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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109168/integrated-omics-analysis-of-specialized-metabolism-in-medicinal-plants
#1
Amit Rai, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Medicinal plants are the rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their approach to explore biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. Recent advancements in the high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. Reduced cost to generate omics datasets, and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several plant origin bio-active metabolites...
January 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109166/a-novel-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-dacra-kbp-089-induces-weight-loss-through-a-reduction-in-fat-but-not-lean-mass-while-improving-food-preference
#2
Sofie Gydesen, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Zenia Freving, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Nina Sonne, Lars I Hellgren, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges - hence, development of weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities is key. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on bodyweight, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue, food preference was investigated...
January 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109129/vsl-3-probiotic-differently-influence-iec-6-intestinal-epithelial-cell-status-and-function
#3
REVIEW
Benedetta Cinque, Cristina La Torre, Francesca Lombardi, Paola Palumbo, Zoran Evtoski, Silvano Jr Santini, Stefano Falone, Annamaria Cimini, Fernanda Amicarelli, Maria Grazia Cifone
The data here reported introduce the wound-healing assay as a tool for testing probiotics aimed at protecting gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces and to verify the consistency of their manufacturing. At the scope, we compared the in vitro effects of two multi-strain high concentration formulations both commercialized under the same brand VSL#3 but sourced from different production sites (USA and Italy) on a non-transformed small-intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-6. The effects on cellular morphology, viability, migration, and H2 O2 -induced damage, were assessed before and after the treatment with both VSL#3 formulations...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#4
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108966/breast-reconstruction-and-postmastectomy-radiotherapy-complications-by-type-and-timing-and-other-problems-in-radiation-oncology
#5
Kenji Sekiguchi, Jiro Kawamori, Hideko Yamauchi
Breast reconstruction (BR) represents a suitable option for women who are not expected to require postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). As recent evidence has led to an extension of the indications for PMRT, this has also appeared to increase the incidence of reconstructive complications. Nevertheless, in the USA at least, trends towards BR are changing. The frequency of immediate reconstruction continues to increase, even in the setting of PMRT. In immediate implant-based reconstruction, a staged approach is preferred...
January 20, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108961/effects-of-negatively-and-positively-charged-ti-metal-surfaces-on-ceramic-coating-adhesion-and-cell-response
#6
Rodney Marcelo do Nascimento, Vanessa Rafaela de Carvalho, José Silvio Govone, Antônio Carlos Hernandes, Nilson Cristino da Cruz
This manuscript reports an evaluation of the effects of simple chemical-heat treatments on the deposition of different ceramic coatings, i.e., TiO2, CaTiO3 and CaP, on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and Ti6Al4V and the influence of the coatings on cells interaction with the surfaces. The ceramic materials were prepared by the sol-gel method and the coating adhesion was analyzed by pull-off bending tests. The wettability of positively or negatively charged surfaces was characterized by contact angle measurements, which also enabled the calculation of the surface free energy through the polar-apolar liquids approach...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108847/airway-mucus-inflammation-and-remodeling-emerging-links-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Julia Duerr, Matthias Hagner, Raman Agrawal, Marcus A Mall
Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108835/integrating-family-as-a-discipline-by-providing-parent-led-curricula-impact-on-lend-trainees-leadership-competency
#8
Bruce L Keisling, Elizabeth A Bishop, Jenness M Roth
Background While the MCH Leadership Competencies and family as a discipline have been required elements of Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and related Disabilities (LEND) programs for over a decade, little research has been published on the efficacy of either programmatic component in the development of the next generation of leaders who can advocate and care for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) populations. Objective To test the effectiveness of integrating the family discipline through implementation of parent led curricula on trainees' content knowledge, skills, and leadership development in family-centered care, according to the MCH Leadership Competencies...
