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Adrenal exhaustion

Kristina V Tugaeva, Yaroslav V Faletrov, Elvin S Allakhverdiev, Vladimir M Shkumatov, Eugene G Maksimov, Nikolai N Sluchanko
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR, STARD1) is a key factor of intracellular cholesterol transfer to mitochondria, necessary for adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, and is an archetypal member of the START protein family. Despite the common overall structural fold, START members differ in their binding selectivity toward various lipid ligands, but the lack of direct structural information hinders complete understanding of the binding process and cholesterol orientation in the STARD1 complex in particular...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J Strahler, S Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Vital exhaustion (VE) is characterised by unusual fatigue, increased irritability, and a feeling of demoralisation. It has been found a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and one that is independent of subclinical or clinical manifestations of coronary heart disease or lifestyle-related risk factors. Stress-induced alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system may mediate the link between VE and increased cardiovascular risk...
December 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Julien De Wolf, Jocelyn Bellier, Francoise Lepimpec-Barthes, Francois Tronc, Christophe Peillon, Alain Bernard, Jean-Philippe Le Rochais, Olivier Tiffet, Edouard Sage, Alain Chapelier, Henri Porte
OBJECTIVES: Adrenal oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer is rare, and surgical management remains controversial. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, retrospective study from January 2004 to December 2014. The main objective was to evaluate survival in patients who had undergone adrenalectomy after resection of primary lung cancer. Secondary objectives were to determine prognostic, survival and recurrence factors. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Andreas Walther, Patricia Waldvogel, Emilou Noser, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert
Although aging increases the risk of cognitive and socioemotional deterioration, it has also been shown to be accompanied by an increase in experienced positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions. Steroid hormones and age-related alterations in secretion patterns have been suggested to play a crucial role in these age-related changes in emotional experience. Importantly, previous studies identified effects of neuroactive hormones on age-related alterations in emotional experience, which vary by sex and depression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Myriam V Thoma, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Alexander Fiksdal, Xuejie Chen, Nicolas Rohleder
Effective adjustment of the stress systems to repeated stress is regarded as an adaptive response of the organism facing environmental threats. Given the intertwined relationship between the stress systems and the inflammatory system, it could be expected that inflammatory processes should adapt to repeated stress as well. However, only little is known about adaptational processes of the different components of the immune system in response to repeated stress, and how these might be related to adaptational processes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Nikos Seferos, Loukas Petrokokkinos, Antonia Kotsiou, George Rallis, Christine Tesseromatis
UNLABELLED: Stress, via corticosteroids release, influences bone mass density. Hypericum perforatum (Hp) a traditional remedy possess antidepressive activity (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and wound healing properties. Hp preparation contains mainly hypericin, hyperforin, hyperoside and flavonoids exerting oestrogen-mimetic effect. Cold swimming represents an experimental model of stress associating mental strain and corporal exhaustion. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the Hp effect on femur and mandible bone mass changes in rats under cold forced swimming procedure...
2016: Stomatologija
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
BACKGROUND: The term "adrenal fatigue" ("AF") has been used by some doctors, healthcare providers, and the general media to describe an alleged condition caused by chronic exposure to stressful situations. Despite this, "AF" has not been recognized by any Endocrinology society, who claim there is no hard evidence for the existence. The aim of this systematic review is to verify whether there is substantiation for "AF". METHODS: A systematic search was performed at PUBMED, MEDLINE (Ebsco) and Cochrane databases, from the beginning of the data until April 22nd, 2016...
August 24, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Tanja Peric, Antonella Comin, Mirco Corazzin, Marta Montillo, Federico Canavese, Marco Stebel, Alberto Prandi
To investigate how long relocation modified hair cortisol concentrations in New Zealand white rabbits, 19 rabbits were subjected to a change in their breeding facility at the beginning of the trial and then were kept under stable environmental conditions. Hair samples were collected at the time of arrival to the nonhuman animal facility and at 40-day intervals from the same skin area for up to 440 days after the animals' arrival to the facility. A period effect on the hair cortisol concentration was found (p < ...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
James P Herman, Jessica M McKlveen, Sriparna Ghosal, Brittany Kopp, Aynara Wulsin, Ryan Makinson, Jessie Scheimann, Brent Myers
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures...
March 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
P F Plouin, L Amar, O M Dekkers, M Fassnacht, A P Gimenez-Roqueplo, J W M Lenders, C Lussey-Lepoutre, O Steichen
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles...
