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Bloodstream Infections in Children's

Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Kaitlin Benedict, Monika Roy, Sarah Kabbani, Evan J Anderson, Monica M Farley, Sasha Harb, Lee H Harrison, Lindsay Bonner, Vijitha Lahanda Wadu, Kaytlyn Marceaux, Rosemary Hollick, Zintar G Beldavs, Alexia Y Zhang, William Schaffner, Caroline R Graber, Gordana Derado, Tom M Chiller, Shawn R Lockhart, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Introduction: Candida is a leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in the United States. Infants and children have unique risk factors for candidemia, and the Candida species distribution in this group is different that among adults; however, candidemia epidemiology in this population has not been described recently. Methods: We conducted active population-based candidemia surveillance in 4 US metropolitan areas between 2009 and 2015. We calculated incidences among neonates (0-30 days old), infants (0-364 days old), and noninfant children (1-19 years old), documented their clinical features and antifungal drug resistance...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Cory M McLaughlin, Monica Bennett, Nandini Channabasappa, Janna Journeycake, Hannah G Piper
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anticoagulation (AC) results in thrombus resolution and increased line longevity in children with intestinal failure (IF) and catheter-associated central venous thrombosis (CVT). METHODS: A retrospective, single institution review was performed of children with IF who were dependent on parenteral nutrition with known CVT between 2006 and 2017. Frequency of catheter-related complications including infection, occlusion, and breakage were compared 18months prior to and after starting AC...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kazuhiro Horiba, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Yusuke Okuno, Nobuyuki Tetsuka, Takako Suzuki, Shotaro Ando, Yasuko Kamiya, Yuka Torii, Tetsuya Yagi, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Yoshinori Ito
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows us to analyze comprehensively and quantitatively all microorganisms present in a clinical sample. Thirty-five pediatric patients (12 with BSI and 23 with suspected BSI/negative blood culture) were enrolled. Plasma/serum samples were used for sequencing and the results were compared with those from blood culture. Sequencing reads of bacteria isolated in blood culture were identified by NGS in all plasma/serum samples at disease onset...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Flavio G Lipari, Abel H Zárate, Juan J García, Ana L Basquíera, Juan P Caeiro
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. RESULTS: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Laura J Wozniak, Hannah M Bechtold, Laurie E Reyen, Alvin P Chan, Elizabeth A Marcus, Jorge H Vargas
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of outpatient-acquired catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in children receiving home parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to (1) characterize the incidence, clinical presentation, and epidemiology of CRBSIs and (2) identify risk factors for CRBSIs in children receiving home parenteral nutrition. METHODS: A longitudinal database approved by our Institutional Review Board was created to prospectively track CRBSIs in the UCLA pediatric population from January to December 2012...
February 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
H Crichton, N O'Connell, H Rabie, A C Whitelaw, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). METHODS: We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Benedikt Hogan, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Itay Berger, Merav Gil Margolis, Elhanan Nahum, Ovdi Dagan, Itzhak Levy, Eytan Kaplan, Eran Shostak, Esther Shmuelov, Ofer Schiller, Gili Kadmon
OBJECTIVES: Arterial catheters may serve as an additional source for blood cultures in children when peripheral venipuncture is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of cultures obtained through indwelling arterial catheters for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections in critically ill pediatric patients. DESIGN: Observational and comparative. SETTING: General and cardiac ICUs of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Cecile Lambe, Catherine Poisson, Cecile Talbotec, Olivier Goulet
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) remain a major issue in patients who are receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of this interventional study was to assess the impact of a new strategy using taurolidine-citrate (T-C) prophylactic locks on the CRBSI rate in children with intestinal failure who are receiving HPN. METHODS: The rate of CRBSIs was monitored every calendar year in a prospective cohort of 195 children with intestinal failure...
