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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229128/thirty-day-readmission-and-mortality-among-medicare-beneficiaries-discharged-to-skilled-nursing-facilities-after-vascular-surgery
#1
Sara Fernandes-Taylor, Stephen Berg, Rebecca Gunter, Kyla Bennett, Maureen A Smith, Paul J Rathouz, Caprice C Greenberg, K Craig Kent
BACKGROUND: Readmission within 30 d of an acute hospital stay is frequent, costly, and increasingly subject to penalties. Early readmission is most common after vascular surgery; these patients are often discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), making postacute care an essential partner in reducing readmissions. We characterize 30-day readmissions among vascular surgery patients discharged to SNF to provide evidence for this understudied segment of readmission after specialty surgery...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228700/association-of-ifngr1-and-ifng-genetic-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-chinese-tibetan-population
#2
Shumei He, Bo Wang, Xikai Zhu, Zhengshuai Chen, Junyu Chen, Demi Hua, Deji Droma, Wensheng Li, Dongya Yuan, Tianbo Jin
Interferon-gamma (IFNG) and its receptor (IFNGR1) are principal genes that associated with tuberculosis. In the current study we aimed to explore the genetic association of polymorphisms of IFNG and IFNGR1 with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Chinese Tibetan population. We selected 467 PTB patients and 503 healthy controls to genotype 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied for assessing the associations, and the risk of PTB were evaluated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226794/mental-health-of-immigrants-and-refugees-seeking-legal-services-on-the-us-mexico-border
#3
Yok-Fong Paat, Rachel Green
The debates on the mental health benefits associated with immigration are mixed. On the one hand, immigrants are provided with more opportunities not available in their home countries. On the other hand, they are far away from home and may have been exposed to traumatic experiences on their journeys to the receiving country. Even after settling down in the receiving country, most continue to face legal battles associated with their immigration status, as shown in this study. This study examined the risk and protective factors associated with the mental health conditions in a sample of 39 immigrants and refugees seeking legal services on the US-Mexico border...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225961/land-use-climate-and-water-resources-global-stages-of-interaction
#4
Sujay S Kaushal, Arthur J Gold, Paul M Mayer
Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization)...
October 24, 2017: Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224241/cost-effectiveness-of-bariatric-surgery-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-in-the-uk
#5
M Panca, R M Viner, B White, T Pandya, H Melo, M Adamo, R Batterham, D Christie, S Kinra, S Morris
Evidence shows that surgery for severe obesity in adults improves health and psychological functioning, and is cost-effective. Data on bariatric surgery for adolescents with severe obesity are extremely limited, with no evidence on cost-effectiveness. We evaluated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery compared with no surgery in adolescents with severe obesity from the UK's National Health Service perspective. Eighteen adolescents with body mass index ≥40 kg m-2 who underwent bariatric surgery (laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass [RYGB] [N = 9], and laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy [SG] [N = 9]) at University College London Hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 were included...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222486/the-role-of-personality-and-subjective-exposure-experiences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-symptoms-among-children-following-wenchuan-earthquake
#6
Xiacan Chen, Jiajun Xu, Bin Li, Na Li, Wanjun Guo, Mao-Sheng Ran, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Junmei Hu
This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220384/rope-skipping-increases-bone-mineral-density-at-calcanei-of-pubertal-girls-in-hong-kong-a-quasi-experimental-investigation
#7
Amy S Ha, Johan Y Y Ng
Bone mineral accrual during puberty is important, especially in girls, because it is related to reduced risks of osteoporosis in adulthood. Previous research has shown that jumping or plyometric exercises may be effective in increasing bone mineral density in adolescents. Rope skipping is a form of activity that involves jumping, thus regular skipping may also increase bone mineral density in pubertal girls. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental to examine the effects of rope skipping on girls' bone mineral density and cardiovascular fitness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218426/telomere-length-and-risk-of-developing-gastric-adenocarcinoma-the-singapore-chinese-health-study
#8
Zhensheng Wang, Woon-Puay Koh, Aizhen Jin, Renwei Wang, Jian-Min Yuan
BACKGROUND: Extreme telomere length has been previously reported to be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. However, evidence from prospective studies on a relative large sample size with long-term follow-up to further corroborate previous study findings is meager. METHODS: The association between peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was prospectively examined in a cohort of 26,540 middle-aged or older Chinese nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study...
