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Aspirin AND Mitochondria

Rajeshwary Ghosh, Sumanta K Goswami, Luis Felipe B B Feitoza, Bruce Hammock, Aldrin V Gomes
BACKGROUND: One of the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used worldwide, diclofenac (DIC), has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The molecular mechanism(s) by which DIC causes CVD is unknown. METHODS: Proteasome activities were studied in hearts, livers, and kidneys from male Swiss Webster mice treated with either 100mg/kg DIC for 18h (acute treatment) or 10mg/kg DIC for 28days (chronic treatment). Cultured H9c2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes were also treated with different concentrations of DIC and proteasome function, cell death and ROS generation studied...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Qinqin Cheng, Hongdong Shi, Hongxia Wang, Jun Wang, Yangzhong Liu
Aspirin, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to be effective for the prevention and remission of cancers (Science, 2012, 337(21) 1471-1473). Asplatin, a Pt(iv) prodrug of cisplatin with the ligation of aspirin (c,c,t-[PtCl2(NH3)2(OH)(aspirin)]), demonstrates significantly higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin towards tumor cells and almost fully overcomes the drug resistance of cisplatin resistant cells. In this work, we have studied the molecular mechanism of asplatin by investigating the cellular response to this compound in order to understand the prominent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of cancer cells...
July 13, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yoshiyasu Kono, Seiji Kawano, Akinobu Takaki, Yasuyuki Shimomura, Masahiro Onji, Hisashi Ishikawa, Sakuma Takahashi, Joichiro Horii, Sayo Kobayashi, Daisuke Kawai, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) has shown that intestinal ulcers are common in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) users, although the mechanisms and management have not been clearly defined. To explore the contribution of oxidative stress and potential of antioxidants for NSAIDs-induced intestinal ulcers, we assessed human serum oxidative stress balance and the effect of antioxidants using a mouse model. METHODS: A total of 30 NSAIDs users (17 aspirin and 13 non-aspirin users) received VCE...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rosi Bissinger, Ghada Bouguerra, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Sabrina Waibel, Salem Abbès, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz utilized for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, triggers suicidal cell death or apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial potential. Side effects of efavirenz include anemia. Causes of anemia include accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Even though lacking mitochondria, erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Samuel Chege Gitau, Xuelian Li, Dandan Zhao, Zhenfeng Guo, Haihai Liang, Ming Qian, Lifang Lv, Tianshi Li, Bozhi Xu, Zhiguo Wang, Yong Zhang, Chaoqian Xu, Yanjie Lu, Zhiming Du, Hongli Shan, Baofeng Yang
Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
December 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
Rie Saito, Masato Tamura, Hirofumi Matsui, Yumiko Nagano, Hideo Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Yuji Mizokami, Ichinosuke Hyodo
Treatments with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have increased the number of patients with gastrointestinal complications. Qing Dai has been traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis. We previously reported that Qing Dai suppressed inflammations by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ulcerative colitis patients. Thus, Qing Dai can attenuate the production of ROS, which play an important role in NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Liqun Huang, Chi C Wong, Ka W Cheng, Basil Rigas
Phospho-aspirin (PA-2) is a novel aspirin derivative that exhibits promising anticancer properties and is considerably safer than conventional aspirin. In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of PA-2 in preclinical models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer and elucidated its mechanism of action. PA-2 inhibited the growth of ER+ cells more potently than aspirin in vitro, and exerted a triple cytokinetic effect that includes induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation...
2014: PloS One
Amany Abdin, Naglaa Sarhan
This study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol could provide protection against Reye's syndrome induced by 4-pentenoic acid in Wistar albino rats. Compared with rats with untreated Reye's syndrome, 1 h pretreatment by low dose resveratrol (10 mg/kg by oral gavage) resulted in marked amelioration in liver functions in the form of significant decrease in serum transaminases (AST, ALT) and plasma ammonia levels, shortening of prothrombin time, and increase in serum albumin levels. In addition, resveratrol prohibited oxidative stress markers, as indicated by a significant increase in GSH and decrease in MDA, with restoration of complex I activity in liver tissues...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Haider Raza, Annie John, Jasmin Shafarin
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774...
2014: PloS One
D Grahame Hardie
The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway arose early during evolution of eukaryotic cells, when it appears to have been involved in the response to glucose starvation and perhaps also in monitoring the output of the newly acquired mitochondria. Due to the advent of hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis, glucose starvation is a less frequent event for mammalian cells than for single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the AMPK system has been preserved in mammals where, by monitoring cellular AMP:adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP):ATP ratios and balancing the rates of catabolism and ATP consumption, it maintains energy homeostasis at a cell-autonomous level...
