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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642759/biodistribution-and-efficacy-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-following-intranodal-administration-in-experimental-colitis
#1
Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Pablo Mancheño-Corvo, Amelia Escolano, Ramon Menta, Olga DelaRosa, Jose Luis Abad, Dirk Büscher, Juan M Redondo, Juan A Bueren, Wilfried Dalemans, Eleuterio Lombardo, Marina I Garin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a large potential in cell therapy for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, thanks to their immunomodulatory properties. The encouraging results in animal models have initiated the translation of MSC therapy to clinical trials. In cell therapy protocols with MSCs, administered intravenously, several studies have shown that a small proportion of infused MSCs can traffic to the draining lymph nodes (LNs). This is accompanied with an increase of different types of regulatory immune cells in the LNs, suggesting the importance of migration of MSCs to the LNs in order to contribute to immunomodulatory response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627961/microsomal-prostaglandin-e2-synthase-1-inhibitors-a-patent-review
#2
Anastasia Psarra, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, George Kokotos
Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes the terminal step of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation. It is strongly upregulated in inflamed tissues and overexpressed in tumors and it has been recognized as a key enzyme in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, stroke and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic mPGES-1 inhibitors as novel anti-inflammatory agents. Areas covered: This review article summarizes the mPGES-1 inhibitors presented in patent literature from 2000 to August 2016 and their biological evaluation, discussing their activities in vitro and in vivo...
June 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617757/looking-into-enteric-virome-in-patients-with-ibd-defining-guilty-or-innocence
#3
Susana Lopes, Patricia Andrade, Silvia Conde, Rodrigo Liberal, Cláudia C Dias, Salomão Fernandes, Jorge Pinheiro, Joana S Simões, Fátima Carneiro, Fernando Magro, Guilherme Macedo
BACKGROUND: Although there is some evidence suggesting that certain viruses may be involved in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), data regarding viral prevalence and viral load in blood and mucosa of patients with IBD are scarce. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and viral load of common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus 6 in blood and mucosa of adult patients with endoscopic active IBD. METHODS: From January to December 2014, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients with active endoscopic disease were consecutively enrolled...
June 14, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611307/review-oncolytic-virotherapy-updates-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Christos Fountzilas, Sukeshi Patel, Devalingam Mahalingam
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are viral strains that can infect and kill malignant cells while spare their normal counterparts. OVs can access cells through binding to receptors on their surface or through fusion with the plasma membrane and establish a lytic cycle in tumors, while leaving normal tissue essentially unharmed. Multiple viruses have been investigated in humans for the past century. IMLYGIC™ (T-VEC/Talimogene Laherparepvec), a genetically engineered Herpes Simplex Virus, is the first OV approved for use in the United States and the European Union for patients with locally advanced or non-resectable melanoma...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609551/chronic-exposure-to-tetracyclines-and-subsequent-diagnosis-for-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-a-large-midwestern-u-s-patient-population
#5
P P Vakharia, B Nardone, B J Schlosser, D Lee, L Serrano, D P West
Tetracyclines (TCNs) are commonly used in the management of several chronic dermatological disorders, partly due to their affinity for inflamed skin tissue, as they are known to suppress cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 that are typically involved in inflammatory skin disorders.(1) TCNs are known to be photoreactive following ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, a known risk factor for the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), notably basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588582/nanoparticle-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Natalie J Serkova
The inflammatory response, mediated by tissue-resident or newly recruited macrophages, is an underlying pathophysiological condition for many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Paradoxically, inflammation is a double-edged sword in oncology. Macrophages are, generally speaking, the major drivers of inflammatory insult. For many solid tumors, high density of cells expressing macrophage-associated markers have generally been found in association with a poor clinical outcome, characterized by inflamed microenvironment, a high level of dissemination and resistance to conventional chemotherapies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588132/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-adherence-fimbriae-drive-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-via-interactions-with-epithelial-muc1
#7
Erik J Boll, Jorge Ayala-Lujan, Rose L Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Rachel Z Smith, Karen A Krogfelt, James P Nataro, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Beth A McCormick
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea and intestinal inflammation worldwide. EAEC strains are characterized by the presence of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF), which play a key role in pathogenesis by mediating attachment to the intestinal mucosa and by triggering host inflammatory responses. Here, we identify the epithelial transmembrane mucin MUC1 as an intestinal host cell receptor for EAEC, demonstrating that AAF-mediated interactions between EAEC and MUC1 facilitate enhanced bacterial adhesion...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583398/the-emerging-world-of-breast-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Mark R Nathan, Peter Schmid
Over the last few years, the developments around cancer immunotherapy (CIT) have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of many different cancers, in particular melanoma, renal, bladder and lung cancers with a remarkable impact on response rate and, most importantly, overall survival. Breast cancer is most commonly considered to be a 'non-inflamed' cancer and so this shift has been less marked within its treatment. However, some subsets of breast cancer, most notably triple negative breast cancer, are deemed to be more 'inflamed' and therefore may prove to be an appropriate cohort for CIT...
