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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441538/real-time-observation-of-cascaded-electronic-relaxation-processes-in-p-fluorotoluene
#1
Qiaoli Hao, Xulan Deng, Jinyou Long, Yanmei Wang, Bumaliya Abulimiti, Bing Zhang
Ultrafast electronic relaxation processes following two photoexcitation of 400nm in p-Fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated utilizing time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. Cascaded electronic relaxation processes started from the electronically excited S2 state are directly imaged in real time and well characterized by two distinct time constants of ~85±10fs and 2.4±0.3ps. The rapid component corresponds to the lifetime of the initially excited S2 state, including the structure relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to the conical intersection of S2/S1 and the subsequent internal conversion to the highly excited S1 state...
April 19, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441314/radiologic-parameters-can-affect-the-preoperative-decision-making-of-three-column-spinal-osteotomies-in-the-treatment-of-severe-and-stiff-kyhposcoliosis
#2
Hengwei Fan, Xueshi Li, Zifang Huang, Wenyuan Sui, Jingfan Yang, Yaolong Deng, Chongwen Wang, Chuandong Lang, Junlin Yang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate radiologic parameters affect spine surgeon's osteotomy choice on patients with severe and stiff thoracic kyphoscoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUD DATA: Three-column osteotomies were developed to address severe and stiff kyphoscolisis. Current choice on osteotomies based on the morphology of kyphosis, global balance and locations of the main curvature, however, quantitative basis for decision-making is still lacking...
April 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#3
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439791/task-irrelevant-distractors-in-the-delay-period-interfere-selectively-with-visual-short-term-memory-for-spatial-locations
#4
Francesco Marini, Jerry Scott, Adam R Aron, Edward F Ester
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439662/the-angular-gyrus-is-a-supramodal-comparator-area-in-action-outcome-monitoring
#5
Bianca M van Kemenade, B Ezgi Arikan, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
Predicting and processing the sensory consequences of one's own actions is essential to enable successful interactions with the environment. Previous studies have suggested that the angular gyrus detects discrepancies between predicted and actual action consequences, at least for unimodal feedback. However, most actions lead to multisensory consequences, raising the question whether previous models can sufficiently explain action-outcome processing. Here, we investigated neural comparator processes during detection of delays between action and unimodal or bimodal consequences in human subjects with fMRI, using parametric and connectivity analyses...
April 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439314/correction-of-lower-limb-deformities-in-children-with-renal-osteodystrophy-by-guided-growth-technique
#6
C Gigante, A Borgo, M Corradin
PURPOSE: Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) may cause severe lower limb deformities in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the temporary hemiepiphysiodesis for the correction of lower limb deformities in children with ROD. METHODS: Guided growth correction by hemiepiphysiodesis has been performed in skeletally immature patients with deformities of the lower limbs caused by ROD. The correction of the mechanical axes of the lower limbs and its correction speed have been evaluated...
2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439305/costal-cartilage-transplantation-for-treatment-of-growth-plate-injury-in-a-rabbit-model
#7
D Otsuki, K Yoshida, M Kobayashi, D Hamano, C Higuchi, H Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of allogenic costal cartilage transplantation on preventing bony bridge formation and angular deformities for the treatment of partial growth plate injury using a rabbit model. METHODS: An experimental model of partial growth injury was created by resecting the medial part of the proximal tibial growth plate in male six-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups: no surgery; no transplantation; bone wax transplantation; and allogenic costal cartilage transplantation...
2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438712/empirical-consideration-of-the-effects-of-acquisition-parameters-and-analysis-model-on-clinically-feasible-q-ball-imaging
#8
Kurt Schilling, Vishwesh Nath, Justin A Blaber, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Adam W Anderson, Bennett A Landman
Q-ball imaging (QBI) is a popular high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) technique used to study brain architecture in vivo. Simulation and phantom-based studies suggest that QBI results are affected by the b-value, the number of diffusion weighting directions, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, optimal acquisition schemes for QBI in clinical settings are largely undetermined given empirical (observed) imaging considerations. In this study, we acquire a HARDI dataset at five b-values with 11 repetitions on a single subject to investigate the effects of acquisition scheme and subsequent analysis models on the accuracy and precision of measures of tissue composition and fiber orientation derived from clinically feasible QBI at 3T...
