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Pap smear quality

Nestory Masalu, Patrizia Serra, Dino Amadori, Jackson Kahima, Charles Majinge, Joyce Rwehabura, Oriana Nanni, Sara Bravaccini, Maurizio Puccetti, Rosario Tumino, Lauro Bucchi
OBJECTIVES: To report the results of a pilot study for a service for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in north-western Tanzania. METHODS: The pilot study was launched in 2012 after a community-level information campaign. Women aged 15-64 years were encouraged to attend the district health centres. Attendees were offered a conventional Pap smear and a visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA). RESULTS: The first 2500 women were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Svetlana Popovac, Olivera Djuric, Zivko Perisic, Snezana Rakic
PURPOSE: To investigate the psychological effects of PAP smear and colposcopy performed simultaneously and receipt of abnormal tests' results on women's well-being and quality of life (QoL) using different relative questionnaires. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 324 women with abnormal PAP smear result obtained at the primary care centers, requiring repeat smear test and colposcopy in our hospital. Questionnaires regarding the patient demographic characteristics, 7-point Likert scales which indicate concern about the smear and colposcopy results and risk of developing cervical cancer, Bek Anxiety Inventory (BAI), European QoL questionnaire - Euro QoL (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) were used...
January 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
İlknur Çetinaslan Türkmen, Alp Usubütün, Aslı Çakir, Özlem Aydin, Filiz Aka Bolat, Metin Akbulut, Serdar Altinay, Sema Arici, Figen Aslan, Müzeyyen Astarci, Emine Kılıç Bağir, Yılmaz Baş, Nuray Başsüllü, Betül Çelik, Handan Çetiner, Bengü Çobanoğlu, Abdullah Aydin, Hale Demir, Hayriye Tatlı Doğan, Kamile Gülçin Eken, Selma Şengiz Erhan, Gülgün Erdoğan, Kıvılcım Eren Erdoğan, Funda Eren, Şafak Ersöz, Pınar Firat, İclal Gürses, Nihan Haberal, Dudu Solakoğlu Kahraman, Gülçin Harman Kamali, Yasemin Yuyucu Karabulut, Mehmet Kefeli, Meral Koyuncuoğlu, R Doğan Köseoğlu, Bahar Müezzinoğlu, Binnur Onal, Sevgen Önder, Zuhal Özcan, Elife Kimiloğlu, Hatice Özer, F Cavide Sönmez, Sevinç Şahin, Nurhan Şahin, Tülin Yalta
OBJECTIVE: There is no other screening program close to the success rate of PAP test. Cervical cytology constitutes a large workload so that quality control in cervical cytology is important for the quality assurance of pathology laboratories. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this study, we collected the cervical cytology results from all over Turkey and discussed the parameters influencing the quality of the PAP test. The study was conducted with Turkish gynaecopathology working group and 38 centers (totally 45 hospitals) agreed to contribute from 24 different cities...
February 4, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Omara Afzal, Molly Lieber, Peter Dottino, Ann Marie Beddoe
At an HIV clinic in the Limpopo province of South Africa, chart reviews revealed long delays in addressing abnormal Pap smears, difficulty in referrals, poor quality and lost results, and increasing cases of cervical cancer. To address these barriers, a "see and treat" approach to screening was proposed. The objective was to integrate this method into current HIV care offered by local providers and to obtain demographic and risk factor data for use in future educational and intervention programs in the region...
May 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Barbara Nattabi, Veronica Matthews, Jodie Bailie, Alice Rumbold, David Scrimgeour, Gill Schierhout, James Ward, Rebecca Guy, John Kaldor, Sandra C Thompson, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis are readily treatable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which continue to occur at high rates in Australia, particularly among Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to: explore the extent of variation in delivery of recommended STI screening investigations and counselling within Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centres; identify the factors associated with variation in screening practices; and determine if provision of STI testing and counselling increased with participation in continuous quality improvement (CQI)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Saurabh Bobdey, Jignasa Sathwara, Aanchal Jain, Ganesh Balasubramaniam
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Fatemeh Seyyedi, Mahmoud Rafiean Kopaei, Sepideh Miraj
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out at gynecology and obstetrics clinics of Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from January 2013 to January 2014. The study was conducted on married postmenopausal women between 50 and 65 years old...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
A Baena, E Guevara, M Almonte, J Arias-Stella, P Sasieni, G I Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence the inter-observer reproducibility of the routine, conventional Pap smear cytology (Pap smear test) in a network of certificated laboratories in a middle-income Latin American country. METHODS: Twenty-six laboratories provided each an average of 26 negative for malignancy (NILM) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) Pap smears. An external panel reviewed the slides. The kappa index and multilevel logistic regression were used to estimate the reproducibility and odds ratios (OR) of a false result with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), respectively...
