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Inflamation and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090383/patients-with-advanced-periodontal-disease-before-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-are-prone-to-develop-bone-healing-problems-a-2-year-prospective-follow-up-study
#1
Jennifer M Schuurhuis, Monique A Stokman, Max J H Witjes, Harry Reintsema, Johannes A Langendijk, Arjan Vissink, Frederik K L Spijkervet
PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has changed radiation treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, it is still unclear if and how IMRT changes oral morbidity outcomes. In this prospective study, we assessed the outcome of reducing post-IMRT sequelae by means of pre-radiation dental screening and eliminating oral foci. METHODS: All consecutive dentate patients > 18 years, diagnosed with primary oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma, referred for pre-treatment dental screening between May 2011 and May 2013, were included and followed for 2 years...
October 31, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083935/tri-nucleotide-consortium-of-androgen-receptor-is-associated-with-low-serum-fsh-and-testosterone-in-asthenospermic-men
#2
Haroon Latif Khan, Shahzad Bhatti, Sana Abbas, Yousaf Latif Khan, Muhammad Aslamkhan, Rosa Maria Marquez Gonzalez, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Magali Segundo Trinidad
Androgen mediating signaling is implicated in regulating the expression of reproductive related genes. Any deviation in the gene expression might be the ignitable precursor for genomic instability that inflames the genomic rearrangements and a leading cause of cancer. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationships between trinucleotide repeats of androgen receptor (AR), sex steroids, and sexual function in men presenting with reduced sperm motility. We investigated the singleton or combinatorial effects of the length of trinucleotide repeats of AR on reproductive hormones, clinical parameters, semen analyses, as well as sexual assessment function of 210 asthenospermic outpatients along with 125 normal subjects...
October 30, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081776/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-intestinal-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Alessandra Geremia, Carolina V Arancibia-Cárcamo
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079529/mri-visualization-of-neuroinflammation-using-vcam-1-targeted-paramagnetic-micelles
#4
Francesca Garello, Amerigo Pagoto, Francesca Arena, Annalisa Buffo, Francesco Blasi, Diego Alberti, Enzo Terreno
The detection of neuroinflammatory processes using innovative and non-invasive imaging techniques is of great help to deeply investigate the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Since Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM-1) is over expressed at the blood brain barrier in the event of neuroinflammation, the goal of this work was the testing of MRI detectable micelles targeted towards VCAM-1 to visualize inflamed regions in a mouse model of acute neuroinflammation. The developed probe allowed for the early detection of the disease, with higher T1 signal enhancement and more precise localization in comparison to untargeted micelles or to the clinically approved contrast agent MultiHance...
November 8, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079455/molecular-and-histopathological-characterization-of-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment-in-advanced-stage-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#5
Namrata S Patil, Luisella Righi, Hartmut Koeppen, Wei Zou, Stefania Izzo, Federica Grosso, Roberta Libener, Marco Loiacono, Valentina Monica, Consuelo Buttigliero, Silvia Novello, Priti S Hegde, Mauro Papotti, Marcin Kowanetz, Giorgio V Scagliotti
INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, highly aggressive, relatively chemo- and radio-resistant malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of PD-L1 and the characteristics of immune environment in this disease. METHODS: A total of 99 archival tumors from advanced stage MPM were immunohistochemically tested in parallel for PD-L1 in two different laboratories; and 87 of these were profiled for immune gene expression profiling by NanoString analysis for 800 genes...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063720/association-of-cdkn2a-b-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-koreans
#6
Ho-Su Lee, Soo Bin Lee, Byoung Mok Kim, Myunghee Hong, Seulgi Jung, Jeonghoon Hong, Jiwon Baek, Buhm Han, Seak Hee Oh, Kyung Mo Kim, Sang Hyoung Park, Suk-Kyun Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Kyuyoung Song
