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NAC AND Mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768044/cocl2-induces-apoptosis-via-ros-dependent-pathway-and-drp1-mediated-mitochondria-fission-in-the-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#1
Yuting He, Xueqi Gan, Ling Zhang, Beilei Liu, Zhuoli Zhu, Tao Li, Junfei Zhu, Junsheng Chen, Haiyang Yu
Oxygen deficiency is associated with various oral diseases, including chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and mechanical stress-linked cell injury from orthodontic appliances. Nevertheless, our understanding of the impact of hypoxia on periodontal tissues and its biochemical mechanism is still rudimentary. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Herein, we showed that CoCl2 triggered cell dysfunction in human PDLSCs in a concentration-dependent manner and resulted in cell apoptosis and oxidative stress overproduction and accumulation in PDLSCs...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762502/molecular-mechanisms-of-apoptosis-in-heparg-cell-line-induced-by-polyphyllin-vi-via-the-fas-death-pathway-and-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway
#2
Yi Liu, Xiaoxv Dong, Wenping Wang, Longtai You, Xingbin Yin, Chunjing Yang, Na Sai, Xin Leng, Jian Ni
Polyphyllin VI, which is an active saponin, is mainly isolated from traditional medicinal plant Paris polyphylla , which causes liver damage in rats. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential cytotoxicity of polyphyllin VI on the growth of HepaRG cells and to determine the molecular mechanism. The results revealed that polyphyllin VI changed cell morphology and induced apoptosis in HepaRG cells. Flow cytometric assay displayed that polyphyllin VI promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and induced S phase cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of cyclin A2 and CDK2, while significantly increasing the expression of p21 protein...
May 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752433/palmitic-acid-but-not-high-glucose-induced-myocardial-apoptosis-is-alleviated-by-n%C3%A2-acetylcysteine-due-to-attenuated-mitochondrial-derived-ros-accumulation-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#3
Yang He, Lingyun Zhou, Zhiqiang Fan, Shikun Liu, Weijin Fang
Pharmacological inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a potential strategy to prevent diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate precise effects of antioxidant N‑acetylcysteine (NAC) in alleviating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Echocardiography and histologic studies were performed 12 weeks after streptozocin injection. Protein levels involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis were analyzed by western blotting in diabetic hearts or high-glucose (HG, 30 mM)- and palmitic acid (PA, 300 μM)-cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs)...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746502/potential-involvement-of-the-18-kda-translocator-protein-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-apoptosis-of-thp-1-macrophages-induced-by-sonodynamic-therapy
#4
Xin Sun, Shuyuan Guo, Wei Wang, Zhengyu Cao, Juhua Dan, Jiali Cheng, Wei Cao, Fang Tian, Wenwu Cao, Ye Tian
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with exogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or endogenous PpIX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been carried out to produce apoptotic effects on macrophages, indicating a potential treatment methodology for atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have found that mitochondria damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in the SDT-induced apoptosis. This study aimed at investigating the potential involvement of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and ROS in the pro-apoptotic effects of SDT on THP-1 macrophages...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669353/cinobufagin-induces-apoptosis-in-osteosarcoma-cells-via-the-mitochondria-mediated-apoptotic-pathway
#5
Guo Dai, Di Zheng, Weichun Guo, Jian Yang, An-Yuan Cheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor that mainly occurs in childhood and adolescence. Despite developments in the diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma, the prognosis is still very poor. Cinobufagin is an active component in the anti-tumor Chinese medicine called "Chan Su", and we previously revealed that cinobufagin induced apoptosis and reduced the viability of osteosarcoma cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649662/autophagy-attenuates-copper-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-regulating-oxidative-stress-in-chicken-hepatocytes
#6
Fan Yang, Jianzhao Liao, Ruonan Pei, Wenlan Yu, Qingyue Han, Ying Li, Jianying Guo, Lianmei Hu, Jiaqiang Pan, Zhaoxin Tang
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element that is required for the catalysis of several cellular enzymes. Excessive Cu could induce hepatotoxicity in humans and multiple animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of autophagy machinery on Cu-induced hepatotoxicity. Chicken hepatocytes were cultured in medium in the absence and presence of Cu sulfate (CuSO4 ) (0, 10, 50, and 100 μM) for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h, and in the combination of CuSO4 and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (1 mM), rapamycin (10 nM), and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) for 24 h...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604597/the-natural-phenolic-peperobtusin-a-induces-apoptosis-of-lymphoma-u937-cells-via-the-caspase-dependent-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#7
Liying Shi, Haihong Qin, Xudong Jin, Xiuxiu Yang, Xuan Lu, Huiguo Wang, Ruoyu Wang, Dayong Yu, Baomin Feng
Our previous research found the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomia tetraphylla (EAEPT) inhibited the growth of U937 cells by blocking the cell cycle and prompted apoptosis via the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-medicated mitochondria pathway. While the compounds in EAEPT which possessed the anti-tumor activity were unclear. Peperobtusin A is a phenolic compound, which was isolated from the whole plant of Peperomia tetraphylla. In this work, we found that peperobtusin A had the anti-proliferative effects against human lymphoma U937 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603662/arf1-regulates-the-er-mitochondria-encounter-structure-ermes-in-a-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-manner
#8
Bing Zhang, Qilin Yu, Da Huo, Jianrong Li, Chao Liang, Hongyue Li, Xiao Yi, Chenpeng Xiao, Dan Zhang, Mingchun Li
The Arf family of small GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins is one of the most important intracellular regulators of membrane dynamics. In this study, we identified the Golgi-localized Arf family G protein Arf1 in Candida albicans and confirmed its conserved function in regulating the secretory pathway. Interestingly, deletion of ARF1 resulted in intracellular oxygen reactive species (ROS) accumulation, and induced formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-mediated ROS scavenging in the arf1Δ/Δ strain attenuated ERMES formation, indicating that intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from ARF1 deletion facilitated ERMES formation...
