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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#1
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933515/serum-bilirubin-concentrations-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-risk-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-dongfeng-tongji-cohort
#2
Jing Wang, Xiaofen Wu, Yaru Li, Xu Han, Hua Hu, Fei Wang, Caizheng Yu, Xiulou Li, Kun Yang, Jing Yuan, Ping Yao, Xiaoping Miao, Sheng Wei, Youjie Wang, Weihong Chen, Yuan Liang, Huan Guo, Handong Yang, Tangchun Wu, Xiaomin Zhang, Meian He
AIMS: Elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with decreased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in cross-sectional studies among diabetic patients, but prospective evidence is limited. We investigated the relationship of serum bilirubin levels with incident CHD risk among type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: In a prospective study of 2918 type 2 diabetes embedded in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, serum total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), and indirect bilirubin (IBil) were measured at baseline...
December 8, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932153/a-heartbreaking-renal-transplantation-is-norepinephrine-the-culprit-to-blame
#3
M G Vailas, S Vernadakis, K Kakavia, I Paizis, J Bokos, J Boletis, G Zavos
INTRODUCTION: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), also known as "broken heart syndrome," "apical ballooning syndrome," and "stress-induced cardiomyopathy," was first described in Japanese patients in 1990 by Sato et al. TCM is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by transient and reversible systolic dysfunction of the apical and middle segments of the left ventricle. This syndrome resembles acute myocardial infarction in the absence of evident coronary artery occlusion. Herein, we present a case of a 51-year-old male who underwent his second deceased-donor renal transplantation for end-stage-renal-disease due to a work-related accident...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931592/the-rationale-for-performance-of-coronary%C3%A2-angiography-and-stenting-before-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-from-the-interventional-section-leadership-council-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology
#4
REVIEW
Stephen Ramee, Saif Anwaruddin, Gautam Kumar, Robert N Piana, Vasilis Babaliaros, Tanveer Rab, Lloyd W Klein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an effective, nonsurgical treatment option for patients with severe aortic stenosis. The optimal treatment strategy for treating concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been tested prospectively in a randomized clinical trial. Nevertheless, it is standard practice in the United States to perform coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention for significant CAD at least 1 month before TAVR. All existing clinical trials were designed using this strategy...
December 12, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930355/premature-cardiac-aging-in-south-asian-compared-to-afro-caribbean-subjects-in-a-community-based-screening-study
#5
Eduard Shantsila, Alena Shantsila, Paramjit S Gill, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: People of South Asian (SAs) and African Caribbean (AC) origin have increased cardiovascular morbidity, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Aging is the key predictor of deterioration in diastolic function, which can be assessed by echocardiography using E/e' ratio as a surrogate of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. The study aimed to assess a possibility of premature cardiac aging in SA and AC subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 4540 subjects: 2880 SA and 1660 AC subjects...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929481/how-dose-sparing-of-cardiac-structures-correlates-with-in-field-heart-volume-and-sternal-displacement
#6
Taeho Kim, Kelli Reardon, Daniel M Trifiletti, Constance Geesey, Kaitlyn Sukovich, Edwin Crandley, Paul W Read, Krishni Wijesooriya
Cardiac irradiation increases the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Techniques exist to reduce cardiac irradiation, but the optimum technique depends on individual patient anatomy and physiology. We investigated the correlation of delta heart volume in field (dHVIF) and sternal excursion with dose sparing in heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) to develop quantitative predictive models for expected dose to heart and LAD. A treatment planning study was performed on 97 left-breast cancer patients who underwent whole breast radiotherapy (prescription dose = 50 Gy) under deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929093/plant-based-foods-containing-cell-wall-polysaccharides-rich-in-specific-active-monosaccharides-protect-against-myocardial-injury-in-rat-myocardial-infarction-models
#7
Sun Ha Lim, Yaesil Kim, Ki Na Yun, Jin Young Kim, Jung-Hee Jang, Mee-Jung Han, Jongwon Lee
Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening approximately 4,000 samples, reduced myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing ATP production, and maintaining protein homeostasis...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928991/mortality-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-addison-s-disease-a-nationwide-matched-observational-cohort-study
#8
Dimitrios Chantzichristos, Anders Persson, Björn Eliasson, Mervete Miftaraj, Stefan Franzén, Ragnhildur Bergthorsdottir, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Ann-Marie Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson
OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis was that patients with diabetes mellitus obtain an additional risk of death if they develop Addison's disease (AD). DESIGN AND METHODS: Nationwide, matched, observational cohort study cross-referencing the Swedish National Diabetes Register with Inpatient, Cancer and Cause of Death Registers in patients with diabetes (type 1 and 2) and AD and matched controls with diabetes. Clinical characteristics at baseline, overall, and cause-specific mortality were assessed...
