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"Only children"

Hidehiko Okamoto
Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Toni Falbo
The purpose of this study was to explore whether evaluations of the behavioral attributes of only children in Beijing differed from evaluations of children with siblings, and how these evaluations were affected by gender and China's One-Child Policy (OCP). This study applies hierarchical linear regression analyses to data collected from children born before or after the initiation of the OCP. The participants ( N = 1000) were randomly selected schoolchildren whose behavioral attributes were evaluated by the children themselves, their peers, parents, and teachers, using a 32 attributes checklist, consisting of attributes Chinese experts considered important for school-aged children...
April 2018: Heliyon
Alison M Elliott, Christèle du Souich, Shelin Adam, Nick Dragojlovic, Clara van Karnebeek, Tanya N Nelson, Anna Lehman, Larry D Lynd, Jan M Friedman
BACKGROUND: Access to clinical diagnostic genome-wide sequencing (GWS; exome or whole genome sequencing) is limited in British Columbia. The establishment of a translational research initiative (CAUSES) to provide diagnostic genome-wide sequencing for 500 children necessitated the development of a genomic consultation service, a clinical service established to provide consultation for physicians considering GWS for their pediatric patients throughout British Columbia. The Genomic Consultation Service provides patient-specific genomic advice that may include: GWS, multi-gene panel, single gene test, referral to medical genetics for clinical evaluation, or no genetic testing...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Keiko Yamazaki, Yu Ait Bamai, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura
Since "Our Stolen Future" by Theo Colborn was published in 1996, global interest on the impact of chemical substances, such as the endocrine-disrupting action of chemicals, has increased. In Japan, "The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health: Malformation, Development and Allergy" was launched in 2001. It was a model of Japan Environment and Children's Study of the Ministry of the Environment. In a large-scale, Hokkaido cohort, we obtained the consent of 20,926 mothers at the organogenesis stage with the cooperation of 37 obstetrics clinics in Hokkaido...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
J Copelyn, P Apolles, M-A Davies, B Eley
BACKGROUND: The large scale-up of paediatric HIV care necessitated down-referral of many children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH), Cape Town, South Africa. Few published data exist on the outcomes of these children. OBJECTIVES: To assess outcomes of children receiving ART in the first 12 months after down-referral to primary healthcare (PHC) clinics and identify determinants of successful down-referral...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Lubov Blumkin, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Ana Westenberger, Hilla Ben-Pazi, Ayelet Zerem, Keren Yosovich, Dorit Lev
OBJECTIVE:  This article elucidates a clinical and genetic approach to pediatric early-onset chorea in patients with normal neuroimaging. METHODS:  We retrospectively studied patients with onset hyperkinetic movement disorders. Only children with onset of chorea in the first 3 years of life were included, those with an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or electroencephalogram (EEG) were excluded.We studied the movement disorder phenotype by clinical examination and by interpretation of videos and compared our data to the literature...
May 25, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Kinga Musiał, Marta Sałamacha, Sylwia Gralec, Anna Pers, Łukasz Jacheć, Danuta Zwolińska
Although anomalies in the urinary tract are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the pediatric population, there are few studies focusing on etiological discrepancies between younger and older children. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of etiology of CKD in children hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology at the Wrocław Medical University, with reference to the patients' age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis considered medical records of 174 patients aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with CKD, hospitalized in our Department in the years 2011-2017...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Hugues Pellerin, Virginie Czernecki, Tiphanie Priou, Jean Xavier, Angèle Consoli, Andreas Hartmann, David Cohen
AIM: To explore the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome as part of a neurodevelopmental spectrum. METHOD: Using hierarchical ascendant clustering based on tic symptoms, developmental milestones, and neurodevelopmental comorbidities, we analyzed the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome phenotypes in a sample of 174 children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome referred to a tertiary university clinic. RESULTS: The model yielded three distinct clusters characterized as follows...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Li Cai, Lizi Lin, Meixia Dai, Yajun Chen, Xiuhong Li, Jun Ma, Jin Jing
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: China's one-child policy has been in place for 35 years, yet its impact on the differences of weight status including thinness and overweight/obesity, lifestyles, and parental concerns between only children (OC) and non-only children (NOC) were seldom discussed. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 62,444 children aged 6-17 years were recruited in 2013. Thinness and overweight/obesity were calculated from anthropometric measurements. Information on dietary consumption, dietary behaviors, physical activities (PA)-related behaviors, and parental concerns were obtained via questionnaires...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sen, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Raghbendra Sah, Puskar Paudel, Andrew Copas, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Machhindra Basnet, Saskia de Pee, Andrew Hall, Jayne Harthan, Meelan Thondoo, Sonja Klingberg, Janice Messick, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA) women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women. METHODS: We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150)...