April 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437997/effect-of-zno-nanostructures-on-the-optical-properties-of-white-light-emitting-diodes
#9
Longshi Rao, Yong Tang, ZongTao Li, Xinrui Ding, Jiasheng Li, Shudong Yu, Caiman Yan, Hangaung Lu
White light produced by blue LEDs with yellow phosphor is the most widely used methods, but it results in poor quality in angular CCT uniformity. In this work, a novel technique was introduced to solve this problem by integrating different ZnO nanostructures into white light-emitting diodes. The experiment of ZnO doped films and the simulation of Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) were carried out. The result indicated scattering effect of ZnO nanoparticles could improve uniformity of scattering energy effectively...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437980/angle-resolved-transmission-through-metal-hole-gratings
#10
F Mariani, F de León-Pérez, K J A Vendel, L Martín-Moreno, M P Van Exter
We present the first angle resolved measurements of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through hole array gratings in a gold film. Varying the lattice spacing of the arrays and looking at higher diffraction orders, we retrieve the angular emission pattern of the constituent holes with better signal to noise ratio than with single-hole experiments. We present a method to determine separately the angular dependence of the direct and resonant contribution to EOT by using the spectral features of the diffraction orders together with an established model...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437969/experimental-generation-of-complex-optical-fields-for-diffraction-limited-optical-focus-with-purely-transverse-spin-angular-momentum
#11
Jian Chen, Chenhao Wan, Lingjiang Kong, Qiwen Zhan
We demonstrate a method to generate complex optical fields at the pupil plane of a high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens for the creation of diffraction limited optical focus with purely transverse spin angular momentum. The complex optical fields are analytically deduced through reversing the radiated patterns from two electric dipoles, which are located at the focal point of the high NA lens and oscillate respectively in x- and z- directions with phase difference of π/2. The derived fields can be experimentally created with a vectorial optical field generator...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437945/experimental-demonstration-of-wideband-multimodule-serial-reflectors
#12
Yeong Hwan Ko, Kyu Jin Lee, Robert Magnusson
We demonstrate unpolarized wideband reflectors fashioned with orthogonal serial resonant reflectors. Unpolarized incident light generates internal TM- and TE-polarized reflections that are made to cooperate to extend the bandwidth of the composite spectral reflectance. The experimental results presented show ~42% band extension by a two-grating module. In addition, good angular tolerance is found because the orthogonal arrangement simultaneously supports classical and fully conic mountings at oblique angles...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437941/effect-of-scattering-on-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-cars-signals
#13
Janaka C Ranasinghesagara, Giuseppe De Vito, Vincenzo Piazza, Eric O Potma, Vasan Venugopalan
We develop a computational framework to examine the factors responsible for scattering-induced distortions of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in turbid samples. We apply the Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method combined with the radiating dipole approximation to compute the effects of scattering-induced distortions of focal excitation fields on the far-field CARS signal. We analyze the effect of spherical scatterers, placed in the vicinity of the focal volume, on the CARS signal emitted by different objects (2μm diameter solid sphere, 2μm diameter myelin cylinder and 2μm diameter myelin tube)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437917/vector-radiative-transfer-model-for-coupled-atmosphere-and-ocean-systems-including-inelastic-sources-in-ocean-waters
#14
Peng-Wang Zhai, Yongxiang Hu, David M Winker, Bryan A Franz, Jeremy Werdell, Emmanuel Boss
Inelastic scattering plays an important role in ocean optics. The main inelastic scattering mechanisms include Raman scattering, fluorescence by colored dissolved organic matter (FDOM), and fluorescence by chlorophyll. This paper reports an implementation of all three inelastic scattering mechanisms in the exact vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean Systems (CAOS). Simulation shows that FDOM contributes to the water radiation field in the broad visible spectral region, while chlorophyll fluorescence is limited in a narrow band centered at 685 nm...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437498/superior-mesenteric-artery-syndrome-as-a-complication-of-scoliosis-surgery
