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Aspirin AND Mitochondria

Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
D Grahame Hardie
Living cells obtain energy either by oxidizing reduced compounds of organic or mineral origin or by absorbing light. Whichever energy source is used, some of the energy released is conserved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are analogous to the chemicals in a rechargeable battery. The energy released by the conversion of ATP back to ADP is used to drive most energy-requiring processes, including cell growth, cell division, communication and movement. It is clearly essential to life that the production and consumption of ATP are always maintained in balance, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the key cellular regulatory systems that ensures this...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Amrita Ahluwalia, Michael K Jones, Neil Hoa, Andrzej S Tarnawski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels are critical for delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs and play a crucial role in the regeneration of blood vessel following tissue injury. ECs are also major targets of injury by a variety of noxious factors [e.g., ethanol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac], especially in gastric mucosa that has direct exposure to these agents. In this study, we investigated whether nerve growth factor (NGF) can protect gastric microvascular ECs (GECs) from injury by indomethacin (INDO) and the mechanisms involved...
December 2017: Cellular Signalling
Yimin Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Tao Zhao, Yi Zou, Rui Li, Yancheng Xu
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial copy numbers have been found in insulin-resistant individuals. Restoration of the number of mitochondria and normal mitochondrial function has become an important therapeutic target of diabetes. Salicylate, the main active ingredient in aspirin, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. Little information regarding the effects of salicylate on mitochondrial function has been reported...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Maik Hüttemann, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Percy Pacora, Bo Hyun Yoon, Lawrence I Grossman
Metformin is everywhere. Originally introduced in clinical practice as an antidiabetic agent, its role as a therapeutic agent is expanding to include treatment of prediabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovarian disease; more recently, experimental studies and observations in randomized clinical trials suggest that metformin could have a place in the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia. This article provides a brief overview of the history of metformin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and reviews the results of metaanalyses of metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus as well as the treatment of obese, non-diabetic, pregnant women to prevent macrosomia...
September 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Debanjan Tewari, Dhriti Majumdar, Sirisha Vallabhaneni, Amal Kanti Bera
Aspirin induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Here we showed that silencing of VDAC1 protected HeLa cells from aspirin-induced cell death. Compared to the wild type cells, VDAC1 knocked down cells showed lesser change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), upon aspirin treatment. Aspirin augmented ATP and ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake which was abolished in VDAC1 knocked down cells. Aspirin dissociated bound hexokinase II (HK-II) from mitochondria. Further, aspirin promoted the closure of recombinant human VDAC1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hamendra Singh Parmar, Zbynek Houdek, Martin Pesta, Cerna Vaclava, Pavel Dvorak, Jiri Hatina
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major causes of neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease. A number of recent reports suggest involvement of mitochondrial alterations through intracellular accumulation of oligomeric Aβ. These mitochondrial alterations include increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), mt-DNA depletion, decreased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, membrane depolarization, reduced number of mitochondria etc. All these defects cumulatively caused neural toxicity and alterations in cellular energy homeostasis...
2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Radha Uppala, Brianne Dudiak, Megan E Beck, Sivakama S Bharathi, Yuxun Zhang, Donna B Stolz, Eric S Goetzman
The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin...
January 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Erbao Song, Shu Tang, Jiao Xu, Bin Yin, Endong Bao, Joerg Hartung
Hsp60 is a typical mitochondrial protein in eukaryotes, and is involved in facilitating the correction of misfolded protein back into the correct conformation. Previous, we identified aspirin-induced HSPs in response to heat stress [1]. To investigate whether Hsp60 can protect against death under heat stress, we used lenti-siRNA to knock down the expression of Hsp60. When exposed to heat stress, more apoptosis was observed with increasing exposure to heat stress, while necrosis was not affected. Furthermore, heat stress induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in mitochondria as measured by TMRE and MitoSOXTM red...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rajeshwary Ghosh, Sumanta K Goswami, Luis Felipe B B Feitoza, Bruce Hammock, Aldrin V Gomes
BACKGROUND: One of the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used worldwide, diclofenac (DIC), has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The molecular mechanism(s) by which DIC causes CVD is unknown. METHODS: Proteasome activities were studied in hearts, livers, and kidneys from male Swiss Webster mice treated with either 100mg/kg DIC for 18h (acute treatment) or 10mg/kg DIC for 28days (chronic treatment). Cultured H9c2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes were also treated with different concentrations of DIC and proteasome function, cell death and ROS generation studied...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Qinqin Cheng, Hongdong Shi, Hongxia Wang, Jun Wang, Yangzhong Liu
Aspirin, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to be effective for the prevention and remission of cancers (Science, 2012, 337(21) 1471-1473). Asplatin, a Pt(iv) prodrug of cisplatin with the ligation of aspirin (c,c,t-[PtCl2(NH3)2(OH)(aspirin)]), demonstrates significantly higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin towards tumor cells and almost fully overcomes the drug resistance of cisplatin resistant cells. In this work, we have studied the molecular mechanism of asplatin by investigating the cellular response to this compound in order to understand the prominent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of cancer cells...
