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Escherichia Coli O157 infection

Shanshan Fu, Xiangning Bai, Ruyue Fan, Hui Sun, Yanmei Xu, Yanwen Xiong
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is increasingly recognized as an important enteric foodborne pathogen. The hallmark of the disease is the production of Shiga toxins; however, there are other virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of STEC. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enterohaemolysin gene, ehxA, among non-O157 STEC strains from human, animal, and food sources. The ehxA gene was amplified from 138 (31.8%) of 434 non-O157 STEC strains, among which 36 unique ehxA sequences were identified...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bin Yang, Shaomeng Wang, Jianxiao Huang, Zhiqiu Yin, Lingyan Jiang, Wenqi Hou, Xiaomin Li, Lu Feng
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major human enteric pathogen capable of causing large outbreaks of severe infections that induce bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its genome contains 177 unique O islands (OIs) including those carrying the main virulence elements, Shiga toxin-converting phages (OI-45 and OI-93) and locus for enterocyte effacement (OI-148). However, many of these islands harbor only genes of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that OI-29 encodes a newly discovered transcriptional activator, Z0639 (named GmrA), that is required for motility and flagellar synthesis in O157:H7...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Giles, S A Cawthraw, M AbuOun, C M Thomas, D Munera, M K Waldor, R M La Ragione, J M Ritchie
Objectives: To assess stability and contribution of a large ESBL-encoding IncI1 plasmid to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli O104:H4 in two different mammalian hosts. Methods: Specific-pathogen-free 3-4-day-old New Zealand White rabbits and conventionally reared 6-week-old weaned lambs were orally infected with WT E. coli O104:H4 or the ESBL-plasmid-cured derivative, and the recovery of bacteria in intestinal homogenates and faeces monitored over time...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Deborah Wilson, Gayle Dolan, Heather Aird, Shirley Sorrell, Timothy J Dallman, Claire Jenkins, Lucy Robertson, Russell Gorton
Fifteen cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection were associated with the consumption of contaminated food from two related butchers' premises in the north-east of England. Ten cases were admitted to hospital and seven cases developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. A case control study found a statistically significant association with the purchase of raw and/or ready-to-eat (RTE) food supplied by the implicated butchers' shops. Isolates of STEC O157 were detected in two raw lamb burgers taken from one of the butchers' premises...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Paulina Chinchilla-López, Vania Cruz-Ramón, Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Nowadays acute gastroenteritis infection caused by Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) O157:H7 is frequently associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which usually developed after prodromal diarrhea that is often bloody. The abdominal pain accompanied by failure kidney is a suspicious symptom to develop this disorder. Their pathological characteristic is vascular damage which manifested as arteriolar and capillary thrombosis with abnormalities in the endothelium and vessel walls. The major etiological agent of HUS is enterohemorragic ( E coli ) strain belonging to serotype O157:H7...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) and cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Foodborne illness outbreaks caused by E. coli O157:H7 have become a global issue. Since SLTs are quite toxic, effective medicines that can reduce the damage caused by SLTs should be explored. SLTs consist of a single A and five B subunits, which can inhibit ribosome activity for protein synthesis and bind with the cell membrane of host cells, respectively. Pigeon ovalbumin (POA), i.e. a glycoprotein, is abundant in pigeon egg white (PEW) proteins...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Lena-Mari Tamminen, Helena Fransson, Madeleine Tråvén, Anna Aspán, Stefan Alenius, Ulf Emanuelson, Ilmars Dreimanis, Mats Törnquist, Erik Eriksson
In 2007, human infections with a hypervirulent strain of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 increased in Sweden and especially in the Halland County. A connection between the cases and a local beef cattle farm with an on-farm abattoir and meat processing plant was established. In this observational study the control measures implemented on the infected farm and the dynamics of infection in the herd are described. In May 2008, when measures were initiated and animals put to pasture, the prevalence of positive individuals was 40 per cent and 18 carcasses out of 24 slaughtered animals were contaminated...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Evelien Kieckens, Joanna Rybarczyk, Eric Cox, Daisy Vanrompay
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne disease in humans ranging from watery diarrhea to bloody diarrhea and severe hemorrhagic colitis, renal failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle, the most important source of E. coli O157:H7 transmission to humans, harbor the bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract without showing clinical symptoms. Prevention of E. coli O157:H7 infections in ruminants could diminish the public health risk. However, there is no specific treatment available nor a vaccine or a therapeutic agent which completely prevents E...
February 13, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Alison K Howell, Sue C Tongue, Carol Currie, Judith Evans, Diana J L Williams, Tom N McNeilly
Escherichia coli O157 is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause haemorrhagic diarrhoea in humans and is of worldwide public health concern. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir for human infection. Fasciola hepatica is a globally important parasite of ruminant livestock that is known to modulate its host's immune response and affect susceptibility to bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella Dublin. Shedding of E. coli O157 is triggered by unknown events, but the immune system is thought to play a part...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Andrea Currie, Eleni Galanis, Pedro A Chacon, Regan Murray, Lynn Wilcott, Paul Kirkby, Lance Honish, Kristyn Franklin, Jeff Farber, Rob Parker, Sion Shyng, Davendra Sharma, Lorelee Tschetter, Linda Hoang, Linda Chui, Ana Pacagnella, Julie Wong, Jane Pritchard, Ashley Kerr, Marsha Taylor, Victor Mah, James Flint
Between 12 July and 29 September 2013, 29 individuals in five Canadian provinces became ill following infection with the same strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as defined by molecular typing results. Five case patients were hospitalized, and one died. Twenty-six case patients (90%) reported eating Gouda cheese originating from a dairy plant in British Columbia. All of the 22 case patients with sufficient product details available reported consuming Gouda cheese made with raw milk; this cheese had been produced between March and July 2013 and was aged for a minimum of 60 days...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Nandita Kohli, Zeni Crisp, Rebekah Riordan, Michael Li, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman
The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells...