January 20, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108812/fackel-interacts-with-gibberellic-acid-signaling-and-vernalization-to-mediate-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#9
Bingyao Huang, Pingping Qian, Na Gao, Jie Shen, Suiwen Hou
Fackel (FK) is involved in the flowering of Arabidopsis mainly via the gibberellin pathway and vernalization pathway. This new function of FK is partially dependent on the FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ). A common transitional process from vegetative stage to reproductive stage exists in higher plants during their life cycle. The initiation of flower bud differentiation, which plays a key role in the reproductive phase, is affected by both external environmental and internal regulatory factors. In this study, we showed that the Arabidopsis weak mutant allele fk-J3158, impaired in the FACKEL (FK) gene, which encodes a C-14 reductase involved in sterol biosynthesis, had a long life cycle and delayed flowering time in different photoperiods...
January 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108742/altered-brain-structural-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-children-revealed-by-cortical-thickness
#10
Tian Liu, Yanni Chen, Chenxi Li, Youjun Li, Jue Wang
This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108681/re-emergence-of-methicillin-susceptibility-in-a-resistant-lineage-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Alice Ledda, James R Price, Kevin Cole, Martin J Llewelyn, Angela M Kearns, Derrick W Crook, John Paul, Xavier Didelot
OBJECTIVES: MRSA is a leading cause of hospital-associated infection. Acquired resistance is encoded by the mecA gene or its homologue mecC, but little is known about the evolutionary dynamics involved in gain and loss of resistance. The objective of this study was to obtain an expanded understanding of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance microevolution in vivo, by focusing on a single lineage. METHODS: We compared the whole-genome sequences of 231 isolates from a single epidemic lineage [clonal complex 30 (CC30) and spa-type t018] of S...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108568/the-role-of-day-one-postoperative-review-of-intraocular-pressure-in-modern-vitrectomy-surgery
#12
Nicholas Brennan, Ian Reekie, Eric Ezra, Keith Barton, Ananth Viswanathan, Mahiul Mk Muqit
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of sutureless 23-gauge (23G) vitrectomy, the risks for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and the need for day 1 review of IOP are less certain. AIMS: To assess current practice for postoperative review in the vitreoretinal service at a large tertiary referral centre; to assess whether day 1 review detected complications altering patient management; to identify risk factors for IOP spikes postvitrectomy. METHODS: Retrospective, consecutive case note review of all patients undergoing 23G vitrectomy at the study institution between April and June 2013...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108555/immune-dysregulation-may-contribute-to-disease-pathogenesis-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mice
#13
Marc-Olivier Deguise, Yves De Repentigny, Emily McFall, Nicole Auclair, Subash Sad, Rashmi Kothary
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has long been solely considered a neurodegenerative disorder. However, recent work has highlighted defects in many other cell types that could contribute to disease aetiology. Interestingly, the immune system has never been extensively studied in SMA. Defects in lymphoid organs could exacerbate disease progression by neuroinflammation or immunodeficiency. Smn depletion led to severe alterations in the thymus and spleen of two different mouse models of SMA. The spleen from Smn depleted mice was dramatically smaller at a very young age and its histological architecture was marked by mislocalization of immune cells in the Smn(2B/-) model mice...
January 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108548/the-effect-of-left-ventricular-pacing-on-transmural-activation-delay-in-myopathic-human-hearts
#14
Andreu Porta-Sánchez, Paul Angaran, Stéphane Massé, Krishnakumar Nair, Talha Farid, Karthikeyan Umapathy, John Asta, Sigfus Gizurarson, Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar
AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing (LVEpiP) in human myopathic hearts does not decrease global epicardial activation delay compared with right ventricular (RV) endocardial pacing (RVEndoP); however, the effect on transmural activation delay has not been evaluated. To characterize the transmural electrical activation delay in human myopathic hearts during RVEndoP and LVEpiP compared with global epicardial activation delay. METHODS AND RESULTS: Explanted hearts from seven patients (5 male, 46 ± 10 years) undergoing cardiac transplantation were Langendorff-perfused and mapped using an epicardial sock electrode array (112 electrodes) and 25 transmural plunge needles (four electrodes, 2 mm spacing), for a total of 100 unipolar transmural electrodes...
