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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315144/monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-amr-using-cusum-control-charts
#1
L Righi, R Amarsy, M-Q Picat, M Thuillier, E Cambau, L Raskine, S Chevret, R Flicoteaux
We evaluated the use of the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) control chart methodology for detection of an excessive increase in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria acquisition. We used administrative, clinical and bacteriological data from all 157,570 patients hospitalized for at least 48 h from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 in a 654-bed university teaching hospital in Paris, France. Monthly computed CUSUM were evaluated for the detection of out-of-control situations, defined as incidence rates of acquired AMR bacterial colonization exceeding acceptable thresholds at the hospital and ward levels (based on six selected wards) for AMR bacteria overall and Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), specifically...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303131/multiplexed-single-intact-cell-droplet-digital-pcr-music-ddpcr-method-for-specific-detection-of-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-ehec-in-food-enrichment-cultures
#3
Tanis C McMahon, Burton W Blais, Alex Wong, Catherine D Carrillo
Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299971/addressing-excess-risk-of-overdose-among-recently-incarcerated-people-in-the-usa-harm-reduction-interventions-in-correctional-settings
#4
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David H Cloud, Chelsea Davis, Nickolas Zaller, Ayesha Delany-Brumsey, Leah Pope, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Josiah Rich
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to reduce overdose deaths among those with recent incarceration. Jails and prisons are at the epicenter of the opioid epidemic but are a largely untapped setting for implementing overdose education, risk assessment, medication assisted treatment, and naloxone distribution programs...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299201/lyssaviruses-and-rabies-current-conundrums-concerns-contradictions-and-controversies
#5
REVIEW
Charles Rupprecht, Ivan Kuzmin, Francois Meslin
Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297893/direct-link-between-boson-peak-modes-and-dielectric-%C3%AE-relaxation-in-glasses
#6
Bingyu Cui, Rico Milkus, Alessio Zaccone
We compute the dielectric response of glasses starting from a microscopic system-bath Hamiltonian of the Zwanzig-Caldeira-Leggett type and using an ansatz from kinetic theory for the memory function in the resulting generalized Langevin equation. The resulting framework requires the knowledge of the vibrational density of states (DOS) as input, which we take from numerical evaluation of a marginally stable harmonic disordered lattice, featuring a strong boson peak (excess of soft modes over Debye ∼ω_{p}^{2} law)...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290823/-prevalence-of-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-disease-in-kyrgyzstan-assessment-using-who-steps-approach
#7
T A A, S A Makhmutkhodzhaev, R B Kydyralieva, A T Altymysheva, R S Dzhakipova, K S Zhorupbekova, S T Ryskulova, V G Knyazeva, M T Kaliev, A S Dzhumagulova
Assessment of prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) based on WHO "STEPS" approach was conducted in Kyrgyzstan. Results of this study demonstrated high prevalence of NCD risk factors: 94.2% of subjects aged 24-64 years had risk factors. Prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 48.7, smoking - 25.7, hypercholesterolemia - 23.6, excessive alcohol consumption - 31.4, physical inactivity 11.4, obesity - 23.1, elevated glucose level - 4.5, diabetes - 8.8, inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables - 74%...
December 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286494/clinical-practice-evidence-based-recommendations-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-dystonia-with-botulinum-toxin
#8
REVIEW
Maria Fiorella Contarino, Joost Van Den Dool, Yacov Balash, Kailash Bhatia, Nir Giladi, Johannes H Koelman, Annemette Lokkegaard, Maria J Marti, Miranda Postma, Maja Relja, Matej Skorvanek, Johannes D Speelman, Evelien Zoons, Joaquim J Ferreira, Marie Vidailhet, Alberto Albanese, Marina A J Tijssen
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most frequent form of focal dystonia. Symptoms often result in pain and functional disability. Local injections of botulinum neurotoxin are currently the treatment of choice for CD. Although this treatment has proven effective and is widely applied worldwide, many issues still remain open in the clinical practice. We performed a systematic review of the literature on botulinum toxin treatment for CD based on a question-oriented approach, with the aim to provide practical recommendations for the treating clinicians...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284020/frenotomy-for-tongue-tie-in-newborn-infants
#9
REVIEW
Joyce E O'Shea, Jann P Foster, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Deirdre Breathnach, Susan E Jacobs, David A Todd, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is a condition whereby the lingual frenulum attaches near the tip of the tongue and may be short, tight and thick. Tongue-tie is present in 4% to 11% of newborns. Tongue-tie has been cited as a cause of poor breastfeeding and maternal nipple pain. Frenotomy, which is commonly performed, may correct the restriction to tongue movement and allow more effective breastfeeding with less maternal nipple pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frenotomy is safe and effective in improving ability to feed orally among infants younger than three months of age with tongue-tie (and problems feeding)...
