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Jing-Wei Fu, Xue Liu, Yong-He Han, Hanyi Mei, Yue Cao, Letuzia M de Oliveira, Yungen Liu, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. In this study, we demonstrated that As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was efficient in acquiring P from insoluble phosphate rock (PR). When supplemented with PR as the sole P source in hydroponic systems, P. vittata accumulated 49% and 28% higher P in the roots and fronds than the -P treatment. In contrast, non-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis was unable to solubilize P from PR. To gain insights into PR solubilization by plants, organic acids in plant root exudates were analyzed by HPLC...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xiaochen Huang, Keli Tang, Xuping Xu, Chunting Cai
In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the role of Fe-Mn plaque and Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 under different solution Cd levels (0, 2 and 50 mg L(-1)) on Cd uptake and translocation by Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (P. acinosa). Results showed Cd accumulated by P.acinosa without plaque were mostly distributed in root surface, indicating that an exclusion strategy for Cd tolerance. The formation of Fe-Mn plaque could contribute to the increase in the Cd tolerance of P.acinosa, promotion of the growth, increase in the enhancement of Cd translocation...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Delong Meng, Wieland Fricke
The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; 'exudation Lp') and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; 'transpiration-Lp')...
February 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Delphine Vromman, Juan-Pablo Martínez, Stanley Lutts
Most arsenic in surface soil and water exists primarily in its oxidized form, as arsenate (As(V); AsO4(3-)), which is an analog of phosphate (PO4(3-)). Arsenate can be taken up by phosphate transporters. Atriplex atacamensis Phil. is native to northern Chile (Atacama Desert), and this species can cope with high As concentrations and low P availability in its natural environment. To determine the impact of P on As accumulation and tolerance in A. atacamensis, the plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system under four treatments: no As(V) addition with 323µM phosphate (control); 1000µM As(V) addition with 323µM phosphate; no As(V) and no phosphate; 1000µM As(V) addition and no phosphate...
February 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Douglas J Fort, Kevin Todhunter, Troy D Fort, Michael B Mathis, Rachel Walker, Mike Hansel, Scott Hall, Robin Richards, Kurt Anderson
Wild rice (Zizania palustris) sensitivity to sulfide is not well understood. Since sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-day daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by Fe...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Chien-Ying Yang, Meei-Ling Chang, Siang Chen Wu, Yang-Hsin Shih
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of a class of emerging contaminants. In this study, the accumulation of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3) by different parts of a live white radish was investigated. Different cultural media (hydroponics, silica sand, and soil) were used to sustain the radish plant during its uptake and in-plant translocation of BDE-3. The results showed that BDE-3 can be translocated from the roots to the aboveground organs and the accumulated levels of BDE-3 in different parts of the white radish followed the order for the three types of cultivation: fibrous roots > peels > main roots > leaves...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Minyue Dai, Haoliang Lu, Wenwen Liu, Hui Jia, Hualong Hong, Jingchun Liu, Chongling Yan
Mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental threats. In order to elucidate the effect of phosphorus (P) on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and physiological responses in mangroves under Cd stress, a mangrove specie with salt exclusion Kandelia obovata and a specie with salt secretion Avicennia marina were compared in a hydroponic experiment. The results showed that most Cd was accumulated in mangrove roots and that P addition induced Cd immobilisation in them. Cd stress significantly increased malonaldehyde content, whereas P significantly decreased malonaldehyde in mangroves...
February 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Roland W Herzog, Timothy C Nichols, Jin Su, Bei Zhang, Alexandra Sherman, Elizabeth P Merricks, Robin Raymer, George Q Perrin, Mattias Häger, Bo Wiinberg, Henry Daniell
Anti-drug antibodies in hemophilia patients substantially complicate treatment. Their elimination through immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols poses enormous costs, and ITI is often ineffective for factor IX (FIX) inhibitors. Moreover, there is no prophylactic ITI protocol to prevent anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Using general immune suppression is problematic. To address this urgent unmet medical need, we delivered antigen bioencapsulated in plant cells to hemophilia B dogs. Commercial-scale production of CTB-FIX fusion expressed in lettuce chloroplasts was done in a hydroponic facility...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Qingquan Liu, Le Luo, Xiaoxiao Wang, Zhenguo Shen, Luqing Zheng
Laccases are encoded by a multigene family and widely distributed in plant genomes where they play roles oxidizing monolignols to produce higher-order lignin involved in plant development and stress responses. We identified 30 laccase genes (OsLACs) from rice, which can be divided into five subfamilies, mostly expressed during early development of the endosperm, growing roots, and stems. OsLACs can be induced by hormones, salt, drought, and heavy metals stresses. The expression level of OsLAC10 increased 1200-fold after treatment with 20 μM Cu for 12 h...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kun Yan, Shijie Zhao, Lanxing Bian, Xiaobing Chen
Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in Chinese, and chlorogenic acid and luteolosid are its specific bioactive phenolic compounds. This study was to investigate leaf antioxidant responses in honeysuckle to saline stress with emphasis on phenolics through hydroponic experiments and field trials. NaCl stress did not stimulate antioxidant system including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate, and had no significant effect on lipid peroxidation in the leaves...
