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base excess approach

Cori R Atlin, Christoph Haller, Osami Honjo, Anusha Jegatheeswaran, Glen S Van Arsdell
BACKGROUND: Size mismatch between body and a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt can result in excessive pulmonary blood flow, compromising systemic oxygen delivery. Previously reported techniques to mechanically restrict shunt flow lack precision and reproducibility. We developed a formula for shunt banding and assessed its efficacy and reproducibility by in vitro and clinical measurements. METHODS: Formulas to determine diameter reduction, length of banding, and effect on the ratio of pulmonary blood flow (Qp) to systemic blood flow (Qs) were established...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Viktor A Vorozhtcov, Valentina L Stolyarova, Sergey I Lopatin, Sergey M Shugurov, Andrey L Shilov, Vladimir F Sapega
RATIONALE: The Bi2 O3 -P2 O5 -SiO2 system possesses a number of valuable properties that may be of use for various practical applications, both for obtaining new materials e.g. optical fibers and for replacing systems based on toxic lead silicate. Information on vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties obtained in the present study will be useful for the development of synthesis methods and approaches for modeling the thermodynamic properties of materials based on this system...
October 14, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Miklos Rohla, Heinz Haberfeld, Helmut Sinzinger, Harald Kritz, Maximilian Tscharre, Matthias K Freynhofer, Kurt Huber, Thomas W Weiss
BACKGROUND: Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured...
2016: Open Heart
Zhun Liu, Ru-Zhi Wang, Peter Zapol
Elucidation of homoepitaxial growth mechanisms on vicinal non-polar surfaces of GaN is highly important for gaining an understanding of and control thin film surface morphology and properties. Using first-principles calculations, we study the step-flow growth in m-plane GaN based on atomic row nucleation and kink propagation kinetics. Ga-N dimer adsorption onto the m-plane is energetically more favorable than that of Ga and N isolated adatoms. Therefore, we have treated the dimers as the dominant growth species attached to the step edges...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Eva Rombout-Sestrienkova, Marian G J van Kraaij, Ger H Koek
A number of disorders cause iron overload: some are of genetic origin, such as hereditary haemochromatosis, while others are acquired, for instance due to repeated transfusions. This article reviews the treatment options for hereditary haemochromatosis, with special attention to the use of erythrocytapheresis. In general, therapy is based on the removal of excess body iron, for which ferritin levels are used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. For many decades phlebotomy has been widely accepted as the standard treatment...
October 10, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Fuat H Saner, Carmen Kirchner
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are assumed to be at high risk of bleeding when undergoing any kind of invasive intervention (any kind of operation, including transplantation or minimally invasive interventions). Both bleeding and thrombosis are associated with a poor outcome. METHODS: A selective literature research was conducted with the following key words: 'cirrhosis', 'coagulation', 'bleeding', 'INR' (international normalized ratio), 'aPTT' (activated partial thromboplastin time), and 'thrombocytopenia'...
August 2016: Visc Med
Hanno Evard, Anneli Kruve, Ivo Leito
A large body of literature exists on the limit of detection (LOD), but there is still a lot of confusion about this important validation parameter. This confusion mainly stems from its statistically complex background. The goal of this two-part tutorial is to discuss and clarify the topic of LOD for practitioners. The two main conclusions of this tutorial are: (1) the choice of how to estimate LOD should be based on the purpose of the analytical method that is being validated (e.g. considerable effort should not be made to estimate LOD for a method that is not used for detecting traces in the vicinity of LOD), and (2) LOD estimates are strongly dependent on different assumptions and the approach used, and therefore caution must be exercised when using the estimate or when comparing different estimates...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Kyoko Wada, Barbra de Vrijer, Barbara F Hales, Jeff Nisker
BACKGROUND: There have long been minimal risk thresholds beneath which risks may not need to be discussed in clinical research. This threshold concept may be applied to clinical practice. Our research explored application of minimal risk standards in research regulations to providing information in prenatal and pre-conception care. METHODS: A case study approach applied minimal risk standards in research regulations to prenatal and pre-conception care with respect to the risks of excess alcohol consumption, folic acid insufficiency, exposure to phthalate plasticizers, and exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs)...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Aurélien Belot, Manuela Quaresma, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman, Bernard Rachet
BACKGROUND: In population-based cancer research, piecewise exponential regression models are used to derive adjusted estimates of excess mortality due to cancer using the Poisson generalized linear modelling framework. However, the assumption that the conditional mean and variance of the rate parameter given the set of covariates x i are equal is strong and may fail to account for overdispersion given the variability of the rate parameter (the variance exceeds the mean). Using an empirical example, we aimed to describe simple methods to test and correct for overdispersion...