January 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108516/fibrinolytic-enzyme-co-therapy-improves-tumor-perfusion-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-anticancer-nanomedicine
#15
Ameya R Kirtane, Tanmoy Sadhukha, Hyunjoon Kim, Vidhi Khanna, Brenda Koniar, Jayanth Panyam
Elevated interstitial fluid pressure and solid stress within tumors contribute to poor intratumoral distribution of nanomedicine. In this study, we hypothesized that the presence of fibrin in tumor extracellular matrix contributes to hindered intratumoral distribution of nanocarriers and that this can be overcome through the use of a fibrinolytic enzyme such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Analysis of fibrin expression in human tumor biopsies showed significant fibrin staining in nearly all tumor types evaluated...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108300/transforming-growth-factor-beta-inducible-early-gene-1-tieg1-represses-smad7-mediated-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-in-keloid-pathogenesis
#16
Zhi-Cheng Hu, Fen Shi, Peng Liu, Jian Zhang, Dong Guo, Xiao-Ling Cao, Chu-Fen Chen, Shanqiang Qu, Jia-Yuan Zhu, Bing Tang
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays a key role in excessive fibrosis and keloid formations. Smad7 is a negative feedback regulator that prevents activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism for Smad7 in the keloid pathogenic process remains elusive. Here, we show that expression of TGF-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) is markedly higher in keloid fibroblasts (KFs), while protein, mRNA, and promoter activity levels of Smad7 are decreased. When TIEG1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), both the promoter activity and protein expression of Smad7 were increased, while collagen production and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of KFs were decreased...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108292/reversal-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-improves-glucose-tolerance-inflammatory-response-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-app-psen1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
J M Walker, S Dixit, A C Saulsberry, J M May, F E Harrison
This study assessed the extent to which high fat diet (HFD)-induced β-amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline in APP/PSEN1 mice are reversible through control of fat intake. Ten months of HFD (60% calories from fat) led to significant deficits in a 2-trial Y maze task, and nest building assay, and decreased voluntary locomotor activity. The HFD induced an inflammatory response, indicated by increased expression of several inflammatory markers. Substituting a low fat diet led to pronounced weight loss and correction of glucose intolerance, decreases in the inflammatory response, and improved performance on behavioral tasks in both wild-type and APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108278/comparison-of-the-redox-chemistry-of-sulfur-and-selenium-containing-analogs-of-uracil
#18
N Connor Payne, Andrew Geissler, Aileen Button, Alexandru R Sasuclark, Alayne L Schroll, Erik L Ruggles, Vadim N Gladyshev, Robert J Hondal
Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNA(Glu), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Lys). It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108238/effect-of-an-evidence-based-guideline-on-the-treatment-of-maxillofacial-cancer-a-prospective-analysis
#19
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Julia Ferencz, Thomas Langer, Marco Kesting, Markus Nieberler, Simone Wesselmann
BACKGROUND: In 2012, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cavity cancer based on the best available evidence was implemented at certified German cancer centres for head and neck carcinomas. The present analysis was performed to determine whether the implementation of the guideline via certification improved the level of care, leading to a benefit for the patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed based on the annual operating figures at 31 certified head and neck cancer centres...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108237/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-based-composite-materials-for-reconstruction-of-critical-sized-cranial-bone-defects-in-sheep
#20
Ni Zeng, Anne C van Leeuwen, Dirk W Grijpma, Ruud R M Bos, Roel Kuijer
PURPOSE: The use of ceramic materials in repair of bone defects is limited to non-load-bearing sites. We tested poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) combined with β-tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphate particles for reconstruction of cranial defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PTMC-calcium phosphate composite matrices were implanted in cranial defects in sheep for 3 and 9 months. Micro-computed tomography quantification and histological observation were performed for analysis...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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