January 31, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nguyen Duc Toan, Thomas C Darton, Christine J Boinett, James I Campbell, Abhilasha Karkey, Evelyne Kestelyn, Le Quoc Thinh, Nguyen Kien Mau, Pham Thi Thanh Tam, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Cam Ngoc Phuong, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Ngo Minh Xuan, Tang Chi Thuong, Stephen Baker
INTRODUCTION: The clinical syndrome of neonatal sepsis, comprising signs of infection, septic shock and organ dysfunction in infants ≤4 weeks of age, is a frequent sequel to bloodstream infection and mandates urgent antimicrobial therapy. Bacterial characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for ensuring appropriate therapy, as high rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially in low-income and middle-income countries, may adversely affect outcome. Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam is a rapidly expanding city in Southeast Asia with a current population of almost 8 million...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Denise Dekker, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Nimako Sarpong, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Michael Frimpong, Elina Fechtner, Sven Poppert, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Justin Im, Florian Marks, Hagen Frickmann, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in Ghana, however the mode of transmission and source of invasive NTS in Africa are poorly understood. This study compares NTS from water sources and invasive bloodstream infections in rural Ghana. METHODS: Blood from hospitalised, febrile children and samples from drinking water sources were analysed for Salmonella spp. Strains were serotyped to trace possible epidemiological links between human and water-derived isolates...
January 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Flora Habas, Julien Baleine, Christophe Milési, Clémentine Combes, Marie-Noëlle Didelot, Sara Romano-Bertrand, Delphine Grau, Sylvie Parer, Catherine Baud, Gilles Cambonie
Placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the brachiocephalic vein (BCV) via the ultrasound (US)-guided supraclavicular approach was recently described in children. We aimed to determine the CVC maintenance-related complications at this site compared to the others (i.e., the femoral, the subclavian, and the jugular). We performed a retrospective data collection of prospectively registered data on CVC in young children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during a 4-year period (May 2011 to May 2015)...
March 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Takeshi Hatachi, Kazuya Tachibana, Yu Inata, Yuji Tominaga, Aiko Hirano, Miyako Kyogoku, Kazue Moon, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Kanako Isaka, Muneyuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center observational study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive pediatric patients less than or equal to 18 years old admitted to the PICU after cardiac surgery, between January 2013 and December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Robert O Heuckeroth
Hirschsprung disease is defined by the absence of enteric neurons at the end of the bowel. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the bowel and regulates most aspects of bowel function. When the ENS is missing, there are no neurally mediated propulsive motility patterns, and the bowel remains contracted, causing functional obstruction. Symptoms of Hirschsprung disease include constipation, vomiting, abdominal distension and growth failure. Untreated disease usually causes death in childhood because bloodstream bacterial infections occur in the context of bowel inflammation (enterocolitis) or bowel perforation...
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
Elio Castagnola, Livia Gargiullo, Anna Loy, Paola Tatarelli, Ilaria Caviglia, Roberto Bandettini, Chiara Grasso, Elisabetta Lampugnani, Stefano Pezzato, Pietro Tuo, Andrea Moscatelli
BACKGROUND: Infections represent a severe complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology of infections acquired during ECMO in a tertiary care children's hospital. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients undergoing ECMO between January 2009 and December 2016. For each patientdata were collectedonclinical characteristics, modality of ECMO support, site and etiology of documented infections, survival within one week after ECMO weaning and/or at pediatric intensive care unit discharge...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jason G Lake, Lindsey M Weiner, Aaron M Milstone, Lisa Saiman, Shelley S Magill, Isaac See
OBJECTIVE To describe pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from pediatric locations during 2011-2014. METHODS Device-associated infection data were analyzed for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and surgical site infection (SSI). Pooled mean percentage resistance was calculated for a variety of pathogen-antimicrobial resistance pattern combinations and was stratified by location for device-associated infections (neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], pediatric intensive care units [PICUs], pediatric oncology and pediatric wards) and by surgery type for SSIs...
December 18, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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