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Mcas mast cell

Gerhard J Molderings, Britta Haenisch, Stefan Brettner, Jürgen Homann, Markus Menzen, Franz Ludwig Dumoulin, Jens Panse, Joseph Butterfield, Lawrence B Afrin
Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by aberrant release of variable subsets of mast cell (MC) mediators together with accumulation of either morphologically altered and immunohistochemically identifiable mutated MCs due to MC proliferation (systemic mastocytosis [SM] and MC leukemia [MCL]) or morphologically ordinary MCs due to decreased apoptosis (MC activation syndrome [MCAS] and well-differentiated SM). Clinical signs and symptoms in MCAD vary depending on disease subtype and result from excessive mediator release by MCs and, in aggressive forms, from organ failure related to MC infiltration...
July 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Lawrence B Afrin, Joseph H Butterfield, Martin Raithel, Gerhard J Molderings
Mast cell (MC) disease has long been thought to be just the rare disease of mastocytosis (in various forms, principally cutaneous and systemic), with aberrant MC mediator release at symptomatic levels due to neoplastic MC proliferation. Recent discoveries now show a new view is in order, with mastocytosis capping a metaphorical iceberg now called "MC activation disease" (MCAD, i.e. disease principally manifesting inappropriate MC activation), with the bulk of the iceberg being the recently recognized "MC activation syndrome" (MCAS), featuring inappropriate MC activation to symptomatic levels with little to no inappropriate MC proliferation...
2016: Annals of Medicine
Patrizia Bonadonna, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Carla Lombardo, Roberta Zanotti
Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema...
January 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Ronit Confino-Cohen, Yoseph A Mekori
A non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome is a newly emerged diagnosis. It shares the clinical features of anaphylaxis and mastocytosis despite having distinct mast cell biology. In this,paper we describe a series of patients representing the spectrum of non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome (nc-MCAS). We highlight the clinical manifestations of nc-MCAS as well as the diagnostic criteria and treatment options.
August 2015: Harefuah
U B Nurmatov, E Rhatigan, F E R Simons, A Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Primary mast cell activation syndromes (MCAS) are a group of disorders presenting with symptoms of mast cell mediator release. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of orally administered H1 -antihistamines in the treatment of primary MCAS compared with placebo and other pharmacologic treatments. METHODS: We systematically searched five databases and three trial repositories and contacted an international panel of experts to identify published and unpublished trials...
September 2015: Allergy
Lawrence B Afrin, Frank M Cichocki, Kamal Patel, Gerhard J Molderings
Mast cell (MC) activation syndrome (MCAS) is a recently recognized, likely prevalent collection of heterogeneous illnesses of inappropriate MC activation with little to no MC neoplasia likely driven by heterogeneous patterns of constitutively activating mutations in MC regulatory elements including various tyrosine kinases (TKs, dominantly KIT). MCAS typically presents as chronic multisystem polymorbidity of generally inflammatory ± allergic theme. As with indolent systemic mastocytosis (SM), treatment of MCAS focuses more against MC mediators than MC neoplasia, but some cases prove refractory even to the TK inhibitor (TKI) imatinib reported useful both in uncommon SM cases not bearing SM's usual imatinib-resistant KIT-D816V mutation and in some cases of MCAS (which rarely bears KIT-D816V)...
December 2015: European Journal of Haematology
Elide Anna Pastorello, Chrysi Stafylaraki, Corrado Mirone, Donatella Preziosi, Maria Gloria Aversano, Ambra Mascheri, Laura Michelina Losappio, Valeria Ortolani, Michele Nichelatti, Laura Farioli
BACKGROUND: β-Lactam antibiotics (mainly amoxicillin, AX) are the drugs that most frequently induce systemic drug allergy reactions. OBJECTIVE: We attempted to identify the risk factors associated with systemic reactions to AX. METHODS: All patients who were referred to our department for suspected hypersensitivity reactions to AX over a 6-month period were evaluated for anti-AX immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and skin-test positivity for β-lactams...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Marianne Frieri
Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) involves the skin, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic systems, classified as primary, secondary, and idiopathic. Earlier criteria for MCAS diagnosis included episodic symptoms with mast cell mediators affecting two or more organ systems with urticaria, angioedema, flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotensive syncope, tachycardia, wheezing, conjunctival injection, pruritus, nasal stuffiness, decrease in frequency, severity, or resolution of symptoms with anti-mediator therapy including H1/H2 receptor antagonists, anti-leukotrienes, or mast cell stabilizers...
May 6, 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Milda Vysniauskaite, Hans-Jörg Hertfelder, Johannes Oldenburg, Peter Dreßen, Stefan Brettner, Jürgen Homann, Gerhard J Molderings
Diagnosis of mast cell activation disease (MCAD), i.e. systemic mastocytosis (SM) and idiopathic systemic mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), usually requires demonstration of increased mast cell (MC) mediator release. Since only a few MC mediators are currently established as biomarkers of MCAD, the sensitivity of plasma heparin level (pHL) as an indicator of increased MC activation was compared with that of serum tryptase, chromogranin A and urinary N-methylhistamine levels in 257 MCAD patients. Basal pHL had a sensitivity of 41% in MCAS patients and 27% in SM patients...
