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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684932/-antibiotic-use-and-reduction-in-veterinary-medicine
#1
Thomas Blaha
After a short history of the development of antimicrobial substances and the initially underestimated resistance problem, the paper describes the method of monitoring the use of antibiotics in food animals at farm level. The resulting benchmarking led to a remarkable reduction of the amount of antibiotics used in animals. However, it is also explained that, apart from reducing the use of antibiotics, the rules for "prudent use" of antibiotics have to be complied with. Concluding, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of the current interpretation of the "critically important antimicrobials for human medicine is discussed...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684824/a-review-of-human-biomonitoring-in-selected-southeast-asian-countries
#2
REVIEW
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Marta Esteban López, Naveen Puttaswamy, Tamar Berman
Rapid development and industrialization in Southeast (SE) Asia has led to environmental pollution, potentially exposing the general population to environmental contaminants. Human biomonitoring (HBM), measurement of chemical and/or their metabolites in human tissues and fluids, is an important tool for assessing cumulative exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and for monitoring chemical exposures in the general population. While there are national HBM programs in several developed countries, there are no such national programs in most of the SE Asian countries...
April 20, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684798/clinging-to-closeness-the-parental-view-on-developing-a-close-bond-with-their-infants-in-a-nicu
#3
Heli Mäkelä, Anna Axelin, Nancy Feeley, Hannakaisa Niela-Vilén
OBJECTIVE: To identify and understand how parents develop a close bond to their infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study; closeness and separation stories recorded in a smartphone application by the parents were analyzed using thematic analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three parents of nineteen infants who were taken care of in a level III NICU in Finland. FINDINGS: Bonding moments and a disrupted dyadic parent-infant relationship continuously alternated as in a rollercoaster ride during the hospital stay...
April 11, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684719/interhelical-interactions-between-d92-and-c218-in-the-cytoplasmic-domain-regulate-proton-uptake-upon-n-decay-in-the-proton-transport-of-acetabularia-rhodopsin-ii
#4
Jun Tamogami, Takashi Kikukawa, Keisuke Ohkawa, Noboru Ohsawa, Toshifumi Nara, Makoto Demura, Seiji Miyauchi, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Mikako Shirouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Kazumi Shimono, Naoki Kamo
Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII or Ace2), an outward light-driven algal proton pump found in the giant unicellular marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum, has a unique property in the cytoplasmic (CP) side of its channel. The X-ray crystal structure of ARII in a dark state suggested the formation of an interhelical hydrogen bond between C218ARII and D92ARII , an internal proton donor to the Schiff base (Wada et al., 2011). In this report, we investigated the photocycles of two mutants at position C218ARII : C218AARII which disrupts the interaction with D92ARII , and C218SARII which potentially forms a stronger hydrogen bond...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684708/structural-based-design-synthesis-and-antitumor-activity-of-novel-alloxazine-analogues-with-potential-selective-kinase-inhibition
#5
Waleed H Malki, Ahmed M Gouda, Hamdy E A Ali, Rabaa Al-Rousan, Doaa Samaha, Ashraf N Abdalla, Juan Bustamante, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Hamed I Ali
Protein kinases are promising therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. Here, we applied multiple approaches to optimize the potency and selectivity of our reported alloxazine scaffold. Flexible moieties at position 2 of the hetero-tricyclic system were incorporated to fit into the ATP binding site and extend to the adjacent allosteric site and selectively inhibit protein kinases. This design led to potential selective inhibition of ABL1, CDK1/Cyclin A1, FAK, and SRC kinase by 30-59%. Cytotoxicity was improved by ∼50 times for the optimized lead (10b; IC50  = 40 nM) against breast cancer (MCF-7) cells...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684699/support-media-can-steer-methanogenesis-in-the-presence-of-phenol-through-biotic-and-abiotic-effects
#6
Simon Poirier, Sébastien Déjean, Olivier Chapleur
A wide variety of inhibitors can induce anaerobic digester disruption. To avoid performance losses, support media can be used to mitigate inhibitions. However, distinguishing the physico-chemical from the biological mechanisms of such strategies remains delicate. In this framework, the impact of 10  g/L of different types of zeolites and activated carbons (AC) on microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of biowaste in the presence of 1.3 g/L of phenol was evaluated with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing...