#15
Philip K Louie, Bryce A Basques, Adam Bitterman, Shalin Shah, Kishan Patel, Isaac Abramchayev, Jonathan Lewin
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of scoliosis surgery. The anatomical relationship of the duodenum and the superior mesenteric artery, the correction of angular deformity of the spine, and the normal adolescent growth spurt all contribute to the condition. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who had a history of idiopathic scoliosis and presented with bilious vomiting that had persisted for 7 days after posterior T9-L4 fusion with instrumentation...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437344/comparison-of-the-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-with-the-expandable-cage-versus-the-nonexpandable-cage-in-thoracolumbar-angular-kyphosis
#16
Jung-Hee Lee, Hyun-Seok Oh, Jeong-Gyu Choi
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the radiographic and clinical results of anterior support with nonexpandable cage with those of expandable cage. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The goals of surgical treatment in patients with thoracolumbar angular kyphosis are to improve the neurological deficit through neural decompression, to restore the normal alignment by correction of deformity, and to stabilize the spinal column by arthrodesis...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436033/assessing-impact-direction-in-3-point-bending-of-human-femora-incomplete-butterfly-fractures-and-fracture-surfaces
#17
Mariyam I Isa, Todd W Fenton, Trevor Deland, Roger C Haut
Current literature associates bending failure with butterfly fracture, in which fracture initiates transversely at the tensile surface of a bent bone and branches as it propagates toward the impact surface. The orientation of the resulting wedge fragment is often considered diagnostic of impact direction. However, experimental studies indicate bending does not always produce complete butterfly fractures or produces wedge fragments variably in tension or compression, precluding their use in interpreting directionality...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435961/single-photon-coulomb-explosion-of-methanol-using-broad-bandwidth-ultrafast-euv-pulses
#18
Itamar Luzon, Krishna Jagtap, Ester Livshits, Oleg Lioubashevski, Roi Baer, Daniel Strasser
Single-photon Coulomb explosion of methanol is instigated using the broad bandwidth pulse achieved through high-order harmonics generation. Using 3D coincidence fragment imaging of one molecule at a time, the kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions of the products are measured in different Coulomb explosion (CE) channels. Two-body CE channels breaking either the C-O or the C-H bonds are described as well as a proton migration channel forming H2O(+), which is shown to exhibit higher KER. The results are compared to intense-field Coulomb explosion measurements in the literature...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434432/pattern-center-and-distortion-determined-from-faint-diffuse-electron-diffraction-rings-from-amorphous-materials
#19
János L Lábár, Partha P Das
Diffuse rings from amorphous materials sit on a steep background resulting in a monotonically decreasing intensity over scattering vector length, frequently with no clear local maximum that could be used to determine the center of the ring. The novelty of the method reported here is that it successful processes such weak patterns. It is based on separating the angular dependence of the positions of the maxima on the azimuthal angle in the measured two-dimensional pattern for a manually preselected peak. Both pattern center and elliptical distortion are simultaneously refined from this angular dependence...
April 24, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433440/spatial-compounding-technique-to-obtain-rotation-elastogram-a-feasibility-study
#20
AliArshad Kothawala, Sowmiya Chandramoorthi, N Ravi Kiran Reddy, Arun Kumar Thittai
The perception of stiffness and slipperiness of a breast mass on palpation is used by physicians to assess the level of suspicion of a lesion as being malignant or benign. However, most current ultrasound elastography imaging methods provide only stiffness-related information. There is no existing approach that provides information about the local rigid body rotation undergone by only a loosely bonded, asymmetrically oriented lesion subjected to a small quasi-static compression. The inherent poor lateral resolution in ultrasound imaging poses a limitation in estimating the local rigid body rotation...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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