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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772093/leaders-promote-attendance-in-sport-and-exercise-sessions-by-fostering-social-identity
#1
Mark Stevens, Tim Rees, Pete Coffee, S Alexander Haslam, Niklas K Steffens, Remco Polman
Sport and exercise participation exert a positive effect on numerous aspects of individuals' health. Although sport and exercise leaders have generally been observed to play a key role in shaping group members' behavior, our understanding of their impact on group members' attendance in sport and exercise sessions is limited. To address this, and building on promising findings in other domains, we examined associations between perceptions of sport and exercise leaders' engagement in social identity leadership, group identification, and attendance...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771561/mood-selectively-moderates-the-implicit-alcohol-association-drinking-relation-in-college-student-heavy-episodic-drinkers
#2
Kristen P Lindgren, Jason J Ramirez, Reinout W Wiers, Bethany A Teachman, Jeanette Norris, Cecilia C Olin, Melissa L Gasser, Debra Kaysen, Clayton Neighbors
Multiple studies indicate that implicit alcohol-related associations (i.e., indices of relatively fast, spontaneous processes) predict drinking. An important next step is to investigate moderators of the implicit association-drinking relationship. Mood state has been proposed as a moderator of this relationship: implicit associations have been theorized to be stronger predictors of drinking under positive mood states. From the same theoretical perspective, explicit measures (indices of relatively slow, reflective processes) have been proposed to be stronger predictors of drinking under negative mood states...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770324/one-health-integration-a-proposed-framework-for-a-study-on-veterinarians-and-zoonotic-disease-management-in-ghana
#3
Sophie Françoise Valeix
In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770277/a-strategy-to-find-novel-candidate-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-drugs-by-constructing-interaction-networks-between-drug-targets-and-natural-compounds-in-medical-plants
#4
Bi-Wen Chen, Wen-Xing Li, Guang-Hui Wang, Gong-Hua Li, Jia-Qian Liu, Jun-Juan Zheng, Qian Wang, Hui-Juan Li, Shao-Xing Dai, Jing-Fei Huang
Background: Alzheimer' disease (AD) is an ultimately fatal degenerative brain disorder that has an increasingly large burden on health and social care systems. There are only five drugs for AD on the market, and no new effective medicines have been discovered for many years. Chinese medicinal plants have been used to treat diseases for thousands of years, and screening herbal remedies is a way to develop new drugs. Methods: We used molecular docking to screen 30,438 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against a comprehensive list of AD target proteins...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769409/individuals-fail-to-reap-the-collective-benefits-of-diversity-because-of-over-reliance-on-personal-information
#5
Alan Novaes Tump, Max Wolf, Jens Krause, Ralf H J M Kurvers
Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individuals in solving cognitive tasks. Although numerous studies have demonstrated this effect, the mechanisms underlying collective intelligence remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate diversity in cue beliefs as a mechanism potentially promoting collective intelligence. In our experimental study, human groups observed a sequence of cartoon characters, and classified each character as a cooperator or defector based on informative and uninformative cues...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767432/open-sepulchers-and-closed-boundaries-biodistance-analysis-of-cemetery-structure-and-postmarital-residence-in-the-late-prehispanic-andes
#6
Matthew C Velasco
OBJECTIVES: In the Late Intermediate Period Andes (AD 1100-1450), the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers reconfigured social boundaries within and between communities engaged in protracted conflict. However, the biosocial dimensions of these mortuary practices, and their implications for conflict and alliance formation, remain unexplored. This study examines patterns of phenotypic variation to: (1) evaluate if open sepulchers were organized on the basis of biological relatedness, and (2) explore if sex-specific phenotypic variability conforms to models of postmarital residence...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766650/social-communication-in-bats
#7
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765691/sexual-phenotype-drives-variation-in-endocrine-responses-to-social-challenge-in-a-quasi-clonal-animal
#8
Cheng-Yu Li, Shu-Ping Huang, Mark Garcia, Adam Fuller, Yuying Hsu, Ryan L Earley
In many species, males tend to behave more aggressively than females and female aggression often occurs during particular life stages such as maternal defence of offspring. Though many studies have revealed differences in aggression between the sexes, few studies have compared the sexes in terms of their neuroendocrine responses to contest experience. We investigated sex differences in the endocrine response to social challenge using mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus . In this species, sex is determined environmentally, allowing us to produce males and hermaphrodites with identical genotypes...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764872/development-and-testing-of-the-youth-alcohol-norms-survey-yans-instrument-to-measure-youth-alcohol-norms-and-psychosocial-influences
#9
Sharyn K Burns, Bruce Maycock, Janina Hildebrand, Yun Zhao, Steve Allsop, Roanna Lobo, Peter Howat
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. SETTING: The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764196/a-dialectical-and-dialogical-approach-to-health-policies-and-programs-the-case-of-open-defecation-in-india
#10
Robin Patric Clair, Rahul Rastogi, Seungyoon Lee, Rosalee A Clawson, Ernest R Blatchley, Charlotte Erdmann
A multi-pronged approach to health policy and programs related to open defecation (OD) is proposed via a qualitative study conducted in rural India. A dialogic and dialectic perspective is employed to interpret the key findings from nine focus groups, highlighting the dialectical views toward OD and latrines. Findings indicate that current policy may be too narrow as it does not fully deal with the multiple reasons, including social communication as well as gender, cultural, health and work identity issues, for OD...
