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Ammonia oxidizing bacteria

Takafumi Kataoka, Koji Suzuki, Tomohisa Irino, Masanobu Yamamoto, Seigo Higashi, Hongbin Liu
Microbial nitrification is a key process in the nitrogen cycle in the continental shelf ecosystems. The genotype compositions and abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase gene, amoA, derived from ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in two size fractions (2-10 and 0.2-2 µm), were investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) in May 2008 using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Four sites were selected across the continental shelf edge: continental shelf water (CSW), Kuroshio branch water (KBW), transition between CSW and KBW (TCSKB) and coastal KBW (CKBW)...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Jun Zeng, Ju-Pei Shen, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Cui-Jing Zhang, Ren Bai, Li-Mei Zhang, Ji-Zheng He
Climate change is projected to have impacts on precipitation and temperature regimes in drylands of high elevation regions, with especially large effects in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, there was limited information about how the projected climate change will impact on the soil microbial community and their activity in the region. Here, we present results from a study conducted across 72 soil samples from 24 different sites along a temperature and precipitation gradient (substituted by aridity index ranging from 0...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Rab N Soomro, Khawar Hayat, Mohamed A E Mohamed, Bello M Bodinga, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Protein quality plays a key role than quantity in growth, production, and reproduction of ruminants. Application of high concentration of dietary crude protein (CP) did not balance the proportion of these limiting amino acids (AA) at duodenal digesta of high producing dairy cow. Thus, dietary supplementation of rumen-protected AA is recommended to sustain the physiological, productive, and reproductive performance of ruminants. Poor metabolism of high CP diets in rumen excretes excessive nitrogen (N) through urine and feces in the environment...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qing-Fang Bi, Qiu-Hui Chen, Xiao-Ru Yang, Hu Li, Bang-Xiao Zheng, Wei-Wei Zhou, Xiao-Xia Liu, Pei-Bin Dai, Ke-Jie Li, Xian-Yong Lin
Soil amended with single biochar or nitrogen (N) fertilizer has frequently been reported to alter soil nitrification process due to its impact on soil properties. However, little is known about the dynamic response of nitrification and ammonia-oxidizers to the combined application of biochar and N fertilizer in intensive vegetable soil. In this study, an incubation experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of biochar and N fertilizer application on soil nitrification, abundance and community shifts of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hangzhou greenhouse vegetable soil...
November 7, 2017: AMB Express
Linqiong Wang, Yi Li, Lihua Niu, Wenlong Zhang, Huanjun Zhang, Longfei Wang, Peifang Wang
Ammonia oxidation plays a fundamental role in river nitrogen cycling ecosystems, which is normally governed by both ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Co-contamination of typical emerging pollutant Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metal on AOA and AOB communities in river sediments remains unknown. In this study, multiple analytical tools, including high-throughput pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), were used to reveal the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) activity, subunit alpha (amoA) gene abundance, and community structures of AOA and AOB in river sediments...
October 12, 2017: Chemosphere
Juan Chen, Pei-Fang Wang, Chao Wang, Xun Wang, Han Gao
While nitrogen (N) fixation and ammonia oxidation by microorganisms are two important N cycling processes, little is known about how the microbes that drive these two processes respond when sediments are contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to examine the effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), either on its own or combined with a common mangrove species, Avicennia marina, on the abundance, diversity, and community composition of N-fixing bacteria (NFB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fang Liu, Xiaomin Hu, Xin Zhao, Huixuan Guo, Yan Zhao, Binhui Jiang
Bioaugmentation was used to upgrade the nitrification process in a full-scale municipal WWTP with an A(2)/O system. A mixture of nitrifying bacteria was inoculated into the bioreactor for a final concentration of 1% (v/v). The upgrade process took 25 days, and the NH4(+)-N removals reached 94.6% (increased at least by 75%). The effluent concentrations of COD and NH4(+)-N stabilized at <30 mg/L and <4 mg/L even when the corresponding influent concentrations were over 300 mg/L and 60 mg/L, which met the first-class requirement of the National Municipal Wastewater Discharge Standards of China (COD ≤ 50 mg/L, NH4(+)-N ≤ 5 mg/L)...