December 7, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215354/associations-between-extreme-precipitation-and-acute-gastro-intestinal-illness-due-to-cryptosporidiosis-and-giardiasis-in-an-urban-canadian-drinking-water-system-1997-2009
#9
Bimal K Chhetri, Tim K Takaro, Robert Balshaw, Michael Otterstatter, Sunny Mak, Marcus Lem, Marc Zubel, Mark Lysyshyn, Len Clarkson, Joanne Edwards, Manon D Fleury, Sarah B Henderson, Eleni Galanis
Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214919/effect-of-total-contact-orthosis-on-medial-longitudinal-arch-and-lower-extremities-in-flexible-flatfoot-subjects-during-walking
#10
Tulaya Prachgosin, Wipawan Leelasamran, Pruittikorn Smithmaitrie, Surapong Chatpun
BACKGROUND: Total-contact orthosis (TCO) is one kind of foot orthosis (FO) that is used to adjust biomechanics in flexible flatfoot. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a TCO on the MLA moment, MLA deformation angle and lower limb biomechanics. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seven-flatfoot and thirteen-normal foot subjects were recruited by footprint and radiographs. The biomechanics of subjects with normal foot (NF), flatfoot with shoe only (FWOT) and flatfoot with TCO (FWT) were collected in a 3D motion analysis laboratory and force plates...
December 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214867/disease-site-as-a-determinant-of-survival-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-cutaneous-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-unspecified-an-analysis-of-4057-cases-from-the-us-national-cancer-database
#11
Chang Su, Kevin A Nguyen, Harrison X Bai, Ya Cao, Yongguang Tao, Giorgos Karakousis, Paul J Zhang, Guiying Zhang, Rong Xiao
Primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PCPTL) accounts for <6% of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cases. Due to its rarity, no large study exists in the literature on PCPTL. Among 4057 patients with PCPTL diagnosed from 2004 to 2014 in the National Cancer Database, 428, 913, 517, 754, and 1435 had lesions localized primarily to the upper extremity, head and neck, lower extremity, trunk, and overlapping lesion or unspecified site, respectively. PCPTL that primarily involved the head and neck had the longest overall survival (OS), followed by PCPTL that primarily involved the trunk, upper extremity, and lower extremity...
December 7, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214863/impact-of-a-weight-management-intervention-on-eating-competence-importance-of-measurement-interval-in-protocol-design
#12
Barbara Lohse, Jodi Stotts Krall, Tricia Psota, Penny Kris-Etherton
PURPOSE: To examine changes in eating competence (EC) in 12-month weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Randomized, parallel-arm with weight loss phase (baseline to month 4) and weight-maintenance phase (months 4-12). SETTING: Face-to-face in University classrooms, supervised and self-directed fitness sessions at University fitness center, and home. PARTICIPANTS: Premenopausal, mostly college-educated Pennsylvania women, body mass index >25 (n = 101)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214412/gestational-age-at-birth-and-risk-of-intellectual-disability-without-a-common-genetic-cause
#13
Hein Heuvelman, Kathryn Abel, Susanne Wicks, Renee Gardner, Edward Johnstone, Brian Lee, Cecilia Magnusson, Christina Dalman, Dheeraj Rai
Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause across the entire range of gestation, using a matched-sibling design to account for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209603/sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-foundations-pliabilities-and-pitfalls-in-research-and-practice
#14
Robert Trevethan
Within the context of screening tests, it is important to avoid misconceptions about sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this article, therefore, foundations are first established concerning these metrics along with the first of several aspects of pliability that should be recognized in relation to those metrics. Clarification is then provided about the definitions of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and why researchers and clinicians can misunderstand and misrepresent them. Arguments are made that sensitivity and specificity should usually be applied only in the context of describing a screening test's attributes relative to a reference standard; that predictive values are more appropriate and informative in actual screening contexts, but that sensitivity and specificity can be used for screening decisions about individual people if they are extremely high; that predictive values need not always be high and might be used to advantage by adjusting the sensitivity and specificity of screening tests; that, in screening contexts, researchers should provide information about all four metrics and how they were derived; and that, where necessary, consumers of health research should have the skills to interpret those metrics effectively for maximum benefit to clients and the healthcare system...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208059/associations-of-the-serum-long-chain-n-3-pufa-and-hair-mercury-with-resting-heart-rate-peak-heart-rate-during-exercise-and-heart-rate-recovery-after-exercise-in-middle-aged-men
#15