March 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280723/3d-clumped-cell-segmentation-using-curvature-based-seeded-watershed
#10
Thomas Atta-Fosu, Weihong Guo, Dana Jeter, Claudia M Mizutani, Nathan Stopczynski, Rui Sousa-Neves
Image segmentation is an important process that separates objects from the background and also from each other. Applied to cells, the results can be used for cell counting which is very important in medical diagnosis and treatment, and biological research that is often used by scientists and medical practitioners. Segmenting 3D confocal microscopy images containing cells of different shapes and sizes is still challenging as the nuclei are closely packed. The watershed transform provides an efficient tool in segmenting such nuclei provided a reasonable set of markers can be found in the image...
December 2016: J Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278375/in-situ-formed-type-i-nanocrystalline-perovskite-film-for-highly-efficient-light-emitting-diode
#11
Jin-Wook Lee, Yung Ji Choi, June-Mo Yang, Sujin Ham, Sang Kyu Jeon, Jun Yeob Lee, Young Hyun Song, Eun Kyung Ji, Dae Ho Yoon, Seongrok Seo, Hyunjung Shin, Gill Sang Han, Hyun Suk Jung, Dongho Kim, Nam-Gyu Park
Excellent color purity with a tunable band gap renders organic-inorganic halide perovskite highly capable of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Perovskite nanocrystals show photoluminescence quantum yield exceeding 90%, which, however, decreases to lower than 20% upon formation of thin film. The limited photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite thin film has been a formidable obstacle for development of highly efficient perovskite LEDs. Here, we report a method for highly luminescent MAPbBr3 (MA = CH3NH3) nanocrystals formed in-situ in thin film based on non-stoichiometric adduct and solvent-vacuum drying approaches...
March 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275728/assembly-of-mesoscale-helices-with-near-unity-enantiomeric-excess-and-light-matter-interactions-for-chiral-semiconductors
#12
Wenchun Feng, Ji-Young Kim, Xinzhi Wang, Heather A Calcaterra, Zhibei Qu, Louisa Meshi, Nicholas A Kotov
Semiconductors with chiral geometries at the nanoscale and mesoscale provide a rich materials platform for polarization optics, photocatalysis, and biomimetics. Unlike metallic and organic optical materials, the relationship between the geometry of chiral semiconductors and their chiroptical properties remains, however, vague. Homochiral ensembles of semiconductor helices with defined geometries open the road to understanding complex relationships between geometrical parameters and chiroptical properties of semiconductor materials...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268555/lung-tumor-boundary-tracking-in-mri-with-moving-mesh-correspondences-for-adaptive-radio-therapy
#13
Nazanin Tahmasebi, Pierre Boulanger, Kumaradevan Punithakumar
Delineation of lung tumor regions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) poses many difficulties due to MR signal similarities of the region of interest and surrounding area as well as the influence of respiration. However, accurate segmentation of the tumor region is of utmost importance in planning a radiation therapy since a small error can result in some healthy tissues to receive excessive radiation. This study presents a semi-automated method to delineate lung tumor regions from a sequence of MRIs. The proposed method uses a non-rigid image registration framework to propagate the boundaries of the tumor region in MRI acquired during a radiation treatment stage, given manual segmentation on frames acquired during pretreatment stage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267412/statistical-planning-to-address-strongly-correlated-endpoints-for-inferential-subgroups-an-innovative-approach-for-an-illustrative-clinical-trial-with-complex-multiplicity-issues
#14
Hengrui Sun, Bruce Binkowitz, Gary G Koch
Multiplicity is an important statistical issue that arises in clinical trials when the efficacy of the test treatment is evaluated in multiple ways. The major concern for multiplicity is that uncontrolled multiple assessments lead to inflated family-wise Type I error, and they thereby undermine the integrity of the statistical inferences. Multiplicity comes from different sources, for example, making inferences either on the overall population or some pre-specified sub-populations, while multiple endpoints need to be evaluated for each population...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263941/assessing-hospital-performance-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-using-big-data