December 28, 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Fatemeh Haghighi, Nahid Ghanbarzadeh, Marziee Ataee, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Javid Shahbazi Mojarrad, Fatemeh Najafi-Semnani
BACKGROUND: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Sarikapan Wilailak, Nuttapong Lertchaipattanakul
Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Jane Shen-Gunther, Chiou-Miin Wang, Graham M Poage, Chun-Lin Lin, Luis Perez, Nancy A Banks, Tim Hui-Ming Huang
BACKGROUND: The Pap smear has remained the foundation for cervical cancer screening for over 70 years. With advancements in molecular diagnostics, primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening has recently become an accepted stand-alone or co-test with conventional cytology. However, both diagnostic tests have distinct limitations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between HPV genotypes and cellular epigenetic modifications in three grades of cervical cytology for screening biomarker discovery...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Raphael J Landovitz, Katherine A Desmond, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
The role of HIV specialists in providing primary care to persons living with HIV/AIDS is evolving, given their increased incidence of comorbidities. Multivariate logit analysis compared compliance with sentinel preventive screening tests and interventions among publicly insured Californians with and without access to HIV specialists in 2010. Quality-of-care indicators [visit frequency, CD4 and viral load (VL) assessments, influenza vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) testing, lipid profile, glucose blood test, and Pap smears for women] were related to patient characteristics and provider HIV caseload...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Ditsapelo M McFarland, Sarah M Gueldner, Keitshokile D Mogobe
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review published studies to identify and describe barriers to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening among women in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS: Guided by Cooper's integrative review methodology, studies published between 2006 and 2015 were identified by searching electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest, and PsycINFO using specified search terms...
September 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Katherine C Kellogg, Lindsay A Gainer, Adrienne S Allen, Tatum OʼSullivan, Sara J Singer
BACKGROUND: Recent policy reforms encourage quality improvement (QI) innovations in primary care, but practitioners lack clear guidance regarding spread inside organizations. PURPOSE: We designed this study to identify how large organizations can facilitate intraorganizational spread of QI innovations. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: We conducted ethnographic observation and interviews in a large, multispecialty, community-based medical group that implemented three QI innovations across 10 primary care sites using a new method for intraorganizational process development and spread...
July 15, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Azin Nahvijou, Rajabali Daroudi, Mamak Tahmasebi, Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi, Mohsen Rezaei Hemami, Ali Akbari Sari, Ahmad Barati Marenani, Kazem Zendehdel
OBJECTIVE: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. METHODS: We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature...
2016: PloS One
Felina M Cordova, Robin B Harris, Nicolette I Teufel-Shone, Peyton L Nisson, Lori Joshweseoma, Sylvia R Brown, Priscilla R Sanderson, Delores Ami, Kathylnn Saboda, Ann M Mastergeorge, Lynn B Gerald
A family caregiver provides unpaid assistance to a family member/friend with a chronic disease, illness or disability. The caregiving process can affect a caregiver's quality of life by reducing time for themselves, for other family members and for work. The 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey estimates that 16 % of adult American Indians (AIs) are caregivers. A 2012 survey collected knowledge and personal experience data from a random sample of Hopi men and women (248 men and 252 women). Self-identified caregivers answered questions on time spent caregiving, caregiver difficulties and services requested...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Community Health
P Bhagat, S Susheilia, K Singh, S Sadhukhan, A Rajwanshi, P Dey
BACKGROUND: Papanicolaou (Pap) staining is used with various modifications for the staining of cervical smears. It gives a good contrast with sharp nuclear features which aid in accurate interpretation. However, it utilises ethyl alcohol, which is expensive and difficult to purchase. We have attempted to devise a rapid Pap technique which uses acetic acid instead of ethyl alcohol, and yet provides good staining for correct diagnosis. METHODS: Liquid-based cytology samples were collected from 102 patients as a part of routine screening...
December 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Jason J Ong, Christopher K Fairley, Susan Carroll, Sandra Walker, Marcus Chen, Tim Read, Andrew Grulich, Catriona Bradshaw, John Kaldor, Philip Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. METHODS: Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Jeel Moya-Salazar, Victor Rojas-Zumaran
OBJECTIVES: To validate the modification of the prolonged Papanicolaou stain based on the quality control of time, units and staining stages (micro- and macroscopic), and on the stain reactivation based on the control. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was performed on 125,358 cervical smears in Lima (Peru). The microscopic quality control included evaluating the cytological characteristics through the staining quality index (SQI) and the quality criteria for samples described by the Bethesda System (TBS)...
2016: Acta Cytologica
Stephanie K Kolar, Christopher Wheldon, Natalie D Hernandez, Lauren Young, Nancy Romero-Daza, Ellen M Daley
INTRODUCTION: Medical mistrust is associated with disparities in a variety of health outcomes. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the potential to decrease disparities in cervical cancer by preventing infection with the virus that causes these malignancies. No study has examined associations between medical mistrust and preventative health behaviors including the HPV vaccine among young minority women. METHODS: Self-reported racial/ethnic minority students completed a web-based survey in fall of 2011...
March 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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