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Escherichia Coli and Hemolytic Uremic syndrome

Kinnosuke Yahiro, Sayaka Nagasawa, Kimitoshi Ichimura, Hiroki Takeuchi, Kohei Ogura, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Takeshi Shimizu, Sunao Iyoda, Makoto Ohnishi, Hirotaro Iwase, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for a worldwide foodborne disease, which is characterized by severe bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a novel AB5 toxin, which is produced by Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (LEE)-negative STEC. Cleavage of the BiP protein by SubAB induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, followed by induction of cytotoxicity in vitro or lethal severe hemorrhagic inflammation in mice. Here we found that steroids and diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues (e...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Bin Yang, Shaomeng Wang, Jianxiao Huang, Zhiqiu Yin, Lingyan Jiang, Wenqi Hou, Xiaomin Li, Lu Feng
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major human enteric pathogen capable of causing large outbreaks of severe infections that induce bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its genome contains 177 unique O islands (OIs) including those carrying the main virulence elements, Shiga toxin-converting phages (OI-45 and OI-93) and locus for enterocyte effacement (OI-148). However, many of these islands harbor only genes of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that OI-29 encodes a newly discovered transcriptional activator, Z0639 (named GmrA), that is required for motility and flagellar synthesis in O157:H7...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Sin-Tian Wang, Chia-Mei Lin, Hao-Chieh Chiu, Cheng-Rung Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Chen Chou, Jenn-Wei Chen, Chang-Shi Chen
The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Chisa Fukasawa, Saori Ooishi, Takuma Kumagai, Megumi Koshiisi, Yuki Sueki, Kei Nakajima, Toru Mitsumori, Yoko Yoshida, Hideki Kato, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshiyuki Miyata, Keita Kirito
Herein, we present an elderly onset case of aHUS successfully treated with eculizumab. An 80-year-old woman with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal dysfunction was admitted to our hospital. A laboratory test revealed steep elevation in the LDH level, and the peripheral blood smear showed erythrocyte fragmentations. Accordingly, we diagnosed thrombotic microangiopathy, and treatment with plasma exchange was immediately initiated. In addition, she required hemodialysis because of rapid impairment of the renal function...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Shuo Niu, John Paluszynski, Zhen Bian, Lei Shi, Koby Kidder, Yuan Liu
Shiga toxin (Stx)-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening complication associated with Stx-producing Escherichia coli infection. One critical barrier of understanding HUS is how Stx transports from infected intestine to kidney to cause HUS. Passive dissemination seems unlikely, while circulating blood cells have been debated to serve as the toxin carrier. Employing a murine model of Stx2-induced HUS with LPS priming (LPS-Stx2), we investigate how Stx causes HUS and identify possible toxin carrier...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
J D Tanaro, L A Pianciola, B A D'Astek, M C Piaggio, M L Mazzeo, G Zolezzi, M Rivas
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a worldwide concern. Cattle are their main reservoir and may contaminate watercourses through manure. We characterized a collection of 38 STEC O157:H7 strains isolated from surface water in feedlots areas (puddles inside pens formed after the rainfall or by spill around drinking troughs, and small water courses and lagoons, formed by runoff). Nineteen (50.0%) strains harbored stx2a /stx2c genes, 18 (47.4%) stx2c and one stx1a /stx2c . All strains harbored eae, ehxA, rfbO157 , and fliCH 7 genes, and the putative virulence determinants ECSP_0242, ECSP_2687 and ECSP_3620...
March 3, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Robert Alvin Bernedo-Navarro, Ema Romão, Tomomasa Yano, Joar Pinto, Henri De Greve, Yann G-J Sterckx, Serge Muyldermans
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subset of pathogens leading to illnesses such as diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome and even death. The Shiga toxins are the main virulence factors and divided in two groups: Stx1 and Stx2, of which the latter is more frequently associated with severe pathologies in humans. RESULTS: An immune library of nanobodies (Nbs) was constructed after immunizing an alpaca with recombinant Shiga toxin-2a B subunit (rStx2aB), to retrieve multiple rStx2aB-specific Nbs...