BACKGROUND AND AIM: CDKN2A/B locus on 9p21 is reported to be associated with various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Significant down-regulation of CDKN2B-AS1 in inflamed colon tissue of IBD cases was reported in Europeans. This study aimed to confirm the suggestive association of CDKN2A/B with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) identified in our recent genome-wide association study (GWAS). METHODS: We examined the association of CDKN2A/B locus with IBD in an additional sample of 574 IBD cases and 542 controls, totaling 4068 cases and 8074 controls...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057236/beyond-pd-l1-testing-emerging-biomarkers-for-immunotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Khinh Ranh Voong, Josephine Feliciano, Daniel Becker, Benjamin Levy
Recently, a firmer understanding of tumor immunology and tumor escape mechanisms has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibodies against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab have dramatically altered the treatment paradigm in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have each demonstrated improvements in outcomes and quality of life when compared to chemotherapy. Enrichment strategies to better select those patients more likely to respond have identified PD-L1 staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be a predictive biomarker in both treatment naïve and refractory patients...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045907/reactive-neutrophil-responses-dependent-on-the-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-c-met-limit-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Nicole Glodde, Tobias Bald, Debby van den Boorn-Konijnenberg, Kyohei Nakamura, Jake S O'Donnell, Sabrina Szczepanski, Maria Brandes, Sarah Eickhoff, Indrajit Das, Naveen Shridhar, Daniel Hinze, Meri Rogava, Tetje C van der Sluis, Janne J Ruotsalainen, Evelyn Gaffal, Jennifer Landsberg, Kerstin U Ludwig, Christoph Wilhelm, Monika Riek-Burchardt, Andreas J Müller, Christoffer Gebhardt, Richard A Scolyer, Georgina V Long, Viktor Janzen, Michele W L Teng, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Massimiliano Mazzone, Mark J Smyth, Thomas Tüting, Michael Hölzel
Inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET are currently used in the clinic to target oncogenic signaling in tumor cells. We found that concomitant c-MET inhibition promoted adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint immunotherapies in murine cancer models by increasing effector T cell infiltration in tumors. This therapeutic effect was independent of tumor cell-intrinsic c-MET dependence. Mechanistically, c-MET inhibition impaired the reactive mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils into tumors and draining lymph nodes in response to cytotoxic immunotherapies...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038296/a-blueprint-to-advance-colorectal-cancer-immunotherapies
#9
Dung T Le, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey, Michael A Morse, Christopher R Heery, Andrea Dwyer, Thomas H Marsilje, Arthur N Brodsky, Emily Chan, Dustin A Deming, Luis A Diaz, Wolf H Fridman, Richard M Goldberg, Stanley R Hamilton, Franck Housseau, Elizabeth M Jaffee, S Peter Kang, Smitha S Krishnamurthi, Christopher H Lieu, Wells Messersmith, Cynthia L Sears, Neil H Segal, Arvin Yang, Rebecca A Moss, Edward Cha, Jill O'Donnell-Tormey, Nancy Roach, Anjelica Q Davis, Keavy McAbee, Sharyn Worrall, Al B Benson
Immunotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard of care for many cancers. However, colorectal cancer had been generally resistant to immunotherapy, despite features in common with sensitive tumors. Observations of substantial clinical activity for checkpoint blockade in colorectal cancers with defective mismatch repair (microsatellite instability-high tumors) have reignited interest in the search for immunotherapies that could be extended to the larger microsatellite stable (MSS) population. The Cancer Research Institute and Fight Colorectal Cancer convened a group of scientists, clinicians, advocates, and industry experts in colorectal cancer and immunotherapy to compile ongoing research efforts, identify gaps in translational and clinical research, and provide a blueprint to advance immunotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021794/cd95-fas-non-apoptotic-signaling-pathways-and-kinases
#10
REVIEW
Matthieu Le Gallo, Amanda Poissonnier, Patrick Blanco, Patrick Legembre
Endothelial cells lining new blood vessels that develop during inflammatory disorders or cancers act as doors that either allow or block access to the tumor or inflamed organ. Recent data show that these endothelial cells in cancer tissues and inflamed tissues of lupus patients overexpress CD95L, the biological role of which is a subject of debate. The receptor CD95 (also named Fas or apoptosis antigen 1) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Its cognate ligand, CD95L, is implicated in immune homeostasis and immune surveillance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994816/the-aortic-ring-co-culture-assay-a-convenient-tool-to-assess-the-angiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-vitro
