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social identity

Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Cecilia Benoit, Nadia Ouellet, Mikael Jansson
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines unmet health care needs in one of Canada's most hard-to-reach populations, adult sex workers, and investigates whether their reasons for not accessing health care are different from those of other Canadians. METHODS: Data gathered in 2012-2013 from sex workers aged 19 and over (n = 209) in five Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) were analyzed to estimate the perceived health, health care access and level of unmet health care needs of sex workers, and their principal reasons for not accessing health care...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Andrew Paul Gray, Faisca Richer, Sam Harper
OBJECTIVES: Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Youngbin Kwak, Scott A Huettel
Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development-and influences reward learning-we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N = 75, 8-16 years) performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, Kwak et al., 2014) and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J L Wang
Hua Shou was a very famous physician at the turn of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In addition to his medical skills, his social communication was also very helpful to his fame. Under the tutorship of the Confucianist Han Shuo, and physicians such as Wang Jüzhong and Gao Dongyang in his early days, Hua Shou obtained two identities: Confucian scholar and doctor. The former helped Hua Shou get acceptance from literati group, meanwhile, Hua Shou's medical skill helped him deepen the communication among them. By means of his double identity, Hua Shou got acquaintance with many local and nation-wide scholars and politicians, including Zhao Lian, Chen Xingzhong, Wang Shuyu, Fang Guozhen, Song Xuanxi, Zhu You, Wang Xiyang, Song Lian, Liu Ji, through them Hua Shou's fame spread throughout the country...
July 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Falk Schwendicke, Gerd Göstemeyer
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports selective/incomplete (SE) or stepwise (SW) instead of non-selective/complete tissue removal for deep carious lesions in vital teeth, mainly as pulpal risks are significantly reduced. Our aims were to analyze the proportion of dentists who utilize SE/SW for deep lesions in permanent teeth and to identify barriers and facilitators of utilizing SE/SW. METHODS: We included studies that were original, and reported on the proportion of dentists utilizing SE/SW (quantitative studies), or reported on barriers or facilitators of such utilization (qualitative studies)...
October 19, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins, Jayajit Chakraborty, Marilyn Montgomery
Limited systematic comparative knowledge exists about patterns of environmental injustices in exposure to varied natural and technological hazards. To address this gap, we examine how hazard characteristics (i.e., punctuated event/suddenness of onset, frequency/magnitude, and divisibility) influence relationships between race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), older age, housing tenure, and residential hazard exposure. Sociodemographic data come from a random sample survey of 602 residents of the tricounty Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (Florida)...
October 19, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Gaëlle Mainix, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alice Keely, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Lawrie Elliott, Jane Sandall, Anne Whittaker
INTRODUCTION: women with a raised BMI are more likely to gain excessive weight in pregnancy compared to women with a BMI in the normal range. Recent behaviour change interventions have had moderate to no influence on GWG, and no effect on other perinatal outcomes. Evidence is required regarding the social and cultural contexts of weight and pregnancy. No studies to date have included the views of partners. AIMS: to explore the experiences, attitudes and health-related behaviours of pregnant women with a BMI >40kg/m(2); and to identify the factors and considerations which shape their beliefs, experiences and behaviours, and how these may change during and after pregnancy...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
J E McDonagh, K L Shaw, J Prescott, F J Smith, R Roberts, N J Gray
BACKGROUND: Taking medicines as intended is difficult for everybody, but young people going through adolescence have greater problems than adults and younger children. One of the most important things that happen during the teenage years is the development of individual identities, which might not remain constant during this time and can be affected deeply by the diagnosis of a long-term condition. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between identity and medication use among young people with juvenile arthritis...
October 19, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Pamela L Geller, Christopher M Stojanowksi
OBJECTIVES: This article uses craniometric allocation as a platform for discussing the legacy of Samuel G. Morton's collection of crania, the process of racialization, and the value of contextualized biohistoric research perspectives in biological anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard craniometric measurements were recorded for seven Seminoles in the Samuel G. Morton Crania Collection and 10 European soldiers from the Fort St. Marks Military Cemetery; all individuals were men and died in Florida during the 19th century...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Gillian Fergie, Kate Hunt, Shona Hilton
Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD)...
October 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jay Pan, Hanqing Zhao, Xiuli Wang, Xun Shi
In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province...
October 1, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ann Kern-Godal, Ida Halvorsen Brenna, Espen Ajo Arnevik, Edle Ravndal
Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
János Jakucs, Eszter Bánffy, Krisztián Oross, Vanda Voicsek, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Elaine Dunbar, Bernd Kromer, Alex Bayliss, Daniela Hofmann, Peter Marshall, Alasdair Whittle
Perhaps nowhere in European prehistory does the idea of clearly-defined cultural boundaries remain more current than in the initial Neolithic, where the southeast-northwest trend of the spread of farming crosses what is perceived as a sharp divide between the Balkans and central Europe. This corresponds to a distinction between the Vinča culture package, named for a classic site in Serbia, with its characteristic pottery assemblage and absence of longhouses, and the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), with equally diagnostic but different pottery, and its apparently culturally-diagnostic longhouses, extending in a more northerly belt through central Europe westward to the Dutch coast...
2016: Journal of World Prehistory
Charles Furlotte, James W Gladstone, Robert F Cosby, Kerri-Ann Fitzgerald
This qualitative study describes expectations, concerns, and needs regarding long-term care (LTC) homes and home care services of 12 older lesbian and gay couples living in Canada. Our findings reflect four major themes: discrimination, identity, expenditure of energy, and nuanced care. Discrimination involved concerns about covert discrimination; loss of social buffers as one ages; and diminished ability to advocate for oneself and one's partner. Identity involved anticipated risk over disclosing one's sexual identity; the importance of being identified within a coupled relationship; and the importance of access to reference groups of other gay seniors...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Joan Garvan
BACKGROUND: Changes to gendered norms have been the single most significant development in the second part of the twentieth century; practices within families have mirrored these changes. Many, however, are falling by the wayside after the birth of an infant, with high rates of marital breakdown, high rates of anxiety and depression, and significant issues related to identity. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: The aim of this research was to gauge how a sample of Australian women were travelling through the Transition to Parenthood, particularly in terms of their relationships; sharing the care and housework; their life course; and their sense of self...
October 14, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Rosalía Cascón-Pereira, Shiona Chillas, Jerry Hallier
This study examines "identity work" among hybrid doctor-managers (DMs) in the Spanish National Health System to make sense of their managerial roles. In particular, the meanings underlying DMs experience of their hybrid role are investigated using a Grounded Theory methodology, exposing distinctions in role-meanings. Our findings provide evidence that using different social sources of comparison (senior managers or clinicians) to construct the meaning of managerial roles leads to different role-meanings and role identities, which are the source of the two established types of DM in the literature, the reluctant and the enthusiast...
October 3, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Li Han, John W Berry, Yong Zheng
International research has mostly confirmed the positive association between acculturation strategies and resilience in ethnic groups, but the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationships are still under-investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between acculturation strategies (based on two cultural identities) and resilience of 898 Qiang ethnicity volunteers (mean age = 29.5), especially exploring the mediating and moderating effects of personality, spiritual belief and social support on the relationship between acculturation strategy (using two cultural identities as latent variables in model analysis) and resilience following the occurrence of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, taking such mechanisms into account...
2016: PloS One
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