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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053861/physical-function-following-a-long-term-lifestyle-intervention-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-the-look-ahead-study
#1
Denise K Houston, Rebecca H Neiberg, Michael E Miller, James O Hill, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Edward W Gregg, Van S Hubbard, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, W Jack Rejeski, Rena R Wing, John P Bantle, Elizabeth Beale, Robert I Berkowitz, Maria Cassidy-Begay, Jeanne M Clark, Mace Coday, Linda M Delahanty, Gareth Dutton, Caitlin Egan, John P Foreyt, Frank L Greenway, Helen P Hazuda, Andrea Hergenroeder, Edward S Horton, Robert W Jeffery, Steven E Kahn, Anne Kure, William C Knowler, Cora E Lewis, Corby K Martin, Sara Michaels, Maria G Montez, David M Nathan, Jennifer Patricio, Anne Peters, Henry Pownall, Judith Regensteiner, Helmut Steinburg, Thomas A Wadden, Karen White, Susan Z Yanovski, Ping Zhang, Stephen B Kritchevsky
Background: Lifestyle interventions have been shown to improve physical function over the short term; however, whether these benefits are sustainable is unknown. The long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function were assessed using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. Methods: Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45-76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes enrolled in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including a 4- and 400-m walk, lower extremity physical performance (expanded Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPBexp), and grip strength approximately 11 years post-randomization and 1...
October 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053750/middle-aged-individuals-with-thalidomide-embryopathy-have-undergone-few-surgical-limb-procedures-and-demonstrate-a-high-degree-of-physical-independence
#2
Shadi A Ghassemi Jahani, Aina Danielsson, Jon Karlsson, Helena Brisby
BACKGROUND: Thalidomide is known to have induced thalidomide embryopathy (TE) in more than 10,000 live-born children worldwide between 1957-1962. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the need for orthopaedic surgery and limb orthosis in relation to function and physical independence in middle-aged individuals with TE. METHODS: 13 women/18 men with a mean age of 45.8 (SD 1.1) years were included. Information about limb surgery, the use of orthotic devices, jobs, accommodation, disability adjustments and personal assistants was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052265/new-mothers-feelings-of-disappointment-and-failure-after-cesarean-delivery
#3
Kristen H Kjerulff, Laura H Brubaker
BACKGROUND: Childbirth is an important life event and how women feel in retrospect about their first childbirth may have long-term effects on the mother, child, and family. In this study, we investigated the association between mode of delivery at first childbirth and birth experience, using a new scale developed specifically to measure women's affective response. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 3006 women who were interviewed during pregnancy and 1-month postpartum...
October 20, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051781/prediction-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-by-extreme-values-of-first-trimester-screening-markers
#4
Marina S Gomes, Mariana Carlos-Alves, Vera Trocado, Diana Arteiro, Paula Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: To determine the association between extreme values of first trimester markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 916 women who underwent first-trimester combined screening during 2015 was performed. Extreme values of NT, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Low PAPP-A (<10th percentile) was associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4...
September 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048264/counseling-parents-at-risk-of-delivery-of-an-extremely-premature-infant-differing-strategies
#5
Marlyse F Haward, Annie Janvier, John M Lorenz, Baruch Fischhoff
BACKGROUND: It is not known how neonatologists address the affective and cognitive loads on parents deciding whether to resuscitate infants born extremely preterm. This study explores expert neonatologists' views on these decision-making processes and their own roles in counseling parents. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews asked internationally recognized experts to share their perspectives on perinatal consultations. Their responses were subjected to thematic analysis...