April 13, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684697/new-arene-ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-4%C3%A2-aryl%C3%A2-4h%C3%A2-naphthopyrans-with-anticancer-and-anti-vascular-activities
#7
Florian Schmitt, Jana Kasparkova, Viktor Brabec, Gerrit Begemann, Rainer Schobert, Bernhard Biersack
A series of four 2‑amino‑3‑cyano‑4‑(3/4‑pyridyl)‑4H‑benzo[h]chromenes 2a-d and their dichlorido(p‑cymene)ruthenium(II) complexes 3a-d were tested for antiproliferative, vascular-disruptive, anti-angiogenic and DNA-binding activity. The coordination of the 4‑pyridyl‑4H‑naphthopyrans 2 to ruthenium led to complexes with pleiotropic effects. Unlike the free ligands 2a-d, their ruthenium complexes 3a-d showed a significant affinity for DNA as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and ethidium bromide assays...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684695/effective-seeding-strategy-using-flat-type-poly-vinyl-alcohol-cryogel-for-anammox-enrichment
#8
Minkyu Choi, Kyungjin Cho, Seockheon Lee, Yun-Chul Chung, Joonhong Park, Hyokwan Bae
In this study, anammox enrichment reactors were operated using flat type poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (cryoPVAG) with precultured anammox bacteria (PAB) and activated sludge (AS) from an anoxic tack of the A2O process to evaluate the effect of different seeding sources on anammox enrichment. In addition, cryoPVAGs with different thicknesses (1, 2, and 3 mm) were used to investigate the effects of the thickness on anammox enrichment. The regression analysis with a modified Gompertz model showed that the start-up period of the anammox enrichment using PAB inoculum was approximately 14 days earlier than that of AS inoculum at a nitrogen loading rate of approximately 1 kg-N m-3 day-1 ...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684666/systematic-review-of-preservation-solutions-for-allografts-for-liver-transplantation-based-on-a-network-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Fengying Rao, Jian Yang, Cheng Gong, Rong Huang, Qi Wang, Jun Shen
AIMS: The aim of this work was to determine the best preservation solutions for allografts for liver transplantation by quantitative network meta-analysis. METHODS: Global electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Seven pieces of parametric data were extracted from included studies for pooled estimation. A consistency model was used for direct and indirect comparisons. The cumulative probability P value was utilized to rank the solutions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684543/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-carriage-and-association-of-its-pathogenicity-to-prevalent-toxic-genes
#10
Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
BACKGROUND: There are reports of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains from asymptomatic carriers are increasing source of transmission. Asymptomatic carriage transmission in the hospital or community settings might have changed over the years. Therefore, we initiated a prospective epidemiological study to define the risk factors and pathogenicity of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage. METHODS: Stools sample from 188 subjects with diarrhoea due to C. difficile toxin and colonization without diarrhoea was subjected to routine microbial culture, molecular characterization for identification of toxin genes and mechanisms of resistance in C...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684509/detection-of-lindane-and-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-toxicity-at-low-concentrations-in-a-three-dimensional-ovarian-follicle-culture-system
#11
Hong Zhou, Cara J Young, Rita Loch-Caruso, Ariella Shikanov
Exposure to environmental toxicants that target ovarian follicles can have long-lasting effects on women's reproductive health and health of the offspring. Experiments in rodents have contributed knowledge about the effects of individual toxicants on ovarian follicles. However, little is known about the effects of mixtures of toxicants on ovarian follicular health. We studied the combined effects of low, physiologically- and environmentally-relevant concentrations of toxicants on murine secondary ovarian follicles cultured in an encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) system...