June 2, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580944/il-17-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-switch-migratory-patterns-between-resting-and-activated-states
#9
Duncan R McKenzie, Ervin E Kara, Cameron R Bastow, Timona S Tyllis, Kevin A Fenix, Carly E Gregor, Jasmine J Wilson, Rachelle Babb, James C Paton, Axel Kallies, Stephen L Nutt, Anne Brüstle, Matthias Mack, Iain Comerford, Shaun R McColl
Interleukin 17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells have unconventional trafficking characteristics, residing in mucocutaneous tissues but also homing into inflamed tissues via circulation. Despite being fundamental to γδT17-driven early protective immunity and exacerbation of autoimmunity and cancer, migratory cues controlling γδT17 cell positioning in barrier tissues and recruitment to inflammatory sites are still unclear. Here we show that γδT17 cells constitutively express chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR2...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566893/correlation-of-endoscopic-disease-severity-with-pediatric-ulcerative-colitis-activity-index-score-in-children-and-young-adults-with-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Basavaraj Kerur, Heather J Litman, Julia Bender Stern, Sarah Weber, Jenifer R Lightdale, Paul A Rufo, Athos Bousvaros
AIM: To investigate of pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index (PUCAI) in ulcerative colitis correlate with mucosal inflammation and endoscopic assessment of disease activity (Mayo endoscopic score). METHODS: We reviewed charts from ulcerative colitis patients who had undergone both colonoscopy over 3 years. Clinical assessment of disease severity within 35 d (either before or after) the colonoscopy were included. Patients were excluded if they had significant therapeutic interventions (such as the start of corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents) between the colonoscopy and the clinical assessment...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560858/basal-subtype-is-predictive-for-response-to-cetuximab-treatment-in-patient-derived-xenografts-of-squamous-cell-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Konrad Klinghammer, Raik Otto, Jan-Dirk Raguse, Andreas E Albers, Ingeborg Tinhofer, Iduna Fichtner, Ulf Leser, Ulrich Keilholz, Jens Hoffmann
Cetuximab is the single targeted therapy approved for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNSCC). Predictive biomarkers have not been established and patient stratification based on molecular tumor profiles has not been possible. Since EGFR pathway activation is pronounced in basal subtype, we hypothesized this activation could be a predictive signature for an EGFR directed treatment. From our patient-derived xenograft platform of HNSCC, 28 models were subjected to Affymetrix gene expression studies on HG U133+ 2...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560288/regulation-of-gastric-carcinogenesis-by-inflammatory%C3%A2-cytokines
#12
REVIEW
Kevin A Bockerstett, Richard J DiPaolo
Chronic inflammation caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune gastritis increases an individual's risk of developing gastric cancer. More than 90% of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, which originate from epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed gastric mucosa. However, only a small subset of chronic gastritis patients develops gastric cancer, implying a role for genetic and environmental factors in cancer development. A number of DNA polymorphisms that increase gastric cancer risk have mapped to genes encoding cytokines...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557546/inflammation-associated-dna-methylation-patterns-in-epithelium-of-ulcerative-colitis
#13
Alan Barnicle, Cathal Seoighe, John M Greally, Aaron Golden, Laurence J Egan
Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been reported in inflamed tissues and may play a role in disease. We studied DNA methylation and gene expression profiles of purified intestinal epithelial cells from ulcerative colitis patients, comparing inflamed and non-inflamed areas of the colon. We identified 577 differentially methylated sites (false discovery rate <0.2) mapping to 210 genes. From gene expression data from the same epithelial cells, we identified 62 differentially expressed genes with increased expression in the presence of inflammation at prostate cancer susceptibility genes PRAC1 and PRAC2...