March 1, 2018: Toxins
Colin D Robertson, Tracy H Hazen, James B Kaper, David A Rasko, Anne-Marie Hansen
Enteric pathogens with low infectious doses rely on the ability to orchestrate the expression of virulence and metabolism-associated genes in response to environmental cues for successful infection. Accordingly, the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) employs a complex multifaceted regulatory network to link the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) components to nutrient availability. While phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues on two-component system response regulators is recognized as an integral part of bacterial signaling, the involvement of phosphotyrosine-mediated control is minimally explored in Gram-negative pathogens...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Victor Ntuli, Patrick M K Njage, Paolo Bonilauri, Andrea Serraino, Elna M Buys
This study was conducted to estimate the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) risk associated with consumption of producer-distributor bulk milk (PDBM) contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in South Africa. Data were obtained from recently completed studies in South Africa taking into account prior collected prevalence data of STEC in raw and pasteurized PDBM and survey information from producer-distributor outlets and households. Inputs for the models were complemented with data from published and unpublished literature...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Paulina Chinchilla-López, Vania Cruz-Ramón, Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Nowadays acute gastroenteritis infection caused by Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) O157:H7 is frequently associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which usually developed after prodromal diarrhea that is often bloody. The abdominal pain accompanied by failure kidney is a suspicious symptom to develop this disorder. Their pathological characteristic is vascular damage which manifested as arteriolar and capillary thrombosis with abnormalities in the endothelium and vessel walls. The major etiological agent of HUS is enterohemorragic ( E coli ) strain belonging to serotype O157:H7...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) and cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Foodborne illness outbreaks caused by E. coli O157:H7 have become a global issue. Since SLTs are quite toxic, effective medicines that can reduce the damage caused by SLTs should be explored. SLTs consist of a single A and five B subunits, which can inhibit ribosome activity for protein synthesis and bind with the cell membrane of host cells, respectively. Pigeon ovalbumin (POA), i.e. a glycoprotein, is abundant in pigeon egg white (PEW) proteins...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Evelien Kieckens, Joanna Rybarczyk, Eric Cox, Daisy Vanrompay
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne disease in humans ranging from watery diarrhea to bloody diarrhea and severe hemorrhagic colitis, renal failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle, the most important source of E. coli O157:H7 transmission to humans, harbor the bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract without showing clinical symptoms. Prevention of E. coli O157:H7 infections in ruminants could diminish the public health risk. However, there is no specific treatment available nor a vaccine or a therapeutic agent which completely prevents E...
February 13, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Suzanne S Puentes, Michele Dunstan
Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is an important part of the intestinal tract; however, it has the potential to become pathogenic. Shiga toxin-producing E coli (STEC) is a leading cause of E coli infections and has led to outbreaks in North America. Transmission is through ingestion of contaminated food sources, and via infected humans and animals. Young children infected with STEC are at high risk for developing hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS is a clinical syndrome characterized by macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Zahra Sadat Hosseini, Jafar Amani, Fahimeh Baghbani Arani, Shahram Nazarian, Mohammad Javad Motamedi, Fatemeh Shafighian
Purpose: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most important pathogens which create hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human. It is one of the most prevalent causes of diarrhea leading to death of many people every year. The first diagnosed gene in the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island is eae gene. The product of this gene is a binding protein called intimin belonging to the group of external membrane proteins regarded as a good stimulants of the immune system...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Ramon Alfonso Exeni, Romina Jimena Fernandez-Brando, Adriana Patricia Santiago, Gabriela Alejandra Fiorentino, Andrea Mariana Exeni, Maria Victoria Ramos, Marina Sandra Palermo
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined as a triad of noninmune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The most frequent presentation is secondary to Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, which is termed postdiarrheal, epidemiologic or Stx-HUS, considering that Stx is the necessary etiological factor. After ingestion, STEC colonize the intestine and produce Stx, which translocates across the intestinal epithelium. Once Stx enters the bloodstream, it interacts with renal endothelial and epithelial cells, and leukocytes...
January 25, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Akira Ashida, Hideki Matsumura, Toshihiro Sawai, Rika Fujimaru, Yuko Fujii, Akihiko Shirasu, Hyogo Nakakura, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) includes hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This study examined the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with TMA classified according to etiology. METHODS: The survey evaluated 258 Japanese pediatric patients diagnosed with TMA between 2012 and 2015. RESULTS: The primary diseases responsible for TMA were categorized as TTP (15 cases), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-associated HUS (STEC-HUS) (166 cases), atypical HUS (aHUS) (40 cases), and secondary TMA (27 cases)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Sebastián Oderiz, Gerardo A Leotta, Lucía Galli
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen that can cause watery diarrhea, bloody diarrhea (BD), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of STEC strains isolated from children with BD and HUS treated at a pediatric hospital in the city of La Plata in the period 2006-2012, and to establish the clonal relationship of O157:H7 isolates by pulsed field electrophoresis. The percentage of positive samples was 4...
January 11, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Lenin Maturrano, Marjorie Aleman, Dennis Carhuaricra, Jorge Maximiliano, Juan Siuce, Luis Luna, Raul Rosadio
The draft genome sequences of two strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from alpacas in Peru, are reported here. ECA1 has been determined to be a strain of enterohemorrhagic E. coli and ECB1 a strain of enteropathogenic E. coli These pathogens are responsible for hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and diarrhea in different mammals, respectively.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
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