April 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684405/moderate-perinatal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-alters-visual-system-function-in-adult-rats
#12
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684402/on-the-genesis-of-spatial-numerical-associations-evolutionary-and-cultural-factors-co-construct-the-mental-number-line
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth Y Toomarian, Edward M Hubbard
Mapping numbers onto space is a common cognitive representation that has been explored in both behavioral and neuroimaging contexts. Empirical work probing the diverse nature of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) has led researchers to question 1) how the human brain links numbers with space, and 2) whether this link is biologically vs. culturally determined. We review the existing literature on the development of SNAs and situate that empirical work within cognitive and neuroscientific theoretical frameworks...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684377/biphasic-modulation-of-camp-levels-by-the-contraceptive-nomegestrol-acetate-impact-on-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-activity-in-hepatic-cells
#14
Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Camila Juliana Domínguez, Felipe Zecchinati, Maite Rocío Arana, María Laura Ruiz, Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva, Johanna Weiss, Aldo Domingo Mottino, Juan Pablo Rigalli
ABC transporters are key players in drug excretion with alterations in their expression and activity by therapeutic agents potentially leading to drug-drug interactions. The interaction potential of nomegestrol acetate (NMGA), a synthetic progestogen increasingly used as oral contraceptive, had never been explored. In this work we evaluated (1) the effect of NMGA on ABC transporters in the human hepatic cell line HepG2 and (2) the underlying molecular mechanism. NMGA (5, 50 and 500 nM) increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression at both protein and mRNA levels and reduced intracellular calcein accumulation, indicating an increase also in transporter activity...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684360/interleukin-6-drives-neutrophil-mediated-pulmonary-inflammation-associated-with-bacteraemia-in-murine-models-of-colitis
#15
Sean W Mateer, Andrea Mathe, Jessica Bruce, Gang Liu, Steven Maltby, Michael Fricker, Bridie J Goggins, Hock L Tay, Ellen Marks, Grace Burns, Richard Y Kim, Kyra Minahan, Marjorie M Walker, Robert C Callister, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro, Simon Keely
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a number of immune-mediated extra-intestinal manifestations. Over half of all IBD patients have some form of respiratory pathology, most commonly neutrophil-mediated diseases such as bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis. Using murine models of colitis, we aimed to identify the immune mechanisms driving pulmonary manifestations of IBD. We found increased neutrophil numbers in lung tissue associated with the pulmonary vasculature in both trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- and dextran sulfate sodium-induced models of colitis...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684347/developmental-endothelial-locus-1-prevents-development-of-peritoneal-adhesions-in-mice
#16
Yan Fu, Jiaywei Tsauo, Yucheng Sun, Zhe Wang, Kun Yung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Dong-Young Kim, Feifeng Jing, Dahae Lim, Ho-Young Song, Hoon Hyun, Eun Young Choi
Postoperative peritoneal adhesions, fibrous bands formed in the peritoneal cavity following surgery, represent a common, challenging and costly problem faced by surgeons and patients, for which effective therapeutic options are lacking. Since aberrant inflammation is one of the key mechanisms underlying peritoneal adhesion formation, here we set out to study the role of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), which has been recently identified as an endogenous inhibitor of inflammation, in the formation of postoperative peritoneal adhesions using a mouse model of peritoneal adhesions induced by ischemic buttons...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684234/systemic-treatment-options-for-brain-metastases-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Ajaz Bulbul, Patrick M Forde, Ayesha Murtuza, Brian Woodward, Hannah Yang, Ingmar Bastian, Parissa K Ferguson, Fernando Lopez-Diaz, David S Ettinger, Hatim Husain
Brain metastases are common in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because of associated poor prognosis and limited specific treatment options, there is a real need for the development of medical therapies and strategies for affected patients. Novel compounds for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent and anaplastic lymphoma kinase-dependent lung cancer have demonstrated blood-brain barrier permeability and have led to important improvements in central nervous system outcomes. Studies of targeted therapies for oncogene-driven tumors and of immunotherapies in patients with brain metastases have shown promise and, allied with novel radiation techniques, are driving a rapid evolution in treatment and prognosis for NSCLC brain metastases...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684183/neutral-theory-microbial-practice-challenges-in-bacterial-population-genetics
#18
Eduardo P C Rocha
Kimura's outstanding contributions to population genetics included many elegant theoretical results on the vagaries of alleles in populations. Once polymorphism data showed extensive variation in natural populations, these results led naturally to the Neutral Theory. In this article, I'll depart from some of these results to focus on four major open problems in microbial population genetics with direct implications to the study of molecular evolution: the lack of neutral polymorphism, the modeling of genetic exchanges, the population genetics of ill-defined populations, and the difficulty of untangling selection and demography in the light of the previous issues...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684172/emergency-department-visits-during-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Nabin K Shrestha, So Lim Kim, Susan J Rehm, Angela Everett, Steven M Gordon
Objectives: Patients receiving outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) may require emergency department (ED) visits to manage complications. This study's purpose was to identify risk factors for ED visits during OPAT and risk factors for hospitalization among patients with ED visits. Methods: All OPAT courses initiated between 1 January 2013 and 1 January 2017 at Cleveland Clinic were identified. The first OPAT course per patient was included. For these, ED visits within 30 days were identified...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684167/reproduction-in-domestic-ruminants-during-the-past-50-years-discovery-to-application
#20
Michael F Smith, Rodney D Geisert, John J Parrish
The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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