May 30, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539557/prospects-for-personalized-combination-immunotherapy-for-solid-tumors-based-on-adoptive-cell-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapies
#14
Daiki Kato, Tomonori Yaguchi, Takashi Iwata, Kenji Morii, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ryohei Nishimura, Yutaka Kawakami
  Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and adoptive cell therapies (ACT) with antigen-receptor gene-engineered T cells have been shown to be successful for a limited number of patients with solid tumors. Responders to ICB therapy typically have T cell-inflamed tumors. Thus, it is important to develop strategies that convert non-T cell-inflamed tumors to T cell-inflamed tumors. Although chimeric antigen receptor transduced T (CAR-T) cell therapy targeting hematological malignancies demonstrated durable clinical responses, the success of gene-engineered T cell therapies in solid tumors is hampered by a lack of unique antigens, antigen loss in cancer cells, and the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539367/implications-for-breast-cancer-treatment-from-increased-autotaxin-production-in-adipose-tissue-after-radiotherapy
#15
Guanmin Meng, Xiaoyun Tang, Zelei Yang, Matthew G K Benesch, Alison Marshall, David Murray, Denise G Hemmings, Frank Wuest, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
We have previously established that adipose tissue adjacent to breast tumors becomes inflamed by tumor-derived cytokines. This stimulates autotaxin (ATX) secretion from adipocytes, whereas breast cancer cells produce insignificant ATX. Lysophosphatidate produced by ATX promotes inflammatory cytokine secretion in a vicious inflammatory cycle, which increases tumor growth and metastasis and decreases response to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that damage to adipose tissue during radiotherapy for breast cancer should promote lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling and further inflammatory signaling, which could potentially protect cancer cells from subsequent fractions of radiation therapy...
May 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521686/prothymosin-alpha-an-alarmin-and-more
#16
Pinelopi Samara, Chrysoula-Evangelia Karachaliou, Kyriaki Ioannou, Nikos E Papaioannou, Ioannis F Voutsas, Christos Zikos, Ioannis Pirmettis, Minas Papadopoulos, Hubert Kalbacher, Evangelia Livaniou, Ourania E Tsitsilonis, Wolfgang Voelter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prothymosin alpha (proTα) is a ubiquitous polypeptide first isolated by Haritos in 1984, whose role still remains partly elusive. We know that proTα acts both, intracellularly, as an anti-apoptotic and proliferation mediator, and extracellularly, as a biologic response modifier mediating immune responses similarly to molecules termed "alarmins". Our research team pioneered the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the observed activities of proTα. RESULTS: We were the first to demonstrate that proTα levels increase during normal and abnormal cell proliferation...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503176/impact-of-autoantibodies-against-glycolytic-enzymes-on-pathogenicity-of-autoimmune-retinopathy-and-other-autoimmune-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Grazyna Adamus
Autoantibodies (AAbs) against glycolytic enzymes: aldolase, α-enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase are prevalent in sera of patients with blinding retinal diseases, such as paraneoplastic [cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR)] and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathies, as well as in many other autoimmune diseases. CAR is a degenerative disease of the retina characterized by sudden vision loss in patients with cancer and serum anti-retinal AAbs. In this review, we discuss the widespread serum presence of anti-glycolytic enzyme AAbs and their significance in autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497488/the-common-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-induces-prostatic-inflammation-and-microglandular-hyperplasia-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Darrelle L Colinot, Tamila Garbuz, Maarten C Bosland, Liang Wang, Susan E Rice, William J Sullivan, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, Travis J Jerde
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is the most prevalent and widespread histological finding in the human prostate, and associates with the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Several factors have been hypothesized to cause inflammation, yet the role each may play in the etiology of prostatic inflammation remains unclear. This study examined the possibility that the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia in a mouse model...
May 12, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486109/tumor-residing-batf3-dendritic-cells-are-required-for-effector-t-cell-trafficking-and-adoptive-t-cell-therapy
#19
Stefani Spranger, Daisy Dai, Brendan Horton, Thomas F Gajewski
Effector T cells have the capability of recognizing and killing cancer cells. However, whether tumors can become immune resistant through exclusion of effector T cells from the tumor microenvironment is not known. By using a tumor model resembling non-T cell-inflamed human tumors, we assessed whether adoptive T cell transfer might overcome failed spontaneous priming. Flow cytometric assays combined with intra-vital imaging indicated failed trafficking of effector T cells into tumors. Mechanistically, this was due to the absence of CXCL9/10, which we found to be produced by CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in T cell-inflamed tumors...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471481/cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-atherosclerosis-significance-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-challenges
#20
Tin Kyaw, Karlheinz Peter, Li Yi, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik
Cytotoxic lymphocytes encompass natural killer (NK) lymphocytes (cells) and cytotoxic T cells that include CD8+ T cells, NKT cells, gamma, delta (γδ)-T cells and human CD4 + CD28- T cells. These cells play critical roles in inflammatory diseases and in controlling cancers and infections. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be activated via a number of mechanisms that may involve dendritic cells, macrophages, cytokines or surface proteins on stressed cells. Upon activation, they secrete proinflammatory cytokines as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cytotoxins to promote inflammation and development of atherosclerotic lesions including vulnerable lesions, which are strongly implicated in myocardial infarctions and strokes...
May 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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