March 30, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555593/stress-responsive-mitochondrial-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Yan Wang, Oliver Berkowitz, Jennifer Selinski, Yue Xu, Andreas Hartmann, James Whelan
In the last decade plant mitochondria have emerged as a target, sensor and initiator of signalling cascades to a variety of stress and adverse growth conditions. A combination of various 'omic profiling approaches combined with forward and reverse genetic studies have defined how mitochondria respond to stress and the signalling pathways and regulators of these responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent pathways, specific metabolites, complex I dysfunction, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway have been proposed to date...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519317/16-o-caffeoyl-16-hydroxylhexadecanoic-acid-a-medicinal-plant-derived-phenylpropanoid-induces-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells-through-ros-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Ri-Zhen Huang, Xiao-Chao Huang, Bin Zhang, Hai-Yang Jia, Zhi-Xin Liao, Heng-Shan Wang
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death, and novel chemotherapeutic drugs for treating HCC are urgently needed. 16-O-caffeoyl-16-hydroxylhexadecanoic acid (CHHA) is a new phenylpropanoid isolated by our group from Euphorbia nematocypha which is commonly used to treat solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the CHHA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, particularly in HCC, remain unknown. PURPOSE: In the present work, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of CHHA on HCC cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506454/benzoquinone-induces-ros-dependent-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-hl-60-cells
#11
Shuqiang Sun, Chunxiao Zhang, Jiahao Gao, Qiongyu Qin, Yaya Zhang, Hua Zhu, Xinjun Yang, Dongren Yang, Hongtao Yan
Benzene exposure affects the hematopoietic system and leads to the occurrence of various types of leukemia and hematotoxicity. It has been confirmed that active metabolites of benzene, including 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in the bone marrow, and recent studies have also suggested that benzene exposure can affect mitochondrial function in both experimental animals and cell lines. However, the potential relationship among ROS production, mitochondrial damages, and subsequent apoptosis following benzene exposure has not been well studied in detail...
April 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479032/mitochondrial-damage-mediated-by-ros-incurs-bronchial-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-upon-ambient-pm-2-5-exposure
#12
Xiaoting Jin, Bin Xue, Qunfang Zhou, Ruijun Su, Zhuoyu Li
Mitochondria can be used as important biomarkers of pollutants on human health, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) has been documented to cause respiratory damage. However, current studies about the relationship between PM2.5 and mitochondria in respiratory tract are limited and warrant further detailed investigations. Hence, the study was aimed to evaluate effects of PM2.5 on mitochondrial structure, investigate the link between PM2.5 -induced mitochondrial disorder and respiratory damage, and delineate the possible mechanisms using both in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475156/potent-hydrazone-derivatives-targeting-esophageal-cancer-cells
#13
Ling-Yu Li, Jia-Di Peng, Wenjuan Zhou, Hui Qiao, Xin Deng, Zhou-Hua Li, Ji-Deng Li, Yun-Dong Fu, Song Li, Kai Sun, Hong-Min Liu, Wen Zhao
Hydrazone and their derivatives are a series of highly active molecules, which are widely used as lead compounds for the research and development of new anti-cancer drugs. In this study, 20 compounds were synthesized, based on this scaffold and their in vitro cytotoxicity against 6 cancer cell lines, including EC9706, SMMC-7721, MCF7, PC3, MGC-803 and EC109 was tested. Among them, compound 6p, showed strong anti-proliferative activities on esophageal carcinoma cells: EC9706 and EC109 with IC50 values of 1...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467937/temozolomide-sirolimus-and-chloroquine-is-a-new-therapeutic-combination-that-synergizes-to-disrupt-lysosomal-function-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-gbm-cells
#14
Sanford P C Hsu, John S Kuo, Hsin-Chien Chiang, Hsin-Ell Wang, Yu-Shan Wang, Cheng-Chung Huang, Yi-Chun Huang, Mau-Shin Chi, Minesh P Mehta, Kwan-Hwa Chi
Glioblastoma (GBM) cells are characterized by high phagocytosis, lipogenesis, exocytosis activities, low autophagy capacity and high lysosomal demand are necessary for survival and invasion. The lysosome stands at the cross roads of lipid biosynthesis, transporting, sorting between exogenous and endogenous cholesterol. We hypothesized that three already approved drugs, the autophagy inducer, sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapa), the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), and DNA alkylating chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ) could synergize against GBM...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429900/n-acetyl-cysteine-functions-as-a-fast-acting-antioxidant-by-triggering-intracellular-h-2-s-and-sulfane-sulfur-production
#15
Daria Ezeriņa, Yoko Takano, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Yasuteru Urano, Tobias P Dick
The cysteine prodrug N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is widely used as a pharmacological antioxidant and cytoprotectant. It has been reported to lower endogenous oxidant levels and to protect cells against a wide range of pro-oxidative insults. As NAC itself is a poor scavenger of oxidants, the molecular mechanisms behind the antioxidative effects of NAC have remained uncertain. Here we show that NAC-derived cysteine is desulfurated to generate hydrogen sulfide, which in turn is oxidized to sulfane sulfur species, predominantly within mitochondria...