2018: PloS One
Claire-Sara Krakowski, Grégoire Borst, Julie Vidal, Olivier Houdé, Nicolas Poirel
Visual environments are composed of global shapes and local details that compete for attentional resources. In adults, the global level is processed more rapidly than the local level, and global information must be inhibited in order to process local information when the local information and global information are in conflict. Compared with adults, children present less of a bias toward global visual information and appear to be more sensitive to the density of local elements that constitute the global level...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Andrea Pozza, Christine Lochner, Fabio Ferretti, Alessandro Cuomo, Anna Coluccia
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the leading causes of disability and reduced quality of life (QOL), with impairment in a number of domains. However, there is a paucity of literature on the association between severity of OCD symptoms and QOL, and the data that do exist are inconsistent. In addition, the role of severity in QOL has not been summarized as yet from a cross-generational perspective (ie, across childhood/adolescence and adulthood). Through meta-regression techniques, the current study summarized evidence about the moderator role of severity of OCD symptoms on differences in global QOL between individuals with OCD and controls...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sylvana M Côté, Massimiliano Orri, Richard E Tremblay, Orla Doyle
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the developmental impact of a prenatal-to-age-5 multicomponent early intervention program targeting families living in low socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: Pregnant women from a disadvantaged Irish community were randomly assigned into a treatment group (home visits, baby massage, and parenting program; n = 115) or control group ( n = 118). Children's behavioral problems (externalizing, internalizing), cognitive skills (general, vocabulary), and health service use (number of health clinic visits), were regularly assessed (6 months to 4 years of age)...
April 27, 2018: Pediatrics
Annemaree Carroll, Molly McCarthy, Stephen Houghton, Emma Sanders O'Connor, Corinne Zadow
Reactive and proactive aggression is a dichotomous classification of aggression in adults and children. This distinction has been supported by a number of variable-based and factor analytic studies. Due to high inter-correlations, however, the reactive-proactive aggression distinction may not be entirely useful for understanding how group or individual aggressive behavior varies in children and adolescents. Drawing on a sample of primary school-aged children (N = 242) aged 7-12 years, this study sought to determine whether reactive and proactive aggression could be distinguished at the variable-level and the person-level in children...
April 24, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Liqiu Zhao, Minghai Zhou
This paper examines whether only children have poor vision by exploiting the quasinatural experiment generated by the Chinese One-Child Policy. The results suggest that being an only child increases the incidence of myopia by 9.1 percentage points. We further investigate the mechanisms through which being an only child affects the myopia and find that only children, as the only hope in a household, receive higher expectations in terms of academic performance and future educational attainment and pressure to succeed in life from parents, which contribute to the increased myopia...
July 2018: Health Economics
S Tolga Yavuz, Stephanie Siebert, Onur Akin, Mutluay Arslan, Ersoy Civelek, Soyhan Bagci
BACKGROUND: Results of epidemiologic studies have determined several risk factors for asthma in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether parental and perinatal risk factors, along with infantile feeding patterns, were associated with asthma in children with grass pollen allergy and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of our cohort, which consisted of children with allergic rhinitis. Only children with grass pollen sensitization were enrolled...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
J A Seddon, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, A C Hesseling
Paediatric anti-tuberculosis treatment trials have traditionally been limited to Phase I/II studies evaluating the drug pharmacokinetics and safety in children, with assumptions about efficacy made by extrapolating data from adults. However, it is increasingly being recognised that, in some circumstances, efficacy trials are required in children. The current treatment for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is long and toxic; shorter, safer regimens, using novel agents, require urgent evaluation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Alan M Nevill, Gavin Sandercock, Michael J Duncan, Ian Lahart, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Robinson Ramirez-Velez
OBJECTIVES: In low- to middle-income countries, children from less-deprived areas (from families of higher socio-economic status [SES]) have superior muscular fitness than those from low-SES groups. They are also taller and heavier, factors associated with muscular fitness. The purpose of this study was to identify any socio-demographic differences in Colombian children's muscular fitness and examine how these conclusions can be modified by scaling for differences in body size. METHODS: A total of 38,098 youths (46% girls), ninth grade students (aged 14-15 years), participated in a study of cross-sectional design...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Angela M Parcesepe, Catrina Mugglin, Fred Nalugoda, Charlotte Bernard, Evy Yunihastuti, Keri Althoff, Antoine Jaquet, Andreas D Haas, Stephany N Duda, C William Wester, Denis Nash
INTRODUCTION: Integration of services to screen and manage mental health and substance use disorders (MSDs) into HIV care settings has been identified as a promising strategy to improve mental health and HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data on the extent to which HIV treatment sites in LMICs screen and manage MSDs are limited. The objective of this study was to assess practices for screening and treatment of MSDs at HIV clinics in LMICs participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
D Roorda, M J Witvliet, L M Wellens, D V Schulten, C E J Sloots, I de Blaauw, P M A Broens, J Oosterlaan, L W E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
AIM: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a severe form of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) associated with a high morbidity. This study assesses long-term functional outcome and Quality of Life (QoL) of TCA patients in a national consecutive cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients (n=53) diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were reviewed on surgical and demographic characteristics. Functional outcome of all non-syndromal patients, aged ≥ four years (n=35) was assessed in medical records and with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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