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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929330/differential-relationships-between-social-adversity-and-depressive-symptoms-by-hiv-status-and-racial-ethnic-identity
#1
Timothy J Williamson, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Taylor P Kuhn, April D Thames
OBJECTIVE: Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928136/evaluation-of-the-comprehensive-health-program-sumida-take10-for-community-dwelling-older-adults-which-aims-to-prevent-or-delay-the-need-for-long-term-nursing-care
#2
Mika Kimura, Ai Moriyasu, Shu Kumagai, Taketo Furuna
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensive health program "Sumida TAKE10!", which aims to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among community-dwelling older adults including the pre-frail elderly. This study has been ongoing since 2005 in Sumida Ward, Tokyo with the ultimate aim of preventing or delaying the need for long-term nursing care. We used the term "pre-frail elderly" for older adults who are at risk of requiring long-term care.Methods "Sumida TAKE10!" consists of a general lecture in a public hall followed by 5 educational sessions biweekly at 4-6 community centers...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924623/does-inflammation-mediate-relationships-between-racial-identity-and-onset-of-menopause-among-us-adults
#3
Alexandra C H Nowakowski, Katelyn Y Graves
We assess how well differences in ethnoracial background may predict timing of menopause among females in the USA and whether or not inflammatory biomarker levels appear to mediate these overall associations. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) to model apparent net effects from race on menopausal onset, as well as possible mediating influences from the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Using continuous time event history analysis, we assess and frame overall relationships between race and menopausal age...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923863/using-the-theory-of-normative-social-behavior-to-understand-compliance-with-a-smoke-free-law-in-a-middle-income-country
#4
M J Byron, J E Cohen, S Frattaroli, J Gittelsohn, D H Jernigan
Smoke-free laws, which ban smoking in public venues, can be effective in protecting public health, but it has been difficult to achieve compliance with these laws in low- and middle-income countries. This study was conducted to understand the social norms around public smoking and learn how to improve compliance in Bogor, the first Indonesian city to pass a comprehensive smoke-free law. Eleven stratified focus groups were conducted (n = 89). Data were analyzed using the theory of normative social behavior, which posits that the influence of descriptive norms (perceptions about what other people do) on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms (perceptions about what one is expected to do), outcome expectations and group identity...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#5
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920620/professional-identity-at-los-angeles-college-of-chiropractic
#6
Melissa Nagare Kimura, Robb Russell, John Scaringe
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to describe chiropractic professional identity as espoused by the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic. DISCUSSION: Professional identity is a construct that begins formation prior to career selection, can be considered the backbone of health care education, and has been linked to career success. Los Angeles College of Chiropractic's professional identity is shaped by a philosophy of health care that is focused on vitalism, holism, naturalism, therapeutic conservatism, critical rationalism, phenomenology, humanism, and interprofessionalism...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920613/core-and-complementary-chiropractic-lowering-barriers-to-patient-utilization-of-services
#7
John J Triano, Marion McGregor
OBJECTIVE: The use of chiropractic services has stalled while interest in accessing manipulation services is rising. The purpose of this paper is to consider this dilemma in the context of the dynamics of professional socialization, surveys of public attitudes, and a potential strategic action. DISCUSSION: This is a reflection work grounded in the literature on professional socialization and the attitudes held regarding chiropractic in modern society, to include its members, and in original data on training programs...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917963/mobile-pastoralists-in-central-and-west-africa-between-conflict-mobile-telephony-and-im-mobility
#8
M De Bruijn, A Amadou, E Lewa Doksala, B Sangaré
The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917848/depression-and-intimate-relationships-of-adolescents-from-divorced-families
#9
Halima Hadžikapetanović, Tajib Babić, Edin Bjelošević
Aim To determine an impact of parental divorce to depression and intimate relationships of young people during adolescence, and prevalence of symptoms of depression and the level of intimacy in relations to adolescents living in intact families and those from divorced families. Methods This prospective descriptive research was conducted on a sample of 168 examinees of which 64 (38.1%) were students of the University Zenica, and 104 (61.9%) high students schools from Zenica and Maglaj cities during May and June 2011...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917145/illegitimate-tasks-as-an-impediment-to-job-satisfaction-and-intrinsic-motivation-moderated-mediation-effects-of-gender-and-effort-reward-imbalance
#10
Rachel Omansky, Erin M Eatough, Marcus J Fila
The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913345/facial-age-estimation-with-age-difference
#11
Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jianfeng Wang, Meng Wang, Richang Hong, Shuicheng Yan
Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912847/negotiating-positive-aging-in-the-presence-of-age-related-vision-loss-arvl-the-shaping-and-perpetuation-of-disability
#12
Colleen McGrath, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Jan Polgar, Marlee M Spafford, Barry Trentham
INTRODUCTION: While previous research has explored the meaning of positive aging discourses from the perspective of older adults, the perspective of older adults aging with a disability has not been studied. In fact the intersection of aging and disability has been largely underexplored in both social gerontology and disability studies. METHOD: This critical ethnography engaged ten older adults aging with vision loss in narrative interviews, participant observation sessions, and semi-structured in-depth interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911678/negative-religious-rhetoric-in-the-lives-of-black-cisgender-queer-emerging-adult-men-a-qualitative-analysis
#13
Ja'Nina J Garrett-Walker, Vanessa M Torres
Given the intersection of racial, religious, and sexual identities for Black queer populations, the current study examines sexuality related religious rhetoric. Twenty Black cisgender queer men were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. Using thematic analysis, the research team identified four themes: negative religious rhetoric, personal consequences of negative religious rhetoric, social consequences of negative religious rhetoric, and growth from negative religious rhetoric. Participants explained the pervasiveness of negative religious rhetoric within their churches and family structures...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#14
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909416/combining-gender-work-and-family-identities-the-cross-over-and-spill-over-of-gender-norms-into-young-adults-work-and-family-aspirations
#15
Loes Meeussen, Jenny Veldman, Colette Van Laar
The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#16
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#17
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#18
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902685/getting-to-the-bottom-of-face-processing-species-specific-inversion-effects-for-faces-and-behinds-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#19
Mariska E Kret, Masaki Tomonaga
For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900896/sociolegal-and-practice-implications-of-caring-for-lgbt-people-with-dementia
#20
Elizabeth Peel, Helen Taylor, Rosie Harding
The needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people with dementia are poorly recognised. This is due partly to assumptions that all older people are heterosexual or asexual. One quarter of gay or bisexual men and half of lesbian or bisexual women have children, compared with 90% of heterosexual women and men, which means LGBT older adults are more likely to reside in care homes. Older LGBT people may be unwilling to express their sexual identities in care settings and this can affect their care. Members of older people's informal care networks must be recognised to ensure their involvement in the lives of residents in care settings continues...
November 30, 2016: Nursing Older People
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