2015: PloS One
Cem Akin
Anaphylaxis results from severe systemic mast cell activation. In addition to IgE-mediated and physical triggers, it may occur with a clonal mast cell disease and in an idiopathic fashion without clear provoking factors. Disorders of mast cell activation are classified into primary (clonal), secondary, and idiopathic. Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by objective documentation of elevated mast cell mediators during attacks and a favorable response to antimediator therapy...
May 2015: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
James L Kuhlen, Yamini V Virkud
Idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA) is a life-threatening allergic disease and the most common diagnosis given to patients following an anaphylactic event. The inability of the healthcare provider and the patient to identify the trigger for anaphylaxis makes standard allergen avoidance measures ineffectual. IA is diagnosed after other causes of anaphylaxis have been excluded. Mast cell activation syndromes (MCAS), mastocytosis, IgE to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (α-gal), and certain medications have recently been recognized as causes of anaphylaxis that were previously labeled idiopathic...
February 2015: Discovery Medicine
Anupama Ravi, Joseph Butterfield, Catherine R Weiler
BACKGROUND: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) describes patients with episodes of mast cell mediator release, with negative bone marrow biopsy results, and the failure to meet the criteria for systemic mastocytosis. OBJECTIVE: Identify elevation of mast cell mediators of patients with MCAS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 25 patients with MCAS who were evaluated at Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2012. Patients were reviewed for MCAS symptoms and mast cell mediators, including serum tryptase and 24-hour urine N-methyl histamine (N-MH) and 11β-prostaglandin-F₂α (11β-PGF₂α)...
November 2014: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Lawrence B Afrin
Some sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients suffer significantly worse phenotypes than others. Causes of such disparities are incompletely understood. Comorbid chronic inflammation likely is a factor. Recently, mast cell (MC) activation (creating an inflammatory state) was found to be a significant factor in sickle pathobiology and pain in a murine SCA model. Also, a new realm of relatively noncytoproliferative MC disease termed MC activation syndrome (MCAS) has been identified recently. MCAS has not previously been described in SCA...
December 2014: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Anastasia I Petra, Smaro Panagiotidou, Julia M Stewart, Pio Conti, Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cell (MC) activation disorders present with multiple symptoms including flushing, pruritus, hypotension, gastrointestinal complaints, irritability, headaches, concentration/memory loss and neuropsychiatric issues. These disorders are classified as: cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis with a c-kit mutation and clonal MC activation disorder, allergies, urticarias and inflammatory disorders and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), idiopathic urticaria and angioedema. MCs are activated by IgE, but also by cytokines, environmental, food, infectious, drug and stress triggers, leading to secretion of multiple mediators...
June 2014: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
P Valent
Several different risk factors and conditions may predispose to severe life-threatening anaphylaxis. Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is one such condition. Although many SM patients are suffering from mild or even no mediator-related symptoms, others have recurrent episodes of severe anaphylaxis, with clear signs of a mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) despite prophylactic therapy with anti-mediator-type drugs. In several of these patients, an IgE-dependent allergy is diagnosed. The severity and frequency of MCAS reactions neither correlate with the burden of neoplastic mast cells nor with the levels of specific IgE or the basal tryptase level...
July 2014: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lawrence B Afrin
Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a relatively recently recognized cause of chronic multisystem polymorbidity of a generally inflammatory theme. Patients with MCAS often report migratory soft tissue and/or bone pain which frequently responds poorly to typical (narcotic and non-narcotic) analgesics as well as atypical analgesics such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Hydroxyurea (HU) is an oral ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and sickle cell anemia...
2013: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
Matthieu Picard, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi, Veronica Mezzano, Mariana Castells
BACKGROUND: In recent years, 2 new syndromes of mast cell activation have been described in patients with episodes of mast cell mediator release that range from flushing and abdominal cramping to anaphylaxis: monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome (MMAS) and idiopathic mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). OBJECTIVE: This review will discuss these 2 new syndromes in the larger context of mast cell activation disorders as well as the diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions...
May 2013: Clinical Therapeutics
P Valent
Mast cell activation (MCA) occurs in a number of different clinical conditions, including IgE-dependent allergies, other inflammatory reactions, and mastocytosis. MCA-related symptoms may be mild, moderate, severe, or even life-threatening. The severity of MCA depends on a number of different factors, including genetic predisposition, the number and releasability of mast cells involved in the reaction, the type of allergen, presence of specific IgE, and presence of certain comorbidities. In severe reactions, MCA can be documented by a substantial increase in the serum tryptase level above baseline...
April 2013: Allergy
Juan-Carlos Cardet, Mariana C Castells, Matthew J Hamilton
There is a spectrum of disorders that clinically manifest as a result of mast cell activation. A non-clonal form has emerged in the literature where many of the clinical features of systemic mastocytosis are shared despite having a distinct mast cell biology. In this review, we summarize key features of the science behind mast cell activation relevant to what is now known as non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome (nc-MCAS). We highlight the clinical manifestations of nc-MCAS with a focus on diagnosis and treatment...
February 2013: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Marianne Frieri, Reenal Patel, Jocelyn Celestin
Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a condition with signs and symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic systems. It can be classified into primary, secondary, and idiopathic. Earlier proposed criteria for the diagnosis of MCAS included episodic symptoms consistent with mast cell mediator release affecting two or more organ systems with urticaria, angioedema, flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotensive syncope or near syncope, tachycardia, wheezing, conjunctival injection, pruritus, and nasal stuffiness...
February 2013: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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