Behnam Tajik, Sudhir Kurl, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Kai Savonen, Jyrki K Virtanen
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish have been associated with lower risk of CVD. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which may attenuate the inverse associations of the long-chain n-3 PUFA. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully known. We evaluated the associations of the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) and hair Hg with resting heart rate (HR), peak HR during cycle ergometer exercise and HR recovery after exercise. A total of 1008 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD, were studied...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206928/confounding-by-ill-health-in-the-observed-association-between-bmi-and-mortality-evidence-from-the-hunt-study-using-offspring-bmi-as-an-instrument
#16
David Carslake, George Davey Smith, David Gunnell, Neil Davies, Tom I L Nilsen, Pål Romundstad
Background: The observational association between mortality and body mass index (BMI) is U-shaped, leading to highly publicized suggestions that moderate overweight is beneficial to health. However, it is unclear whether elevated mortality is caused by low BMI or if the association is confounded, for example by concurrent ill health. Methods: Using HUNT, a Norwegian prospective study, 32 452 mother-offspring and 27 747 father-offspring pairs were followed up to 2009...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205995/volume-and-health-outcomes-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-from-evaluation-of-italian-hospital-data
#17
Laura Amato, Danilo Fusco, Anna Acampora, Katia Bontempi, Alessandro Cesare Rosa, Paola Colais, Fabio Cruciani, Mariangela D'Ovidio, Francesca Mataloni, Silvia Minozzi, Zuzana Mitrova, Luigi Pinnarelli, Rosella Saulle, Salvatore Soldati, Chiara Sorge, Simona Vecchi, Martina Ventura, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND Improving quality and effectiveness of healthcare is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume represents a measurable variable with an impact on effectiveness of healthcare. An Italian law calls for the definition of «qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care». There is a need for an evaluation of the available scientific evidence in order to identify qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care, including the volume of care above or below which the public and private hospitals may be accredited (or not) to provide specific healthcare interventions...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205786/pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-semaglutide-in-subjects-with-hepatic-impairment
#18
Lene Jensen, Viera Kupcova, Gerhard Arold, Jonas Pettersson, Julie B Hjerpsted
AIMS: To investigate whether the pharmacokinetic characteristics of semaglutide were altered in subjects with hepatic impairment, assessed using Child-Pugh criteria, versus those with normal hepatic function. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial (sponsor Novo Nordisk, ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02210871), four groups of subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 19) or mild (n = 8), moderate (n = 10) or severe (n =7) hepatic impairment received a single, subcutaneous dose of 0...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203558/seipin-proteins-mediate-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-to-promote-pollen-transmission-and-reduce-seed-dormancy
#19
Marco Taurino, Sara Costantini, Stefania De Domenico, Francesco Stefanelli, Guillermo Ruano, Maria Otilia Delgadillo, Jose J Sanchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Angelo Santino, Enrique Rojo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in plant cells, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. To gain insight into the function of LDs in plants, we have characterized the Arabidopsis homologues of SEIPIN proteins, which are crucial factors for LD biogenesis in yeast and animals. SEIPIN1 is expressed almost exclusively in embryos, while SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 have broader expression profiles with maximal levels in embryos and pollen, where LDs accumulate most abundantly. Genetic analysis demonstrates that all three SEIPINs contribute to proper LD biogenesis in embryos, whereas in pollen, only SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 play a significant role...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202994/functional-outcomes-following-surgical-site-infections-after-operative-fixation-of-closed-ankle-fractures
#20
Markus G Naumann, Ulf Sigurdsen, Stein Erik Utvåg, Knut Stavem
BACKGROUND: To compare the functional outcomes between patients with and without postoperative surgical-site infection (SSI) after surgical treatment in closed ankle fractures. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with prospective follow-up. Of 1011 treated patients, 959 were eligible for inclusion in a postal survey. Functional outcomes were assessed using three self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: In total 567 patients responded a median of 4...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
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