2014: Annual Review of Nutrition
Kristopher Burkewitz, Yue Zhang, William B Mair
When energy supply is low, organisms respond by slowing aging and increasing resistance to diverse age-related pathologies. Targeting the mechanisms underpinning this response may therefore treat multiple disorders through a single intervention. Here, we discuss AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an integrator and mediator of several pathways and processes linking energetics to longevity. Activated by low energy, AMPK is both prolongevity and druggable, but its role in some pathologies may not be beneficial...
July 1, 2014: Cell Metabolism
J M Andres, R W Hurd, H A Van Rinsvelt
Reye's syndrome (Rs) is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the liver. The syndrome may be secondary to injury of mitochondria following a toxic insult in a susceptible individual with a viral illness. Since the response to infection often involves a change in trace metals, we investigated the metal status of patients with Rs. Decreased levels of serum and liver selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) were demonstrated via PIXE analysis, in addition to an increase in serum iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn)...
August 1987: Biological Trace Element Research
Gianluca Farrugia, William H Bannister, Neville Vassallo, Rena Balzan
In previous studies, we observed that aspirin, a promising cancer-preventive agent, induces apoptosis in mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown aerobically in ethanol medium. In this study, we show that aspirin-induced apoptosis is associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial and cytosolic O2 ·- and oxidation of mitochondrial NAD(P)H. A concomitant rise in the level of cytosolic CuZnSOD activity failed to compensate for mitochondrial MnSOD deficiency...
December 2013: FEMS Yeast Research
Sindhu K Madathil, Saravanan S Karuppagounder, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar
Complex I deficiency culminating in oxidative stress is proposed as one of the upstream mechanisms of nigral neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether sodium salicylate, an active metabolite of aspirin, could afford protection against rotenone-induced oxidative stress, neuronal degeneration, and behavioral dysfunction in rats, because it has the potential to accept a molecule each of hydroxyl radical (•OH) at the third or fifth position of its benzyl ring. Rotenone caused dose-dependent increase in •OH in isolated mitochondria from the cerebral cortex and time- (24-48 h) and dose-dependent (0...
August 2013: Synapse
H Dorota Halicka, Hong Zhao, Jiangwei Li, Yong-Syu Lee, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Joseph M Wu, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
Two different mechanisms are considered to be the primary cause of aging. Cumulative DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Constitutive stimulation of mitogen- and nutrient-sensing mTOR/S6 signaling is the second mechanism (TOR concept). The flow- and laser scanning- cytometric methods were developed to measure the level of the constitutive DNA damage/ROS- as well as of mTOR/S6- signaling in individual cells...
December 2012: Aging
Lili Zhao, Weilin Zhang, Mengxing Chen, Jiansheng Zhang, Mingyi Zhang, Kesheng Dai
Aspirin is widely used in the treatment of a number of clinical conditions. Although aspirin is being thought to be a relatively "safe" medicine, it also has some side effects, particularly the risk of bleeding which may be severe and lead to death. The mechanisms, however, are not totally understood. It has been reported recently that aspirin induces apoptosis in many cell types. Thus, the aim of the current study is to explore whether aspirin induces platelet apoptosis. The data show that mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarizations and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposures were dose-dependently induced by aspirin in platelets...
2013: Platelets
Pratibha Kamble, Krithika Selvarajan, Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Mukesh Nandave, Sampath Parthasarathy
Based on the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) to salicylic acid (SA), the ability of SA to form dihydroxy benzoic acid (DBA), and the latter's redox reactions to yield hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), we predicted that ASA may have the potential to induce Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and its downstream effects. We observed that treatment of cultured liver cells with ASA resulted in the induction of Sirt1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) genes...
January 15, 2013: European Journal of Pharmacology
Cristian Sandoval-Acuña, Camilo Lopez-Alarcón, Margarita E Aliaga, Hernán Speisky
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the development of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A major objective of the present study was to investigate whether in vitro the NSAIDs, aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac, piroxicam and ibuprofen, which feature different chemical structures, are able to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. All NSAIDs were effective inhibitors when added both, directly to mitochondria isolated from rat duodenum epithelium (50 μM) or to Caco-2 cells (250 μM)...
July 30, 2012: Chemico-biological Interactions
Haider Raza, Annie John
We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH)-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), prior to ASA treatment, cytotoxicity of the drug is augmented...
2012: PloS One
Fumiyo Kasuya, Misumi Kazuhiro, Hasegawa Tatsuya, Kazuo Nakamoto, Shogo Tokuyama, Teiichi Masuyama
Effect of eleven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the acyl-CoA synthetase activities toward octanoic, palmitic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids was evaluated in mouse liver and brain mitochondria. The drugs tested were aspirin, salicylic acid, diflunisal, mefenamic acid, indomethacin, etodolac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, loxoprofen, flurbiprofen. In mouse liver mitochondria, diflunisal and mefenamic acid exhibited the inhibitory activities not only for octanoic acid (IC(50) = 78.7 and 64...
February 2013: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
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