May 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Ivan Cekerevac, Marina Petrović, Ljiljana Novković, Dragana Bubanja, Ivan Bubanja, Bojan Djokić, Vesna Stanković, Vladimir Jurisić
Histologically confirmed small cell lung cancer associated with Cushing's syndrome and elevated amylase is rarely described in the literature. We present a case of a 63-year-old patient admitted to cardiology department due to shortness of breath, exhaustion, palpitations and nausea. Elevated values of troponin and electrocardiography suggested that he could have acute coronary syndrome. According to the radiologist's opinion, plane lung radiography was normal. Elevated level of amylase was found in both serum (3802 U/L, normal range 28-100) and urine (12012 U/L, normal range 0-450 U/L), as well as elevated sodium (156 mmol/L, normal range 137-147 mmol/L), hyperglycemia (12 mmol/L, normal range 3...
December 2015: Acta Clinica Croatica
Kai-Lee Wang, Wen-Ching Huang, Jou-Chun Chou, Ting-Chun Weng, Sindy Hu, Fu-Kong Lieu, Wei-Ho Lai, Galina Idova, Paulus S Wang, Shyi-Wu Wang
A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro...
July 2016: Steroids
L Peters, H Ernst, W Koch, W Bartsch, B Bellmann, O Creutzenberg, H G Hoymann, C Dasenbrock, U Heinrich
Chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation were investigated in rats. The exhaust from the combustion of commercial fuel containing 30 ppm ferrocene additive was compared to exhaust from the same fuel without ferrocene. This study was part of a procedure to get a special authorization for the use of ferrocene as gasoline additive according to the German Gasoline Lead Act. To generate the exhausts, pairs of engines of the same type and age were operated on computer-controlled test benches in a combined urban-freeway driving cycle...
January 2000: Inhalation Toxicology
Anna C Geraghty, Daniela Kaufer
It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Peter Jönsson, Kai Österberg, Mattias Wallergård, Åse Marie Hansen, Anne Helene Garde, Gerd Johansson, Björn Karlson
Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during the early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. persons who during the past 6 month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) score over 3...
November 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Apostolos Ka Karagiannis, Theodora Nakouti, Chrysoula Pipili, Evangelos Cholongitas
Adrenal reserve depletion and overstimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are causes for adrenal insufficiency (AI) in critically ill individuals. Cirrhosis is a predisposing condition for AI in cirrhotics as well. Both stable cirrhotics and liver transplant patients (early and later after transplantation) have been reported to present AI. The mechanisms leading to reduced cortisol production in cirrhotics are the combination of low cholesterol levels (the primary source of cortisol), the increased cytokines production that overstimulate and exhaust HPA axis and the destruction of adrenal glands due to coagulopathy...
May 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
William J Kraemer, Scott E Gordon, Maren S Fragala, Jill A Bush, Tunde K Szivak, Shawn D Flanagan, David R Hooper, David P Looney, N Travis Triplett, William H DuPont, Joseph E Dziados, Louis J Marchitelli, John F Patton
To determine if exercise training alters the pattern and magnitude of plasma concentrations of proenkephalin Peptide F and epinephrine, plasma proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F(ir) and catecholamines were examined pre-training (T-1), and after 4- (T-2), 8- (T-3), and 12-weeks (T-4) of training. 26 healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of three groups: heavy resistance strength training (Strength, n=9), high intensity endurance training (Endurance, n=8), or both training modalities combined (Combined, n=9)...
February 2015: Peptides
A A M Hubers, R C van der Mast, A M Pereira, R A C Roos, L J Veen, C M Cobbaert, E van Duijn, E J Giltay
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in Huntington's disease (HD). In non-HD populations, alterations in HPA axis activity have been associated with depression and suicidality. The present study aims to compare HPA axis activity between HD mutation carriers and controls, and examine its association with depressive symptoms and suicidality. To this end, salivary cortisol concentrations at seven time points, as well as depressive symptoms and suicidality, were assessed in 49 pre-motor, 102 motor symptomatic mutation carriers and 55 controls, at baseline and follow-up combined...
March 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Rocco Bellantone, Celestino P Lombardi, Marco Raffaelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of endoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma is the most controversial and debated points in adrenal surgery. We reviewed the most recent literature on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: From the amount of available data (even if not conclusive), the following could be extrapolated: first, for patients with apparently localized disease the adrenal gland should be removed en bloc with the entire retroperitoneal fat pad, which also includes some periadrenal lymph nodes, but no extended resection is necessary in absence of involvement of adjacent structures; second, in experienced centers, oncologic outcome for endoscopic adrenalectomy is not inferior to open adrenalectomy when strict selection criteria and the principles of oncologic surgery are respected...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Oncology
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