#11
Farwah Iqbal, Yarden S Gratch, Peter Szaraz, Clifford L Librach
Angiogenesis is a complex, highly regulated process responsible for providing and maintaining adequate tissue perfusion. Insufficient vasculature maintenance and pathological malformations can result in severe ischemic diseases, while overly abundant vascular development is associated with cancer and inflammatory disorders. A promising form of pro-angiogenic therapy is the use of angiogenic cell sources, which can provide regulatory factors as well as physical support for newly developing vasculature. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are extensively investigated candidates for vascular regeneration due to their paracrine effects and their ability to detect and home to ischemic or inflamed tissues...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992079/sustained-activation-of-p2x7-induces-mmp-2-evoked-cleavage-and-functional-purinoceptor-inhibition
#12
Christopher N J Young, Natalia Chira, Justyna Róg, Rasha Al-Khalidi, Magalie Benard, Ludovic Galas, Philippe Chan, David Vaudry, Krzysztof Zablocki, Dariusz C Górecki
P2X7 purinoceptor promotes survival or cytotoxicity depending on extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulus intensity controlling its ion channel or P2X7-dependent large pore (LP) functions. Mechanisms governing this operational divergence and functional idiosyncrasy are ill-understood. We have discovered a feedback loop where sustained activation of P2X7 triggers release of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which halts ion channel and LP responses via the MMP-2-dependent receptor cleavage...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988499/polymer-therapeutics-and-the-epr-effect
#13
Hiroshi Maeda
History of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect is discussed, which goes back to the analyses of molecular pathology in bacterial infection and edema (extravasation) formation. The first mediator we found for extravasation was bradykinin. Later on, were found nitric oxide and superoxide, then formation of peroxynitrite, that activates procollagenase. In this inflammatory setting many other vascular mediators are involved that are also common to cancer vasculature. Obviously cancer vasculature is defective architechtally, and this makes macromolecular drugs more permeable through the vascular wall...
November 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984647/functional-genomics-of-stromal-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
Kamil Slowikowski, Kevin Wei, Michael B Brenner, Soumya Raychaudhuri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroma is a broad term referring to the connective tissue matrix in which other cells reside. It is composed of diverse cell types with functions such as extracellular matrix maintenance, blood and lymph vessel development, and effector cell recruitment. The tissue microenvironment is determined by the molecular characteristics and relative abundances of different stromal cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal precursor cells. Stromal cell heterogeneity is explained by embryonic developmental lineage, stages of differentiation to other cell types, and activation states...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978751/an-anti-glypican-3-cd3-bispecific-t-cell-redirecting-antibody-for-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#15
Takahiro Ishiguro, Yuji Sano, Shun-Ichiro Komatsu, Mika Kamata-Sakurai, Akihisa Kaneko, Yasuko Kinoshita, Hirotake Shiraiwa, Yumiko Azuma, Toshiaki Tsunenari, Yoko Kayukawa, Yukiko Sonobe, Natsuki Ono, Kiyoaki Sakata, Toshihiko Fujii, Yoko Miyazaki, Mizuho Noguchi, Mika Endo, Asako Harada, Werner Frings, Etsuko Fujii, Eitaro Nanba, Atsushi Narita, Akihisa Sakamoto, Tetsuya Wakabayashi, Hiroko Konishi, Hiroaki Segawa, Tomoyuki Igawa, Takashi Tsushima, Hironori Mutoh, Yukari Nishito, Mina Takahashi, Lorraine Stewart, Ehab ElGabry, Yoshiki Kawabe, Masaki Ishigai, Shuichi Chiba, Masahiro Aoki, Kunihiro Hattori, Junichi Nezu
Cancer care is being revolutionized by immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cell transfer, and cell vaccines. The bispecific T cell-redirecting antibody (TRAB) is one such promising immunotherapy, which can redirect T cells to tumor cells by engaging CD3 on a T cell and an antigen on a tumor cell. Because T cells can be redirected to tumor cells regardless of the specificity of T cell receptors, TRAB is considered efficacious for less immunogenic tumors lacking enough neoantigens...
