances the adsorption of BPA on Au/TiO2 to greatly increase the rate of reaction...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914530/the-emergence-of-the-reactivity-continuum-of-organic-matter-from-kinetics-of-a-multitude-of-individual-molecular-constituents
#20
Alina Mostovaya, Jeffrey Alistair Hawkes, Birgit Koehler, Thorsten Dittmar, Lars J Tranvik
The reactivity continuum (RC) model is a powerful statistical approach for describing the apparent kinetics of bulk organic matter (OM) decomposition. Here, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry data to evaluate the main premise of the RC model, namely that there is a continuous spectrum of reactivity within bulk OM, where each individual reactive type undergoes exponential decay. We performed a 120 days OM decomposition experiment on lake water, with an untreated control and a treatment preexposed to UV light, and described the loss of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with RC modeling...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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