October 19, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048200/automated-quantification-of-the-landing-error-scoring-system-with-a-markerless-motion-capture-system
#6
Timothy C Mauntel, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Barnett S Frank, Lindsay J DiStefano, Karen Y Peck, Kenneth L Cameron, Stephen W Marshall
CONTEXT:   The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) can be used to identify individuals with an elevated risk of lower extremity injury. The limitation of the LESS is that raters identify movement errors from video replay, which is time-consuming and, therefore, may limit its use by clinicians. A markerless motion-capture system may be capable of automating LESS scoring, thereby removing this obstacle. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the reliability of an automated markerless motion-capture system for scoring the LESS...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044444/characteristics-and-factors-associated-with-depression-in-the-elderly-in-spain-from-a-gender-perspective
#7
Juan M Sendra-Gutiérrez, Inmaculada Asensio-Moreno, Martín L Vargas-Aragón
INTRODUCTION: Depression is a main cause of disability and it is a priority public health problem among the elderly because of its significant consequences regarding morbidity and mortality, especially in women. METHODS: We selected records of people aged 65 and over out of the 2014 European Health Survey in Spain (n=6,520). We then performed a descriptive analysis stratified by gender of relevant variables such as demographic, socioeconomic, health status, health care and health determinants...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044099/coherent-coupling-between-a-quantum-dot-and-a-donor-in-silicon
#8
Patrick Harvey-Collard, N Tobias Jacobson, Martin Rudolph, Jason Dominguez, Gregory A Ten Eyck, Joel R Wendt, Tammy Pluym, John King Gamble, Michael P Lilly, Michel Pioro-Ladrière, Malcolm S Carroll
Individual donors in silicon chips are used as quantum bits with extremely low error rates. However, physical realizations have been limited to one donor because their atomic size causes fabrication challenges. Quantum dot qubits, in contrast, are highly adjustable using electrical gate voltages. This adjustability could be leveraged to deterministically couple donors to quantum dots in arrays of qubits. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent interaction of a (31)P donor electron with the electron of a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041549/high-q-factor-with-the-excitation-of-anapole-modes-in-dielectric-split-nanodisk-arrays
#9
Shao-Ding Liu, Zhi-Xing Wang, Wen-Jie Wang, Jing-Dong Chen, Zhi-Hui Chen
The simultaneous realization of high Q-factor resonances and strong near-field enhancements around and inside of dielectric nanostructures is important for many applications in nanophotonics. However, the incident fields are often confined within dielectric nanoparticles, which results in poor optical interactions with external environment. Near-field enhancements can be extended outside of dielectric nanostructures with proper design, but the Q-factor is often reduced caused by additional radiation losses...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039835/-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-lower-extremity-atherosclerosis-during-standard-treatment-and-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#10
Yu V Chervyakov, O N Vlasenko
AIM: To compare the impact of standard conservative treatment (SCT) and its combination with therapeutic angiogenesis for 3 to 5 years on quality of life in patients with Stage II (according to the classification developed by A.V. Pokrovsky-Fontaine) lower extremity atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 92 patients (69 men and 23 women) (mean age 65.2±7.7 years) were examined and divided into 2 groups of 46 people each. Only SCT (statins at an individually adjusted dose, antiaggregants, and graded exercise walking 3 to 5 km daily were used in Group 1; while Group 2 received SCT in combination with double injection of a plasmid-based VEGF165 gene drug (1...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039066/pattern-classification-of-enterovirus-71-associated-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-chinese-medicine-a-retrospective-study-in-433-cases
#11
Yan Liu, Li-Yun He, Tian-Cai Wen, Shi-Yan Yan, Wen-Jing Bai, Bao-Yan Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patterns of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were classified based on symptoms and signs, and explore whether individual characteristics were correlated with membership in particular pattern. METHODS: Symptom-based latent class analysis (LCA) was used to determine whether patterns of EV71-HFMD existed in a sample of 433 cases from a clinical data warehouse system. Logistic regression was then performed to explore whether demographic, and laboratory data were associated with pattern membership...