April 19, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428725/antibiotic-ivermectin-selectively-induces-apoptosis-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-through-inducing-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Jiaqiao Wang, Yanhua Xu, Huihui Wan, June Hu
Mitochondria has been a promising target in blood cancer given their unique dependencies on mitochondrial functions compared to normal hematopoietic cells. In line with this concept, we show that an anthelminthic drug ivermectin selectively kills chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells via inducing mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress. Ivermectin is significantly more effective in inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis in CML cell line K562 and primary CML CD34 than normal bone marrow (NBM) CD34 cells...
February 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426000/d-galactose-induces-premature-senescence-of-lens-epithelial-cells-by-disturbing-autophagy-flux-and-mitochondrial-functions
#17
Yao Xu, Yong Li, Limei Ma, Guang Xin, Zeliang Wei, Zhi Zeng, Zhihua Xing, Shiyi Li, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness with an estimated 16 million people affected worldwide. d-galactose (d-gal) is a reducing sugar that widely distributed in foodstuffs, and studies show that d-gal could promote cataract formation by damaging nature lens epithelial cells (LECs). However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In our present study, d-gal resulted in premature senescence of LECs, which was confirmed by determining the β-galactosidase activity, cell proliferative potential and cell cycle distribution, though apoptosis of LECs was not observed...
June 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416728/crucial-role-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-respiratory-tract-upon-pm-2-5-exposure-in-causing-the-bmscs-differentiation-in-cells-and-animals
#18
Xiaoting Jin, Ruijun Su, Ruijin Li, Long Cheng, Zhuoyu Li
Fine particulate matter exposure may cause health risk, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC), a typical model for evaluating pollutant toxicity, has been closely linked to these diseases, due to its characteristics of differentiation. We therefore studied the BMSCs differentiation and its roles in inflammatory activation in the respiratory tract upon PM2.5 exposure using both in vitro and in vivo models. BMSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells (ELCs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts cells (CAFs) was enhanced in response to conditioned medium from PM2...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386287/respiratory-syncytial-virus-replication-is-promoted-by-autophagy-mediated-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#19
Miao Li, Jian Li, Ruihong Zeng, Jianling Yang, Jianguo Liu, Zhengzheng Zhang, Xiaotian Song, Zhiyan Yao, Cuiqing Ma, Wenjian Li, Kai Wang, Lin Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in children worldwide. Virus-host interactions affect the progression and prognosis of the infection. Autophagy plays important roles in virus-host interactions. Respiratory epithelial cells serve as the front line of host defense during RSV infection, However, it is still unclear how they interact with RSV. In this study, we found that RSV induced autophagy that favored RSV replication and exacerbated lung pathology in vivo Mechanistically, RSV induced complete autophagy flux through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (AMPK-MTOR) signaling pathway in HEp-2 cells...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362765/protective-effects-of-a-ganoderma-atrum-polysaccharide-against-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-damage-via-a-mitochondria-mediated-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-iec-6-cells
#20
Guoyong Jiang, Lulu Zhang, Hui Wang, Qian Chen, Xiaolin Wu, Xiaoli Yan, Yi Chen, Mingyong Xie
The preventive role of a purified Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide PSG-1-F2 as a new dietary antioxidant against the intestinal toxicity of acrylamide (ACR) was investigated in vitro. Our results showed that ACR could induce oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and as well as the reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). In addition, the induction of a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by ACR was evidenced by the events of loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, bax/bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
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