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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623142/complication-of-newborn-circumcision-meatal-stenosis-or-meatal-web
#1
Mehmet Ali Özen, Gökhan Gündoğdu, Mehmet Taşdemir, Egemen Eroğlu
INTRODUCTION: Meatal stenosis (MS) is a known complication of newborn circumcision. Symptoms are usually masked in young kids with a diaper. Deflation of urinary stream, dysuria, urinary frequency, and incontinence are the most common reported symptoms. Diagnosis of MS is still controversial. A narrow pinpoint urethral meatus is the current accepted diagnostic criteria. OBJECTIVE: In our practice, we observed that our cases do not overlap to the classic definition and presentation of MS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579135/urinary-tract-infection-after-voiding-cystourethrogram
#2
E K Johnson, N R Malhotra, R Shannon, D L Jacobson, J Green, C K Rigsby, J L Holl, E Y Cheng
BACKGROUND: Reported rates of post-procedural urinary tract infection (ppUTI) after voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) are highly variable (0-42%). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the risk of ppUTI after cystogram, and evaluate predictors of ppUTI. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of children undergoing VCUG or radionuclide cystogram (henceforth 'cystogram') was conducted. Children with neurogenic bladder who underwent cystogram in the operating room and without follow-up at the study institution were excluded...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556932/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-consumption-of-sugar-containing-beverages-and-excess-weight-gain-among-children-under-age-12
#3
Julie Frantsve-Hawley, James D Bader, Jean A Welsh, J Timothy Wright
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review was conducted to address this clinical question: Does consumption of (non-dairy) sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) among children under age 12 result in excess weight gain? METHODS: The authors searched four databases for controlled trials (randomized and non-randomized) and cohort studies published in English through March 29, 2016: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL. Initial and full-text screening, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed independently and in duplicate...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#4
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496154/young-children-copy-cumulative-technological-design-in-the-absence-of-action-information
#5
E Reindl, I A Apperly, S R Beck, C Tennie
The ratchet effect - the accumulation of beneficial changes in cultural products beyond a level that individuals could reach on their own - is a topic of increasing interest. It is currently debated which social learning mechanisms allow for the generation and transmission of cumulative culture. This study focused on transmission, investigating whether 4- to 6-year-old children were able to copy cumulative technological design and whether they could do so without action information (emulation). We adapted the spaghetti tower task, previously used to test for accumulation of culture in human adults...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492402/can-the-pediatric-logistic-organ-dysfunction-2-score-on-day-1-be-used-in-clinical-criteria-for-sepsis-in-children
#6
Francis Leclerc, Alain Duhamel, Valérie Deken, Bruno Grandbastien, Stéphane Leteurtre
A recent task force has proposed the use of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment in clinical criteria for sepsis in adults. We sought to evaluate the predictive validity for PICU mortality of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 and of the "quick" Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 scores on day 1 in children with suspected infection. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the database used for the development and validation of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2. SETTINGS: Nine university-affiliated PICUs in Europe...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492192/association-between-family-structure-and-oral-health-of-children-with-mixed-dentition-in-suburban-nigeria
#7
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Kikelomo Adebanke Kolawole, Elizabeth O Oziegbe, Titus A Oyedele, Hakeem O Agbaje, Nneka Kate Onjejaka, Victor Olasegun Oshomoji
CONTEXT: Family structures can affect the oral health of the child. However, little is known about the impact of the family structure on oral health of children in Africa. AIMS: To determine the association between family structure, twice daily toothbrushing, use of fluoridated toothpaste, caries, and oral hygiene status of 5-12-year-old children resident in semi-urban Nigeria. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the data of 601 children recruited through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria...
April 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470972/oral-calorie-supplements-for-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Rosalind L Smyth, Oli Rayner
BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460368/childhood-maltreatment-and-chinese-adolescents-bullying-and-defending-the-mediating-role-of-moral-disengagement
#9
Xingchao Wang, Li Yang, Ling Gao, Jiping Yang, Li Lei, Caiyu Wang
In the present study, we tested the mediating role of moral disengagement in the effect of childhood maltreatment on bullying and defending. We also examined whether the mediating effect of moral disengagement differed between girls and boys, early and middle adolescents, as well as only and non-only children. Five hundred and fifty-two Chinese adolescents participated in this study. The results indicated that the prevalence rates of physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were 4...
April 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444987/platelet-count-spleen-length-and-platelet-count-to-spleen-length-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-oesophageal-varices-in-people-with-chronic-liver-disease-or-portal-vein-thrombosis
#10
REVIEW
Agostino Colli, Juan Cristóbal Gana, Jason Yap, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Natalie Rashkovan, Simon C Ling, Giovanni Casazza
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend screening of people with oesophageal varices via oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy at the time of diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis. This requires that people repeatedly undergo unpleasant invasive procedures with their attendant risks, although half of these people have no identifiable oesophageal varices 10 years after the initial diagnosis of cirrhosis. Platelet count, spleen length, and platelet count-to-spleen length ratio are non-invasive tests proposed as triage tests for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices...