October 4, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977914/potential-link-between-fusobacterium-enrichment-and-dna-methylation-accumulation-in-the-inflammatory-colonic-mucosa-in-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Tomomitsu Tahara, Ichiro Hirata, Naoko Nakano, Sayumi Tahara, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Hyuga Yamada, Dai Yoshida, Takafumi Ohmori, Kohei Maeda, Naruomi Komura, Hirokazu Ikuno, Yasutaka Jodai, Toshiaki Kamano, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tetsuya Tuskamoto, Makoto Urano, Tomoyuki Shibata, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fusobacterium enrichment has been associated with colorectal cancer development. Ulcerative colitis (UC) associated tumorigenesis is characterized as high degree of methylation accumulation through continuous colonic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential link between Fusobacterium enrichment and DNA methylation accumulation in the inflammatory colonic mucosa in UC. METHODS: In the candidate analysis, inflamed colonic mucosa from 86 UC patients were characterized the methylation status of colorectal a panel of cancer related 24 genes...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975893/the-esrp1-gpr137-axis-contributes-to-intestinal-pathogenesis
#17
Lukas Franz Mager, Viktor Hendrik Koelzer, Regula Stuber, Lester Thoo, Irene Keller, Ivonne Koeck, Maya Langenegger, Cedric Simillion, Simona P Pfister, Martin Faderl, Vera Genitsch, Irina Tcymbarevich, Pascal Juillerat, Xiaohong Li, Yu Xia, Eva Karamitopoulou, Ruth Lyck, Inti Zlobec, Siegfried Hapfelmeier, Rémy Bruggmann, Kathy D McCoy, Andrew J Macpherson, Christoph Müller, Bruce Beutler, Philippe Krebs
Aberrant alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) events have been associated with several disorders. However, it is unclear whether deregulated AS directly contributes to disease. Here, we reveal a critical role of the AS regulator epithelial splicing regulator protein 1 (ESRP1) for intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis. In mice, reduced ESRP1 function leads to impaired intestinal barrier integrity, increased susceptibility to colitis and altered colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Mechanistically, these defects are produced in part by modified expression of ESRP1-specific Gpr137 isoforms differently activating the Wnt pathway...
October 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967380/staging-the-tumor-and-staging-the-host-a-two-centre-two-country-comparison-of-systemic-inflammatory-responses-of-patients-undergoing-resection-of-primary-operable-colorectal-cancer
#18
James H Park, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Stephen T McSorley, Keiichi Kubota, Campbell S D Roxburgh, Hitoshi Nagata, Kazutoshi Takagi, Yoshimi Iwasaki, Taku Aoki, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan
BACKGROUND: How systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores such as the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) differ across populations of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The present study examined the mGPS and NLR in patients from United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. METHODS: Patients undergoing resection of TNM I-III CRC in two centres in the UK and Japan were included. Differences in clinicopathological characteristics and mGPS (0-CRP≤10 mg/L, 1-CRP>10 mg/L, 2-CRP>10 mg/L, albumin<35 g/L) and NLR (≤5/>5) were examined...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954820/cannabidiol-and-palmitoylethanolamide-are-anti-inflammatory-in-the-acutely-inflamed-human-colon
#19
Daniel G Couch, Chris Tasker, Elena Theophilidou, Jonathan N Lund, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify the anti-inflammatory effects of two cannabinoid drugs, cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in cultured cell lines and compared this effect with experimentally inflamed explant human colonic tissue. These effects were explored in acutely and chronically inflamed colon, using inflammatory bowel disease and appendicitis explants. DESIGN: Caco-2 cells and human colonic explants collected from elective bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or acute appendicitis resections, and were treated with the following drug treatments: vehicle, an inflammatory protocol of interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα; 10 ng/ml), inflammation and PEA (10 µM), inflammation and CBD (10 µM), and PEA or CBD alone, CBD or vehicle were added simultaneously with IFNγ...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951464/proliferating-epcam-positive-ductal-cells-in-the-inflamed-liver-give-rise-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Tomonori Matsumoto, Atsushi Takai, Yuji Eso, Kazuo Kinoshita, Toshiaki Manabe, Hiroshi Seno, Tsutomu Chiba, Hiroyuki Marusawa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) originates from regenerating liver cells with genetic alterations in chronically inflamed liver. Ductal cells and hepatocytes proliferate for liver regeneration, and proliferating ductal cells (PDC) derived from bile ductules have long been considered putative liver stem/progenitor cells and candidate cellular origins of HCC. The potential of PDC as tumor-originating cells, however, remains controversial in contrast to accumulating evidence that HCC originates from hepatocytes...
September 26, 2017: Cancer Research
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