October 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Benjamin Costerousse, Laurie Schönholzer-Mauclaire, Emmanuel Frossard, Cécile Thonar
Soil and plant inoculation with heterotrophic Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria (ZSB) is considered as a promising approach for increasing zinc (Zn) phytoavailability and enhance crop growth and nutritional quality. It is nevertheless necessary to understand the underlying bacterial solubilization processes in order to predict their repeatability in inoculation strategies. Acidification via gluconic acid production remains the most reported process. In this study, wheat rhizosphere soil serial dilutions were plated onto several solid microbiological media supplemented with scarcely soluble Zn oxide (ZnO) and 115 putative Zn solubilizing isolates were directly detected based on the formation of solubilization halo around the colonies...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Swatantar Kumar, Martina Herrmann, Bo Thamdrup, Valérie F Schwab, Patricia Geesink, Susan E Trumbore, Kai-Uwe Totsche, Kirsten Küsel
Despite the high relevance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for nitrogen loss from marine systems, its relative importance compared to denitrification has less been studied in freshwater ecosystems, and our knowledge is especially scarce for groundwater. Surprisingly, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)-based studies identified zones with potentially active anammox bacteria within two superimposed pristine limestone aquifer assemblages of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE; Germany). We found anammox to contribute an estimated 83% to total nitrogen loss in suboxic groundwaters of these aquifer assemblages at rates of 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Magalí S Marcos, Anthony D Barboza, Rosalinde M Keijzer, Hendrikus J Laanbroek
Mangrove species are adapted to grow at specific zones in a tidal gradient. Here we tested the hypothesis that the archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities differ in soils dominated by the mangrove species Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Two of the sampling locations were tidal locations, while the other location was impounded. Differences in the community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amoA genes and by MiSeq 16S rRNA gene-sequencing...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Fernando Torralbo, Sergio Menéndez, Iskander Barrena, José M Estavillo, Daniel Marino, Carmen González-Murua
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions have been increasing as a result of intensive nitrogen (N) fertilisation. Soil nitrification and denitrification are the main sources of N2O, and the use of ammonium-based fertilisers combined with nitrification inhibitors (NIs) could be useful in mitigating N2O emissions from agricultural systems. In this work we looked at the N2O mitigation capacity of two dimethylpyrazol-based NIs, 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 2-(N-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) succinic acid isomeric mixture (DMPSA), on soil nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations under two contrasting soil water contents (40% and 80% soil water filled pore space; WFPS)...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Haishu Sun, Feng Liu, Shengjun Xu, Shanghua Wu, Guoqiang Zhuang, Ye Deng, Jinshui Wu, Xuliang Zhuang
Removal of nitrogen (N) is a critical aspect in the functioning of constructed wetlands (CWs), and the N treatment in CWs depends largely on the presence and activity of macrophytes and microorganisms. However, the effects of plants on microorganisms responsible for N removal are poorly understood. In this study, a three-stage surface flow CW was constructed in a pilot-scale within monospecies stands of Myriophyllum aquaticum to treat swine wastewater. Steady-state conditions were achieved throughout the 600-day operating period, and a high (98...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Karolina Tatari, Sanin Musovic, Arda Gülay, Arnaud Dechesne, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen, Barth F Smets
We investigated the density and distribution of total bacteria, canonical Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) (Nitrosomonas plus Nitrosospira), Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea (AOA), as well as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira in rapid sand filters used for groundwater treatment. To investigate the spatial distribution of these guilds, filter material was sampled at four drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in parallel filters of the pre- and after-filtration stages at different locations and depths. The target guilds were quantified by qPCR targeting 16S rRNA and amoA genes...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
Jessie N Green, Anna L P Chapman, Cynthia J Bishop, Christine C Winterbourn, Anthony J Kettle
The neutrophil enzyme, myeloperoxidase, by converting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride to hypochlorous acid (HOCl), provides important defense against ingested micro-organisms. However, there is debate about how efficiently HOCl is produced within the phagosome and whether its reactions with phagosomal constituents influence the killing mechanism. The phagosome is a small space surrounding the ingested organism, into which superoxide, H2O2 and high concentrations of proteins from cytoplasmic granules are released...
