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Ye Zhang, Li Wang, Jun Yang, Rubing Yan, Jingna Zhang, Linqiong Sang, Pengyue Li, Hongliang Liu, Mingguo Qiu
The aim of this study isto identify the properties of the motor network and the default-mode network (DMN) of the sub-cortical chronic stroke patients, and to study the relationship between the network connectivity and the neurological scales of the stroke patients.Twenty-eight chronic stroke patients (28-77 days post-stroke) and twenty-eight healthy control subjects (HCs) were recruited. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to obtain the motor network and the DMN. Two sample t-tests was used to compare the differences of the motor network and the DMN between the patients and HCs...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
I A Nedospasov, V G Mozhaev, I E Kuznetsova
It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case...
February 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
Lilian Mendes Andrade, Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva, Laís Valencise Magri, Marco Antônio Moreira Rodrigues da Silva
The aim of this study was to analyze the repeatability in a stereophotogrammetry digital system used for the evaluation of facial morphology. Thirty healthy Brazilian, 18 to 45 years old (26.71 ± 6.53), had 11 reference landmarks marked on their faces by the same examiner and were photographed with an interval of 1 week by the VECTRA M3. Nine angular measurements (nasolabial, mentolabial, nasofrontal, maxillofacial, nasal, maxillary, mandibular, facial convexity, full facial convexity) and 2 linear measurements (middle facial height and lower facial height) were taken...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Zhaolin Xiao, Qing Wang, Guoqing Zhou, Jingyi Yu
When using plenoptic camera for digital refocusing, angular undersampling can cause severe (angular) aliasing artifacts. Previous approaches have focused on avoiding aliasing by pre-processing the acquired light field via prefiltering, demosaicing, reparameterization, etc. In this paper, we present a different solution that first detects and then removes angular aliasing at the light field refocusing stage. Different from previous frequency domain aliasing analysis, we carry out a spatial domain analysis to reveal whether the angular aliasing would occur and uncover where in the image it would occur...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Richard Roy, Alaina Green, Ryan Bowler, Subhadeep Gupta
We report on the production of a stable mixture of bosonic and fermionic superfluids composed of the elements ^{174}Yb and ^{6}Li which feature a strong mismatch in mass and distinct electronic properties. We demonstrate elastic coupling between the superfluids by observing the shift in dipole oscillation frequency of the bosonic component due to the presence of the fermions. The measured magnitude of the shift is consistent with a mean-field model and its direction determines the previously unknown sign of the interspecies scattering length to be positive...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ian Cunnyngham, Marcelo Emilio, Jeff Kuhn, Isabelle Scholl, Rock Bush
The Sun's internal rotation Ω(r,Θ) has previously been measured using helioseismology techniques and found to be a complex function of colatitude θ and radius r. From helioseismology and observations of apparently "rooted" solar magnetic tracers, we know that the surface rotates more slowly than much of the interior. The cause of this slow-down is not understood, but it is important for understanding stellar rotation generally and any plausible theory of the solar interior. A new analysis using 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation "tracer" finds an even larger velocity gradient in a thin region at the top of the photosphere...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Johannes Kimling, Gyung-Min Choi, Jack T Brangham, Tristan Matalla-Wagner, Torsten Huebner, Timo Kuschel, Fengyuan Yang, David G Cahill
We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 10^{8}  A m^{-2} K^{-1}...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Katerina Chatziioannou, Antoine Klein, Neil Cornish, Nicolás Yunes
Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G Raj, S Hüller
The role of laser speckle structure (hot spots) and its ponderomotive self-focusing (PSF), in crossed beam energy transfer (CBET), of smoothed laser beams is investigated in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma. Numerical simulations using the code harmony in two spatial dimensions, demonstrate how self-focusing of laser hot spots in crossed beams can significantly affect the transfer of energy from one beam to the other in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process. It is shown that for sufficiently intense laser beams, when the laser hot spots exceed the criterion for self-focusing in a plasma with flow, the angular spread of transmitted light beams increases considerably with the intensity, which arises in particular, in expanding plasma where significant beam deflection is observed...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Mohammad Karimi, Laiq Hussain, Mahtab Aghaeipour, Ali Nowzari, Alexander Berg, Gustav Nylund, Federico Capasso, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Nanowire array ensembles contacted in a vertical geometry are extensively studied and considered strong candidates for next generations of industrial scale optoelectronics. Key challenges in this development deal with optimization of the doping profile of the nanowires and the interface between nanowires and transparent top contact. Here we report on photodetection characteristics associated with doping profile variations in InP nanowire array photodetectors. Bias-dependent tuning of the spectral shape of the responsivity is observed which is attributed to a Schottky-like contact at the nanowire-ITO interface...