October 1, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Maria G Kier, Merete K Hansen, Jakob Lauritsen, Mette S Mortensen, Mikkel Bandak, Mads Agerbaek, Niels V Holm, Susanne O Dalton, Klaus K Andersen, Christoffer Johansen, Gedske Daugaard
Importance: Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options. Objective: To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens...
October 6, 2016: JAMA Oncology
H Koch, K Noack, S Will
Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive and specific measurement tool for probing intermolecular interaction structures. As imidazolium-based ionic liquids can favorably be used for enantioseparation, in this work two approaches for Raman signal analysis, namely by means of excess spectra and principal component analysis (PCA), are compared to extract detailed information about the interaction structure of the enantiomers d- and l-glucose in an aqueous solution of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]. In contrast to the excess calculations, the loadings obtained from PCA lead to significant results since the interactions are weighted by their strength and significance...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
E R Allanson, T Waqar, Crh White, Ö Tunçalp, J E Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord lactate is one approach to measuring acidosis and intrapartum hypoxia, knowledge of which may be helpful for clinicians involved in the care of women and newborns. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the evidence on accuracy of umbilical cord lactate in measuring acidosis and predicting poor neonatal outcome. SEARCH STRATEGY: Studies published and unpublished between 1990 and 2014 from PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials...
October 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
H Krueger, S L Goldenberg, J Koot, E Andres
Few studies have assessed differences in the prevalence of and economic burden attributable to tobacco smoking, excess weight, physical inactivity, and alcohol use by gender. This article examines these gender differences in Canadians between the ages of 30 and 64 years. It also estimates the potential cost avoidance if the prevalence of the four risk factors (RFs) were reduced modestly in males. Data on the prevalence of the RFs and the relative risk of disease associated with each of the RFs were combined to calculate population-attributable fractions...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Loïc Broix, Hélène Jagline, Ekaterina L Ivanova, Stéphane Schmucker, Nathalie Drouot, Jill Clayton-Smith, Alistair T Pagnamenta, Kay A Metcalfe, Bertrand Isidor, Ulrike Walther Louvier, Annapurna Poduri, Jenny C Taylor, Peggy Tilly, Karine Poirier, Yoann Saillour, Nicolas Lebrun, Tristan Stemmelen, Gabrielle Rudolf, Giuseppe Muraca, Benjamin Saintpierre, Adrienne Elmorjani, Martin Moïse, Nathalie Bednarek Weirauch, Renzo Guerrini, Anne Boland, Robert Olaso, Cecile Masson, Ratna Tripathy, David Keays, Cherif Beldjord, Laurent Nguyen, Juliette Godin, Usha Kini, Patrick Nischké, Jean-François Deleuze, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Izabela Sumara, Maria-Victoria Hinckelmann, Jamel Chelly
Neurodevelopmental disorders with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) are etiologically heterogeneous, and their genetic causes remain in many cases unknown. Here we show that missense mutations in NEDD4L mapping to the HECT domain of the encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase lead to PNH associated with toe syndactyly, cleft palate and neurodevelopmental delay. Cellular and expression data showed sensitivity of PNH-associated mutants to proteasome degradation. Moreover, an in utero electroporation approach showed that PNH-related mutants and excess wild-type NEDD4L affect neurogenesis, neuronal positioning and terminal translocation...
October 3, 2016: Nature Genetics
Jennifer J Gao, Ming Tan, Paula R Pohlmann, Sandra M Swain
Approximately 40% to 80% of patients receiving pertuzumab-directed therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer will develop chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Loperamide and octreotide are frequently used to treat CID after diarrhea occurs, but neither is used prophylactically or targets the underlying mechanism. Previous studies suggest blocking epidermal growth factor receptor may cause excess chloride secretion, resulting in diarrhea. Crofelemer is derived from the red latex of the Croton lechleri tree, blocks gastrointestinal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels, and is U...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
Xiao-Mei Lv, Ju-Sheng Song, Ji Li, Kun Zhai
In the present study, quick lime based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the SBR. The optimized condition of sludge disintegration was as follows: T=80℃, pH=11, t=180min, and the sludge disintegration rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite of the comparative low sludge disintegration rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for crypitc growth based sludge reduction...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Technology
Delia Smith West, Sandra M Coulon, Courtney M Monroe, Dawn K Wilson
The majority of individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are overweight or obese, and this excess adiposity negatively impacts cardiovascular risk and contributes to challenges in disease management. Treatment of obesity by behavioral lifestyle intervention, within the context of diabetes, produces broad and clinically meaningful health improvements, and recent studies demonstrate long-term sustained weight management success with behavioral lifestyle interventions. Details of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention are provided as an exemplar approach to the secondary prevention of T2D and obesity...
October 2016: American Psychologist
A C Hoek, D Pearson, S W James, M A Lawrence, S Friel
Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste...
September 26, 2016: Appetite
Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Franco De Michieli, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
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