January 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928263/a-36-year-old-woman-with-coronary-artery-dissection-two-weeks-after-abortion
#9
Arsalan Salari, Mahboobe Gholipur, Maedeh Rezaeidanesh, Anoosh Barzigar, Shahram Rahmani, Mohadeseh Pursadeghi, Hannan Ebrahimi
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report coronary artery dissection in a 36-year-old woman with retrosternal chest pain 2 weeks after abortion. Electrocardiography showed ST elevation in leads V2-V4 and ST depression in the inferior leads. Lab data were normal. Cardiac catheterization showed a suspicious thrombotic lesion at the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery with a smooth contour consistent with distal haziness and dissection site...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928261/iatrogenic-diversion-of-inferior-vena-cava-into-left-atrium-after-surgery-for-a-rare-combination-of-congenital-heart-diseases
#10
Feridoun Sabzi
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital anomaly that has low surgical mortality and morbidity. We report a very rare case of a low-lying ASD, combined with the drainage of the inferior vena cava and the left superior vena cava into the left atrium. This combination was associated with an unroofed coronary sinus. We also describe an iatrogenic surgical diversion of the inferior vena cava into the left atrium with its complication. The patient presented with moderate cyanosis and was referred for elective ASD repair...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928255/analyzing-gensini-score-as-a-semi-continuous-outcome
#11
Homa Kashani, Hojjat Zeraati, Kazem Mohammad, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Saeed Sadeghian, Mohammadali Boroumand
Background: Investigators frequently encounter continuous outcomes with plenty of values clumped at zero called semi-continuous outcomes. The Gensini score, one of the most widely used scoring systems for expressing coronary angiographic results, is of this type. The aim of this study was to apply two statistical approaches based on the categorization and original scale of the Gensini score to simultaneously assess the association between covariates and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928225/predictors-and-in-hospital-prognosis-of-recurrent-acute-myocardial-infarction
#12
Cheng-Fu Cao, Su-Fang Li, Hong Chen, Jun-Xian Song
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contributing factors and in-hospital prognosis of patients with or without recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A total of 1686 consecutive AMI patients admitted to Peking University People's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics were retrospectively compared between patients with or without a recurrent AMI. Then multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the predictors of recurrent myocardial infarction...