March 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Jiamei Quan, Takahiro Kondo, Guichang Wang, Junji Nakamura
Energy transfer dynamics of formate (HCOOa ) decomposition on a Cu(110) surface has been studied by measuring the angle-resolved intensity and translational energy distributions of CO2 emitted from the surface in a steady-state reaction of HCOOH and O2 . The angular distribution of CO2 shows a sharp collimation with the direction perpendicular to the surface, as represented by cos(n) θ (n=6). The mean translational energy of CO2 is measured to be as low as 100 meV and is independent of the surface temperature (Ts )...
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Katsuya Miura, Shin Yabuuchi, Masaki Yamada, Masahiko Ichimura, Bivas Rana, Susumu Ogawa, Hiromasa Takahashi, Yasuhiro Fukuma, Yoshichika Otani
Recent progress in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a perpendicular easy axis consisting of CoFeB and MgO stacking structures has shown that magnetization dynamics are induced due to voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA), which will potentially lead to future low-power-consumption information technology. For manipulating magnetizations in MTJs by applying voltage, it is necessary to understand the coupled magnetization motion of two magnetic (recording and reference) layers. In this report, we focus on the magnetization motion of two magnetic layers in MTJs consisting of top layers with an in-plane easy axis and bottom layers with a perpendicular easy axis, both having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xingui Chen, Xiaoxuan He, Longxiang Tao, Huaidong Cheng, Jingjing Li, Jingjie Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Yongqiang Yu, Kai Wang
To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Xin-Guang Yu
Temporal lobe epilepsy often propagates inter-hemispherically. Although the pathway of the propagation was verified by electrophysiology, the trajectory remains poorly defined. DTI can depict fiber trajectory but it has limited angular resolution and cannot adequately assess cortical regions. We visualized potential pathways of bitemporal epilepsy propagation using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) with data consisting of 8 groups of 514 directions and diffusion templates of 842 subjects from the human connectome project (HCP)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Tomohiro Yanao, Taiko Hino
This study explores the significance of geometric angle shifts, which we call geometric somersaults, arising from cyclic twisting motions of a polymer chain. A five-bead polymer chain serves as a concise and minimal model of a molecular shaft throughout this study. We first show that this polymer chain can change its orientation about its longitudinal axis largely, e.g., 120^{∘}, under conditions of zero total angular momentum by changing the two dihedral angles in a cyclic manner. This phenomenon is an example of the so-called "falling cat" phenomenon, where a falling cat undergoes a geometric somersault by changing its body shape under conditions of zero total angular momentum...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
M V Rasna, U V Ramudu, R Chandrasekar, Surajit Dhara
Dynamics of microparticles in isotropic liquids by transducing the energy of an applied electric field have been studied for decades. Recently, such studies in anisotropic media like liquid crystals have opened up new perspectives in colloid science. Here, we report studies on ac-electric-field-driven dynamics of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals. In planar aligned liquid crystals, with negative dielectric anisotropy, the microsheets are propelled parallel to the director. A steady spinning of the microsheets is observed in homeotropic cells with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
P Sandin, M Ögren, M Gulliksson, J Smyrnakis, M Magiropoulos, G M Kavoulakis
Motivated by numerous experiments on Bose-Einstein condensed atoms which have been performed in tight trapping potentials of various geometries [elongated and/or toroidal (annular)], we develop a general method which allows us to reduce the corresponding three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter into an effectively one-dimensional equation, taking into account the interactions (i.e., treating the width of the transverse profile variationally) and the curvature of the trapping potential...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Fuyong Yue, Dandan Wen, Chunmei Zhang, Brian D Gerardot, Wei Wang, Shuang Zhang, Xianzhong Chen
This schematic shows a facile metasurface approach to realize polarization-controllable multichannel superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states with various topological charges. By manipulating the polarization state of the incident light, four kinds of superpositions of OAM states are realized using a single metasurface consisting of space-variant arrays of gold nanoantennas.
February 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hongkai Yang, Kejun Kang, Yuxiang Xing
PURPOSE: The positioning accuracy of each component is important to ensure the image quality of cone-beam CT. However, accurate positioning is not easy and requires experience and time. The option is to calibrate the geometric parameters and then plug them into a reconstruction algorithm which is the preferred solution in practice. In this case, the image quality is determined by the accuracy and precision of the calibration method. This work describes a method to independently calibrate an imaging system in each pose (projection angle) for a cone-beam CT with a non-ideal-circular trajectory...
February 16, 2017: Medical Physics
Dominik L Feinendegen, Martin F Langer, J Camilo Roldán
BACKGROUND: The ala of the nose is vascularized by a dense net of perforators originating from the lateral nasal artery or the angular artery. These vessels reach the ala in a cascade fashion from the alar groove/lateral nasal wall. Based on these vessels, a V/Y flap can be dissected with a wide range of mobility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients underwent reconstruction of the nose by means of a V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap from the lateral nasal wall and/or from the nasal dorsum for reconstruction of defects at the nasal tip, ala of the nose, and/or lateral nasal wall...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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