#15
Jacob V Spertus, Sharon-Lise T Normand, Robert Wolf, Matt Cioffi, Ann Lovett, Sherri Rose
BACKGROUND: Although risk adjustment remains a cornerstone for comparing outcomes across hospitals, optimal strategies continue to evolve in the presence of many confounders. We compared conventional regression-based model to approaches particularly suited to leveraging big data. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed hospital all-cause 30-day excess mortality risk among 8952 adults undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2012, in 24 Massachusetts hospitals using clinical registry data linked with billing data...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255962/bringing-stability-to-the-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patient-clinical-and-pharmacological-considerations-for-frequent-exacerbators
#16
REVIEW
Swati Gulati, J Michael Wells
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are critical events associated with an accelerated loss of lung function, increased morbidity, and excess mortality. AECOPD are heterogeneous in nature and this may directly impact clinical decision making, specifically in patients with frequent exacerbations. A 'frequent exacerbator' is a sub-phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is defined as an individual who experiences two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations per year...
March 3, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249613/a-new-prescription-model-for-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-in-therapeutic-plasma-exchanges
#17
Sébastien Kissling, Cécile Legallais, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Teta, Bruno Vogt, Michel Burnier, Eric Rondeau, Christophe Ridel
BACKGROUND: Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is proposed for various extracorporeal purification techniques to overcome the risk of bleeding that might result from systemic anticoagulation. Yet, no individualized treatment protocol has been proposed for therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) so far. The objective of this study was to assess the determinants of blood citrate concentration needed and to develop an individualized RCA protocol useful for clinical practice. METHODS: The study population included 14 patients who underwent a total of 47 TPE sessions...
March 1, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235625/mathematical-model-to-analyze-the-dissolution-behavior-of-metastable-crystals-or-amorphous-drug-accompanied-with-a-solid-liquid-interface-reaction
#18
Daiki Hirai, Yasunori Iwao, Shin-Ichiro Kimura, Shuji Noguchi, Shigeru Itai
Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228940/beneficial-effects-of-nonpharmacological-interventions-in-the-management-of-essential-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Anastasios Vamvakis, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Areti Triantafyllou, Eleni Gavriilaki, Stella Douma
Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226732/lung-tumor-boundary-tracking-in-mri-with-moving-mesh-correspondences-for-adaptive-radio-therapy
#20
Nazanin Tahmasebi, Pierre Boulanger, Kumaradevan Punithakumar, Nazanin Tahmasebi, Pierre Boulanger, Kumaradevan Punithakumar, Kumaradevan Punithakumar, Pierre Boulanger, Nazanin Tahmasebi
Delineation of lung tumor regions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) poses many difficulties due to MR signal similarities of the region of interest and surrounding area as well as the influence of respiration. However, accurate segmentation of the tumor region is of utmost importance in planning a radiation therapy since a small error can result in some healthy tissues to receive excessive radiation. This study presents a semi-automated method to delineate lung tumor regions from a sequence of MRIs. The proposed method uses a non-rigid image registration framework to propagate the boundaries of the tumor region in MRI acquired during a radiation treatment stage, given manual segmentation on frames acquired during pretreatment stage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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