July 13, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yoshiyasu Kono, Seiji Kawano, Akinobu Takaki, Yasuyuki Shimomura, Masahiro Onji, Hisashi Ishikawa, Sakuma Takahashi, Joichiro Horii, Sayo Kobayashi, Daisuke Kawai, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) has shown that intestinal ulcers are common in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) users, although the mechanisms and management have not been clearly defined. To explore the contribution of oxidative stress and potential of anti-oxidants for NSAIDs-induced intestinal ulcers, we assessed human serum oxidative stress balance and the effect of anti-oxidants using a mouse model. METHODS: A total of 30 NSAIDs users (17 aspirin and 13 non-aspirin users) received VCE...
January 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rosi Bissinger, Ghada Bouguerra, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Sabrina Waibel, Salem Abbès, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz utilized for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, triggers suicidal cell death or apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial potential. Side effects of efavirenz include anemia. Causes of anemia include accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Even though lacking mitochondria, erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Samuel Chege Gitau, Xuelian Li, Dandan Zhao, Zhenfeng Guo, Haihai Liang, Ming Qian, Lifang Lv, Tianshi Li, Bozhi Xu, Zhiguo Wang, Yong Zhang, Chaoqian Xu, Yanjie Lu, Zhiming Du, Hongli Shan, Baofeng Yang
Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
December 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
Rie Saito, Masato Tamura, Hirofumi Matsui, Yumiko Nagano, Hideo Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Yuji Mizokami, Ichinosuke Hyodo
Treatments with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have increased the number of patients with gastrointestinal complications. Qing Dai has been traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine for various inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis. We previously reported that Qing Dai suppressed inflammations by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ulcerative colitis patients. Thus, Qing Dai can attenuate the production of ROS, which play an important role in NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Liqun Huang, Chi C Wong, Ka W Cheng, Basil Rigas
Phospho-aspirin (PA-2) is a novel aspirin derivative that exhibits promising anticancer properties and is considerably safer than conventional aspirin. In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of PA-2 in preclinical models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer and elucidated its mechanism of action. PA-2 inhibited the growth of ER+ cells more potently than aspirin in vitro, and exerted a triple cytokinetic effect that includes induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation...
2014: PloS One
Amany Abdin, Naglaa Sarhan
This study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol could provide protection against Reye's syndrome induced by 4-pentenoic acid in Wistar albino rats. Compared with rats with untreated Reye's syndrome, 1 h pretreatment by low dose resveratrol (10 mg/kg by oral gavage) resulted in marked amelioration in liver functions in the form of significant decrease in serum transaminases (AST, ALT) and plasma ammonia levels, shortening of prothrombin time, and increase in serum albumin levels. In addition, resveratrol prohibited oxidative stress markers, as indicated by a significant increase in GSH and decrease in MDA, with restoration of complex I activity in liver tissues...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Haider Raza, Annie John, Jasmin Shafarin
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774...
2014: PloS One
D Grahame Hardie
The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway arose early during evolution of eukaryotic cells, when it appears to have been involved in the response to glucose starvation and perhaps also in monitoring the output of the newly acquired mitochondria. Due to the advent of hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis, glucose starvation is a less frequent event for mammalian cells than for single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the AMPK system has been preserved in mammals where, by monitoring cellular AMP:adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP):ATP ratios and balancing the rates of catabolism and ATP consumption, it maintains energy homeostasis at a cell-autonomous level...
2014: Annual Review of Nutrition
Kristopher Burkewitz, Yue Zhang, William B Mair
When energy supply is low, organisms respond by slowing aging and increasing resistance to diverse age-related pathologies. Targeting the mechanisms underpinning this response may therefore treat multiple disorders through a single intervention. Here, we discuss AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an integrator and mediator of several pathways and processes linking energetics to longevity. Activated by low energy, AMPK is both prolongevity and druggable, but its role in some pathologies may not be beneficial...
July 1, 2014: Cell Metabolism
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