April 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421006/do-demographic-characteristics-make-differences-demographic-characteristics-as-moderators-in-the-associations-between-only-child-status-and-cognitive-non-cognitive-outcomes-in-china
#11
Ning Liu, Yiting Chen, Xiangdong Yang, Yi Hu
Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7-8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such as gender, region, parental educational level, parental expectations, family socio-economic status and family structure, in the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376442/prevalence-of-atypical-pathogens-in-patients-with-cough-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Christian Marchello, Ariella Perry Dale, Thuy Nhu Thai, Duk Soo Han, Mark H Ebell
PURPOSE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute cough, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are often caused by infections with viruses or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis among patients with these illnesses in the ambulatory setting has not been previously summarized. We set out to derive prevalence information from the existing literature...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334433/dietary-interventions-for-recurrent-abdominal-pain-in-childhood
#13
REVIEW
Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Alice E Martin, Rebecca A Abbott, Alison Bethel, Joanna Thompson-Coon, Rebecca Whear, Stuart Logan
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review, last published in 2009 (Huertas-Ceballos 2009). Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), including children with irritable bowel syndrome, is a common problem affecting between 4% and 25% of school-aged children. For the majority of such children, no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation. Many dietary inventions have been suggested to improve the symptoms of RAP. These may involve either excluding ingredients from the diet or adding supplements such as fibre or probiotics...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328565/control-of-walking-speed-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
Jon R Davids, Nina Q Cung, Suzy Chen, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Anita M Bagley
BACKGROUND: Children's ability to control the speed of gait is important for a wide range of activities. It is thought that the ability to increase the speed of gait for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is common. This study considered 3 hypotheses: (1) most ambulatory children with CP can increase gait speed, (2) the characteristics of free (self-selected) and fast walking are related to motor impairment level, and (3) the strategies used to increase gait speed are distinct among these levels...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279454/comparison-and-validation-of-two-mathematical-models-for-the-impact-of-mass-drug-administration-on-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-hookworm-infection
#15
Luc E Coffeng, James E Truscott, Sam H Farrell, Hugo C Turner, Rajiv Sarkar, Gagandeep Kang, Sake J de Vlas, Roy M Anderson
The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262932/nonrandom-acts-of-kindness-parasympathetic-and-subjective-empathic-responses-to-sadness-predict-children-s-prosociality
#16
Jonas G Miller, Jacob N Nuselovici, Paul D Hastings
How does empathic physiology unfold as a dynamic process, and which aspect of empathy predicts children's kindness? In response to empathy induction videos, 4- to 6-year-old children (N = 180) showed an average pattern of dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change characterized by early RSA suppression, followed by RSA recovery, and modest subsequent suppression during positive resolution of the empathic event. Children's capacity for this pattern of flexible RSA change was associated with their subjective empathic feelings, which were concurrently associated with more sympathetic and prosocial responses to others...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215791/does-ethnicity-influence-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review
#17
Tamara L Blake, Anne B Chang, Mark D Chatfield, Helen L Petsky, Leanne T Rodwell, Michael G Brown, Deb C Hill, Margaret S McElrea
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is used clinically as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Awareness of the factors influencing FeNO values is important for valid clinical interpretation. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases, as well as reference lists of included articles to evaluate whether ethnicity influences FeNO values, and to determine if this influence affects clinical interpretation according to current guidelines...
February 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149578/review-of-tracheobronchial-foreign-body-aspiration-in-the-south-african-paediatric-age-group
#18
REVIEW
Tamer Ali Sultan, Arjan Bastiaan van As
Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town is the only children's hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146069/enhanced-living-by-assessing-voice-pathology-using-a-co-occurrence-matrix
#19
Ghulam Muhammad, Mohammed F Alhamid, M Shamim Hossain, Ahmad S Almogren, Athanasios V Vasilakos
A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals and electroglottography (EGG) signals...
January 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118804/the-foot-abduction-characteristics-following-steenbeek-foot-abduction-brace
#20
Anil Agarwal, Anubrat Kumar, Madhusudan Mishra
PURPOSE: We prospectively investigated the foot abduction characteristics following Steenbeek foot abduction brace (SFAB) use in corrected clubfeet. The foot abduction achievable in SFAB with knee flexion and extension was calculated to find the effectiveness and stretch exerted by it. METHODS: Only children with corrected idiopathic clubfeet using SFAB for greater than 3 months were enrolled. The foot abduction with and without brace in knee extended and flexed positions was measured...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
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