January 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bilal Ahmed, Sourabh Dwivedi, Malik Zainul Abdin, Ameer Azam, Majed Al-Shaeri, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Quaiser Saquib, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Javed Musarrat
Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn(2+)) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Poonam Mehra, Bipin Kumar Pandey, Jitender Giri
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency in soil system is a limiting factor for rice growth and yield. Majority of the soil Phosphorus (P) is organic in nature; not readily available for root uptake. Low Pi inducible purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are hypothesized to enhance the availability of Pi in soil and cellular system. However, information on molecular and physiological roles of rice PAPs is very limited. Here, we demonstrate the role of a novel rice PAP, OsPAP21b in improving plant utilization of organic-P. OsPAP21b was found to be under the transcriptional control of OsPHR2 and strictly regulated by plant Pi-status at both transcript and protein levels...
January 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Linli Hu, Weibiao Liao, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Jihua Yu, Jian Lv
BACKGROUND: In northwest of China, mini Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is highly valued by consumers, and is widely cultivated during winter in solar-greenhouses where low light (LL) fluence (between 85 and 150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in day) is a major abiotic stress factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The mechanisms with which various NH4(+): NO3(-) ratios affected growth and photosynthesis of mini Chinese cabbage under normal (200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and low (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) light conditions was investigated...
January 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Jan H Behr, Alain Bouchereau, Solenne Berardocco, Charlotte E Seal, Timothy J Flowers, Christian Zörb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level. METHODS: To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
Fernando Fornes, Rosa Maria Belda
Charred organic matter is recently receiving attention for its potential use as soilless growth medium. However, depending on its origin and on the manufacturing technology, it can result toxic for plants. This fact implies that a detoxifying treatment ought to be devised in order to reclaim char in this way. We have studied three materials which combine these factors: two pyrolyzed biochars, one from forest waste (BCH-FW) and another from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrothermally carbonized hydrochar from forest waste (HYD-FW)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Cao Xiaochuang, Zhong Chu, Zhu Lianfeng, Zhang Junhua, Sajid Hussain, Wu Lianghuan, Jin Qianyu
To investigate the response of rice growth and photosynthesis to different nitrogen (N) sources under cold stress, hydroponic cultivation of rice was done in greenhouse, with glycine, ammonium, and nitrate as the sole N sources. The results demonstrate that exposure to low temperature reduced the rice biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but their values in the glycine-treated plants were significantly higher than in the ammonium- and nitrate-treated plants. This might be attributed to the higher N uptake rate and root area and activity in the glycine-treated plants...
January 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Gabriella Szalai, Katalin Janda, Éva Darkó, Tibor Janda, Violeta Peeva, Magda Pál
In the present work changes in polyamine contents were investigated after various hydroponic polyamine treatments (putrescine, spermidine and spermine at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mM concentrations) in two different crop species, wheat and maize. In contrast to putrescine, higher polyamines (spermidine and spermine) induced concentration-dependent oxidative damage in both crops, resulting in decreased biomass. The unfavourable effects of polyamines were more pronounced in the roots, and maize was more sensitive than wheat...
January 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
The interactions between nanomaterials and plants have attracted increasing attention. However, the systemic stress and recovery patterns of plants in response to nanomaterials and the connections between the molecular responses and phenotypes remain unclear. Herein, rice was exposed to graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets at 0.01-1 mg/L for 7 days under hydroponic exposure, followed by a 7-day post-exposure (GO-free). The significant upregulation (p<0.05) of phenylalanine metabolism, secondary metabolism and heme peroxidase reflected the stress and recovery patterns of rice roots exposed to GO...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Kousuke Tsuji, Takuma Asayama, Nozomi Shiraki, Shota Inoue, Erina Okuda, Chizuru Hayashi, Kazuma Nishida, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Emiko Harada
Many aquatic plants act as biosorbents, removing and recovering metals from the environment. To assess the biosorbent activity of Egeria densa, a submerged freshwater macrophyte, plants were collected monthly from a circular drainage area in Lake Biwa basin and the Mn concentrations of the plants were analyzed. Mn concentrations in these plants were generally above those of terrestrial hyperaccumulators, and were markedly higher in spring and summer than in autumn. Mn concentrations were much lower in plants incubated in hydroponic medium at various pH levels with and without Mn supplementation than in field-collected plants...
January 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
April 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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