October 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037396/maternal-exposure-to-ambient-air-temperature-during-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-pneumonia
#12
Yufeng Miao, Yong-Ming Shen, Chan Lu, Ji Zeng, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia has been widely recognized as the leading cause of death in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between maternal exposure to ambient air temperature during pregnancy and lifetime pneumonia in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed using questionnaire...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036471/immunization-completion-in-infants-born-at-low-birth-weight
#13
Matt Nestander, Jay Dintaman, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with underimmunization. We sought to understand the effect of LBW on immunization completion after controlling for previously hypothesized mediators, including prematurity, neonatal illness, well-child care, non-well-child visits, and provider consistency. Methods: We formed a retrospective cohort of infants born between 2008 and 2011 with ≥2 years of military healthcare follow-up. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify LBW, preterm birth, neonatal illnesses, well-child visits, non-well-child visits, provider consistency, and parental rank in the inpatient and outpatient records...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034365/ethnicity-sex-and-age-are-determinants-of-red-blood-cell-storage-and-stress-hemolysis-results-of-the-reds-iii-rbc-omics-study
#14
Tamir Kanias, Marion C Lanteri, Grier P Page, Yuelong Guo, Stacy M Endres, Mars Stone, Sheila Keating, Alan E Mast, Ritchard G Cable, Darrell J Triulzi, Joseph E Kiss, Edward L Murphy, Steve Kleinman, Michael P Busch, Mark T Gladwin
Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034033/novel-anticoagulant-therapy-of-venous-thromboembolism-current-status-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Mashio Nakamura, Norikazu Yamada, Masaaki Ito
The first-line treatment of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) is anticoagulant therapy, and unfractionated heparin and warfarin are used in Japan. However, as both drugs require dosage adjustments that are difficult, VTE recurrences occur relatively frequently, and hemorrhagic complications are extremely common. The parenteral factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux and the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) edoxaban, rivaroxaban, and apixaban have recently become available as treatments for VTE in Japan. These novel anticoagulants have more stable effects than traditional therapies and are thus considered safer and more effective than the traditional agents...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031762/sleep-and-cognitive-performance-cross-sectional-associations-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-uk-biobank
#16
Simon D Kyle, Claire E Sexton, Bernd Feige, Annemarie I Luik, Jacqueline Lane, Richa Saxena, Simon G Anderson, David A Bechtold, William Dixon, Max A Little, David Ray, Dieter Riemann, Colin A Espie, Martin K Rutter, Kai Spiegelhalder
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between insomnia symptoms and cognitive performance is unclear, particularly at the population level. We conducted the largest examination of this association to date through analysis of the UK Biobank, a large population-based sample of adults aged 40-69 years. We also sought to determine associations between cognitive performance and self-reported chronotype, sleep medication use and sleep duration. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study involved 477,529 participants, comprising 133,314 patients with frequent insomnia symptoms (age: 57...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031131/depression-sleep-problems-and-perceived-stress-among-informal-caregivers-in-58-low-middle-and-high-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-community-based-surveys
#17
Ai Koyanagi, Jordan E DeVylder, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Josep M Haro, Ziggi I Santini
Caregiving has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of multi-country, population-based studies on mental health outcomes of caregivers especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we assessed the association of caregiving with depression, sleep problems, and perceived stress in 10 high-, 27 middle-, and 21 low-income countries. Cross-sectional community-based data of the World Health Survey including 258,793 adults aged ≥18 years were analyzed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of past 12-month caregiving with past 12-month DSM-IV depression, and past 30-day perceived stress [range 0 (low)-100 (high)] and severe/extreme sleep problems...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031130/a-validated-prognostic-biomarker-score-for-adult-patients-with-nonmetastatic-soft-tissue-sarcomas-of-the-trunk-and-extremities
#18
Katja Maretty-Kongstad, Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen, Johnny Keller, Akmal Safwat
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of serum biomarkers in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is limited, and its clinical applicability is compromised by a common inability to adjust for important confounders. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of pretreatment biomarkers on disease-specific survival (DSS) adjusted for confounders. METHODS: The study included 818 patients with localized STS. Pretreatment levels of albumin, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were tested individually and combined in prognostic scores: neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), and Aarhus Composite Biomarker Score (ACBS) which includes all five biomarkers...
October 11, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028491/boron-removal-from-hydraulic-fracturing-wastewater-by-aluminum-and-iron-coagulation-mechanisms-and-limitations
#19
Darpan Chorghe, Mutiara Ayu Sari, Shankararaman Chellam
One promising water management strategy during hydraulic fracturing is treatment and reuse of flowback/produced water. In particular, the saline flowback water contains many of the chemicals employed for fracking, which need to be removed before possible reuse as "frac water." This manuscript targets turbidity along with one of the additives; borate-based cross-linkers used to adjust the rheological characteristics of the frac-fluid. Alum and ferric chloride were evaluated as coagulants for clarification and boron removal from saline flowback water obtained from a well in the Eagle Ford shale...
September 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025080/exposure-to-perchlorate-nitrate-and-thiocyanate-and-prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Gang Liu, Geng Zong, Klodian Dhana, Yang Hu, Benjamin C Blount, Maria Morel-Espinosa, Qi Sun
Background: It is known that perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate have the property of inhibiting sodium iodide symporter. Animal studies have suggested that these compounds, especially perchlorate, might also interfere with insulin secretion. However, the association between their exposure and diabetes risk is largely unknown in humans. Methods: Among 11 443 participants (mean age 42.3 years) from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2001-14, urinary perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate were measured by using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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