2018: PloS One
Freek P J van Bree, Gertie C A M Bokken, Robin Mineur, Frits Franssen, Marieke Opsteegh, Joke W B van der Giessen, Len J A Lipman, Paul A M Overgaauw
Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) to companion animals has become increasingly popular. Since these diets may be contaminated with bacteria and parasites, they may pose a risk to both animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of zoonotic bacterial and parasitic pathogens in Dutch commercial RMBDs. We analysed 35 commercial frozen RMBDs from eight different brands. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was isolated from eight products (23 per cent) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing E coli was found in 28 products (80 per cent)...
January 13, 2018: Veterinary Record
Hiromi Nakamura, Atsushi Iguchi, Tomofumi Maehara, Kyohei Fujiwara, Atsushi Fujiwara, Jun Ogasawara
To determine the infection source, route, and extent of outbreak, it is important to subtype Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates belonging to the same serotype for clustering into clonally related groups. In this study, we compared three molecular subtyping methods, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), using O157 and non-O157 STEC isolated from Japanese beef cattle. A total of 73 STEC isolates belonging to 9 O-serogroups were used...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sher Bahadar Khan, Geng Zou, Ran Xiao, Yuting Cheng, Zia Ur Rehman, Sher Ali, Atta Muhammad Memon, Shah Fahad, Irshad Ahmad, Rui Zhou
Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is an important zoonotic food borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis that may lead to life threatening hemorragic colitis (HC) and hemorrhagic uremic syndrome (HUS). 325 meat and tissue samples were tested for enumeration of O157:H7 strains using most probable number (MPN)-PCR targeting their specific genes flicH7 and rfbO157 followed by isolation, sereotyping and pathogenicity testing. The overall prevalence of O157:H7 was 41.3% (134/325) along the production and supply chain of pork (PSCP), being higher in supply chain (59%, 118/200) as compared to pig farms (12...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Gillian A M Tarr, Smriti Shringi, Amanda I Phipps, Thomas E Besser, Jonathan Mayer, Hanna N Oltean, Jon Wakefield, Phillip I Tarr, Peter Rabinowitz
The often-noted and persistent increased incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in rural areas is not well understood. We used a cohort of E. coli O157:H7 cases reported in Washington, USA, during 2005-2014, along with phylogenomic characterization of the infecting isolates, to identify geographic segregation of and temporal trends in specific phylogenetic lineages of E. coli O157:H7. Kernel estimation and generalized additive models demonstrated that pathogen lineages were spatially segregated during the period of analysis and identified a focus of segregation spanning multiple, predominantly rural, counties for each of the main clinical lineages, Ib, IIa, and IIb...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ying Hua, Jingwei Ju, Xiangyu Wang, Bao Zhang, Wei Zhao, Qiwei Zhang, Yingzhu Feng, Wenbin Ma, Chengsong Wan
AIM: To screen host proteins that interact with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EspF. MATERIALS & METHODS: Flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing were used to screen interacting proteins. Molecular function, biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were studied using the DAVID online tool. Glutathione S-transferase pull down and dot blotting were used to verify the interactions. RESULTS: 293 host proteins were identified to associate with EspF...
January 2018: Future Microbiology
Asha R Kallianpur, Yuki Bradford, Rajal K Mody, Katie N Garman, Nicole Comstock, Sarah L Lathrop, Carol Lyons, Amy Saupe, Katie Wymore, Jeffrey A Canter, Lana M Olson, Amanda Palmer, Timothy F Jones
Background: Postdiarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+HUS) following Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is a serious condition lacking specific treatment. Host immune dysregulation and genetic susceptibility to complement hyperactivation are implicated in non-STEC-related HUS. However, genetic susceptibility to D+HUS remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: Patients with culture-confirmed STEC diarrhea, identified through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FoodNet surveillance system (2007-2012), were serotyped and classified by laboratory and/or clinical criteria as having suspected, probable, or confirmed D+HUS or as controls and underwent genotyping at 200 loci linked to nondiarrheal HUS or similar pathologies...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Roholla Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Reza Ghanbarpour, Hossein Hosseini-Nave
Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles, biofilm formation, presence of antigen 43 ( Ag 43) gene, and transfer of antibiotic resistance phenotype among non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Materials and Methods: From October 2014 to November 2015 a total of 276 stool samples were collected from healthy calves, goats and 395 patients with the sign of nonbloody diarrhea and screened for presence of stx and serotype O157 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Yoshitoshi Ogura, Yasuhiro Gotoh, Takehiko Itoh, Mitsuhiko P Sato, Kazuko Seto, Shyuji Yoshino, Junko Isobe, Yoshiki Etoh, Mariko Kurogi, Keiko Kimata, Eriko Maeda, Denis Piérard, Masahiro Kusumoto, Masato Akiba, Kiyoshi Tominaga, Yumi Kirino, Yuki Kato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tadasuke Ooka, Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Sunao Iyoda, Jacques Georges Mainil, Tetsuya Hayashi
A key virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx). Stxs are classified into two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and Stx2-producing strains are thought to cause more severe infections than strains producing only Stx1. Although O26 : H11 is the second most prevalent EHEC following O157 : H7, the majority of O26 : H11 strains produce Stx1 alone. However, Stx2-producing O26 strains have increasingly been detected worldwide. Through a large-scale genome analysis, we present a global phylogenetic overview and evolutionary timescale for E...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
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