October 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ran Yu, Octavio Perez-Garcia, Huijie Lu, Kartik Chandran
In suboxic or anoxic environments, nitrous oxide (N2O) can be produced by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) as a potent greenhouse gas. Although N2O producing inventory and pathways have been well-characterized using archetypal AOB, there is little known about their adaptive responses to oxic-anoxic cycling, which is a prevalent condition in soil, sediment, and wastewater treatment bioreactors. In this study, cellular responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to sustained anoxic-oxic cycling in a chemostat bioreactor were evaluated at transcriptomic, proteomic, and fluxomic levels...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erming Ouyang, Yao Lu, Jiating Ouyang, Lele Wang, Xiaohui Wang
Gibberellin wastewater cannot be directly discharged without treatment due to its high concentrations of sulfate and organic compounds and strong acidity. Therefore, multi-stage anaerobic bioreactor + micro-aerobic+ anoxic/aeration (A/O) + biological contact oxidation combined processes are used to treat gibberellin wastewater. However, knowledge of the treatment effects of the A/O process and bacterial community structure in the aeration tank reactors of such systems is sparse. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the treatment effects and operation of the A/O process on gibberellin wastewater, as well as changes in the bacterial community structure of activated sludge in the aeration tank during treatment...
2017: PloS One
Kaitlyn D Sniffen, Jacob Ryan Price, Christopher M Sales, Mira Olson
Data collected from experiments conducted at a flask scale are regularly used as input data for life cycle assessments and techno-economic analyses for predicting the potential productivities of large scale commercial facilities. This study measures and compares nitrogen removal and biomass growth rates in treatment systems that utilize an algae-bacteria consortium to remediate landfill leachate at three scales: small (0.25L), mid (100L) and large (1000L). The mid- and large-scale vessels were run for 52 consecutive weeks as semi-batch reactors under variable environmental conditions...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Qin, Shady A Amin, Rachel A Lundeen, Katherine R Heal, Willm Martens-Habbena, Serdar Turkarslan, Hidetoshi Urakawa, Kyle C Costa, Erik L Hendrickson, Tony Wang, David Ac Beck, Sonia M Tiquia-Arashiro, Fred Taub, Andrew D Holmes, Neeraja Vajrala, Paul M Berube, Todd M Lowe, James W Moffett, Allan H Devol, Nitin S Baliga, Daniel J Arp, Luis A Sayavedra-Soto, Murray Hackett, E Virginia Armbrust, Anitra E Ingalls, David A Stahl
High representation by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in marine systems is consistent with their high affinity for ammonia, efficient carbon fixation, and copper (Cu)-centric respiratory system. However, little is known about their response to nutrient stress. We therefore used global transcriptional and proteomic analyses to characterize the response of a model AOA, Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, to ammonia starvation, Cu limitation and Cu excess. Most predicted protein-coding genes were transcribed in exponentially growing cells, and of ~74% detected in the proteome, ~6% were modified by N-terminal acetylation...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
Zhan Jin, Xinyu Xie, Jin Zhou, Ke Bei, Yejian Zhang, Xianfeng Huang, Min Zhao, Hainan Kong, Xiangyong Zheng
This study assesses the use of vertical greening for blackwater treatment. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and drip frequency on treatment performance were systematically studied. Additionally, microbial communities in the vertical greening system were characterized. The results show that the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and total phosphate (TP) increased with an increase in HRT, and the drip frequency had a significant effect on TP. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the diversity of the microbial community did not change significantly along vertical and horizontal directions, but the dominant species shifted...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mohamed Mahmoud, César Iván Torres, Bruce E Rittmann
When a mixed-culture microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is fed with a fermentable substrate, such as glucose, a significant fraction of the substrate's electrons ends up as methane (CH4) through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, an outcome that is undesired. Here, we show that free ammonia-nitrogen (FAN, which is NH3) altered the glucose fermentation pathways in batch MECs, minimizing the production of H2, the "fuel" for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Consequently, the Coulombic efficiency (CE) increased: 57% for 0...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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