May 15, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761916/-%C3%A2-but-if-you-re-afraid-of-things-how-are-you-meant-to-belong-what-belonging-means-to-people-with-intellectual-disabilities
#11
Iva Strnadová, Kelley Johnson, Jan Walmsley
BACKGROUND: A policy commitment to social inclusion has brought about some positive changes in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities; yet many also continue to experience social isolation, poverty and abuse. The authors introduce a framework for belonging from the literature and then present a study exploring the views of people with intellectual disabilities about belonging. These are discussed in relation to the framework identified from the literature. METHOD: Three focus groups with 24 participants with intellectual disabilities were conducted in New South Wales and Victoria (Australia)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757091/striving-for-liminality-eating-disorders-and-social-suffering
#12
Karin Eli
In this article, I argue that eating disorders constitute a form of social suffering, in which sufferers embody liminality as a response to, and a reflection of, oppressive sociality, structural violence, and institutional constraints. Based on the illness narratives of people with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and their subclinical variants in Israel, the analysis draws the experiential, the social, and the structural into critical focus. These narratives, which delineate lived experiences of self-starving, bingeing, and purging, and the attendant viscerality of hunger, fullness, and emptiness, reveal how participants developed an embodied drawing inward and away, being at once within and without society for extended periods of time, through eating disordered practices...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754268/the-role-of-social-relationships-in-prep-uptake-and-use-among-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#13
Megha L Mehrotra, K Rivet Amico, Vanessa McMahan, David V Glidden, Patricia Defechereux, Juan V Guanira, Robert M Grant
Qualitative studies suggest that social relationships play an important role in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, but there have been few quantitative assessments of the role of social relationships in PrEP uptake or adherence. We examined the association between disclosure of study participation or LGBT identity and PrEP use in the 1603 HIV-negative participants enrolled in the iPrEx OLE study. We also evaluated the association between LGBT social group involvement and PrEP use. Study participation disclosure to parents and LGBT identity disclosure to anyone in a participant's social network were associated with greater PrEP uptake...
May 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754118/exploring-emotional-aspects-of-infertility-in-women-from-two-countries
#14
V Giannouli, S Stoyanova
A plethora of studies have examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression in relation to infertility, while ignoring social and cultural factors. The aim of this cross-cultural study is to examine emotions related to quality of life, perceived social support, depression and anxiety in two groups of young women with identical demographic characteristics (age, education, and duration of infertility - years to have a child) who experience fertility problems in two neighboring countries, Greece and Bulgaria...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753137/perceptions-of-intersectional-stigma-among-diverse-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#15
Whitney S Rice, Carmen H Logie, Tessa M Napoles, Melonie Walcott, Abigail W Batchelder, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Gina M Wingood, Deborah J Konkle-Parker, Bulent Turan, Tracey E Wilson, Mallory O Johnson, Sheri D Weiser, Janet M Turan
Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California...
May 4, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752630/potentially-reversible-social-deficits-among-transgender-youth
#16
Jack L Turban
Recently, there has been increased attention to a putative relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and gender dysphoria, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnosis for those whose gender assigned at birth does not match their gender identity. Studies have shown an over-representation of ASD symptoms among transgender youth. These studies, however, have used scales that are non-specific for ASD. These ASD symptoms may represent social deficits that are secondary to social stress and deprivation, as transgender youth suffer high rates of peer and family rejection...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750559/morph-specific-patterns-of-reproductive-senescence-connections-to-discrete-reproductive-strategies
#17
Andrea S Grunst, Melissa L Grunst, Vince A Formica, Marisa L Korody, Adam M Betuel, Margarida Barcelo-Serra, Sarah Ford, Rusty A Gonser, Elaina M Tuttle
How reproductive strategies contribute to patterns of senescence in natural populations remains contentious. We studied reproductive senescence in the dimorphic white-throated sparrow, an excellent species for exploring this issue. Within both sexes the morphs use distinct reproductive strategies, and disassortative pairing by morph results in pair types with distinct parental systems. White morph birds are more colorful and aggressive than tan counterparts, and white males compete for extrapair matings, whereas tan males are more parental...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747043/combined-effects-of-physiological-condition-and-environmental-attributes-in-determining-call-plasticity
#18
Lucia Ziegler, Matias Arim, Francisco Bozinovic
Evidence is growing on the ability of anurans to make immediate call adjustments in response to the propagation properties of the environment. However, our understanding of such flexibility is typically based on dichotomous stimuli (i.e. presence/absence), while its condition-dependence has been little explored. We experimentally studied the ability of adjustment and its condition dependence of advertisement calls of Hypsiboas pulchellus in response to different levels of attenuation. Individuals modified most call parameters analyzed, although the direction of adjustments was contingent on individual identity, level of attenuation and trait category (i...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745711/rapid-visual-perception-of-interracial-crowds-racial-category-learning-from-emotional-segregation
#19
Sarah Ariel Lamer, Timothy D Sweeny, Michael Louis Dyer, Max Weisbuch
Drawing from research on social identity and ensemble coding, we theorize that crowd perception provides a powerful mechanism for social category learning. Crowds include allegiances that may be distinguished by visual cues to shared behavior and mental states, providing perceivers with direct information about social groups and thus a basis for learning social categories. Here, emotion expressions signaled group membership: to the extent that a crowd exhibited emotional segregation (i.e., was segregated into emotional subgroups), a visible characteristic (race) that incidentally distinguished emotional subgroups was expected to support categorical distinctions...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745248/social-identity-in-new-mexicans-of-spanish-speaking-descent-highlights-limitations-of-using-standardized-ethnic-terminology-in-research
#20
Keith Hunley, Heather Edgar, Meghan Healy, Carmen Mosley, Graciela S Cabana, Frankie West
In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood...
July 2017: Human Biology
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