October 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928211/use-of-heart-rate-variability-to-estimate-lactate-threshold-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-during-resistance-exercise
#13
Rodrigo P Simões, Renata G Mendes, Viviane Castello-Simões, Aparecida M Catai, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to identify the first turn point of blood lactate (BL) concentration (1(st) lactate threshold - LT1) during a discontinuous resistance exercise protocol in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and verify if heart rate variability (HRV) responses are consistent with BL responses. A total of 22 elderly men, 12 with CAD and 10 apparently healthy (control group = CG), underwent one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing on an inclined leg press. Discontinuous resistance exercise testing (DRET) was initiated at 10% of the 1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30% and after this percentage, 5% increments of 1RM was carried out...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927939/have-clinicians-adopted-the-use-of-brain-mri-for-patients-with-tia-and-minor-stroke
#14
Seemant Chaturvedi, Susan Ofner, Fitsum Baye, Laura J Myers, Mike Phipps, Jason J Sico, Teresa Damush, Edward Miech, Mat Reeves, Jason Johanning, Linda S Williams, Greg Arling, Eric Cheng, Zhangsheng Yu, Dawn Bravata
BACKGROUND: Use of MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can identify infarcts in 30%-50% of patients with TIA. Previous guidelines have indicated that MRI-DWI is the preferred imaging modality for patients with TIA. We assessed the frequency of MRI utilization and predictors of MRI performance. METHODS: A review of TIA and minor stroke patients evaluated at Veterans Affairs hospitals was conducted with regard to medical history, use of diagnostic imaging within 2 days of presentation, and in-hospital care variables...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927629/central-haemodynamics-and-prediction-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction
#15
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Konstantinos Rokkas, Athanassios Angelis, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Zisis Kratiras, Christos Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether central hemodynamics predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in erectile dysfunction (ED) patients beyond traditional risk factors. METHODS: MACEs in relation to aortic pressures and augmentation index (AIx) were analyzed in 398 patients (mean age, 56 years) with ED but without established cardiovascular (CV) disease. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 6.5 years, a total of 29 (6.5%) MACEs occurred...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927203/dietary-magnesium-intake-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-type-2-diabetes-and-all-cause-mortality-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#16
Xuexian Fang, Kai Wang, Dan Han, Xuyan He, Jiayu Wei, Lu Zhao, Mustapha Umar Imam, Zhiguang Ping, Yusheng Li, Yuming Xu, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
BACKGROUND: Although studies have examined the association between dietary magnesium intake and health outcome, the results are inconclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in order to investigate the correlation between magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for articles that contained risk estimates for the outcomes of interest and were published through May 31, 2016...
December 8, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927192/daily-milk-consumption-and-all-cause-mortality-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-cohort-studies
#17
Patrick Mullie, Cécile Pizot, Philippe Autier
BACKGROUND: Observational studies and meta-analyses relating milk consumption by adults to all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke have obtained contradictory results. Some studies found a protective effect of milk consumption, whilst other found an increased risk. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search until June 2015 on prospective studies that looked at milk consumption, all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke. Random-effect meta-analyses were performed with dose-response...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926994/microvessels-of-the-heart-formation-regeneration-and-dysfunction
#18
Ioakim Spyridopoulos, Helen M Arthur
This issue of Microcirculation focusses on the special topic of "microvessels of the heart" and contains five state-of-the-art reviews and one expert article that reflect current efforts to address the major gaps in our understanding of these key microvessels. In the adult heart, most attention until recently (especially among the clinical cardiology community) has been given to the main coronary arteries, which are the culprit vessels in patients with coronary artery disease, including its most serious manifestation, acute myocardial infarction (MI)...
December 7, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926474/the-association-of-thyroid-function-and-the-risk-of-kidney-function-decline-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Layal Chaker, Sanaz Sedaghat, Ewout J Hoorn, Wendy P J Den Elzen, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Abbas Dehghan, Robin P Peeters
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid dysfunction has been associated with kidney function decline, but mainly in cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between thyroid and kidney function in a prospective population-based cohort study longitudinally. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants aged ≥45 years from the Rotterdam Study with thyroid and kidney function assessment were included. Kidney function and new onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) were defined using estimated glomerular filtration ate (eGFR), with CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926465/freestyle-stentless-bioprosthesis-for-aortic-valve-therapy-17-year-clinical-results
#20
Juergen Ennker, Markus Meilwes, Joern Pons-Kuehnemann, Bernd Niemann, Philippe Grieshaber, Ina C Ennker, Andreas Boening
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement with stentless bioprostheses has been shown to produce lower aortic gradients than stented bioprostheses, thus facilitating left ventricular mass regression and preventing heart failure. We sought to determine the long-term results of stentless biological aortic valve replacement over a 17-year follow-up. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2012, 2551 patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement with a stentless prosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle) at a single center...
November 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
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