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Bloodstream Infections in Children's

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135819/prophylactic-rtpa-in-the-prevention-of-line-associated-thrombosis-and-infection-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#1
Lynn M Malec, James Cooper, Jeffrey Rudolph, Marian G Michaels, Margaret V Ragni
BACKGROUND: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential for total parenteral nutrition administration in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, they are fraught with complications including infection and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases associated morbidity and mortality in this population. There is evidence linking the development of CVAD-associated thrombosis and line-related infection. Thus, it has been postulated that prevention of catheter-related clot formation could minimize the risk of infection originating from the catheter...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115709/safety-of-discharge-for-children-with-cancer-and-febrile-neutropenia-off-antibiotics-using-absolute-neutrophil-count-threshold-values-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-adequate-bone-marrow-recovery
#2
Matthew E Campbell, Debra L Friedman, Daniel E Dulek, Zhiguo Zhao, Yi Huang, Adam J Esbenshade
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (F&N) is common among pediatric oncology patients. However, there is a lack of clarity regarding parameters whereby such patients have demonstrated adequate bone marrow recovery for hospital discharge and empiric antibiotic discontinuation. PROCEDURE: A retrospective review was performed for 350 episodes of F&N occurring at a single institution between 2007 and 2012 in pediatric oncology patients who were afebrile for 24 hr and had no bacterial source identified...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099537/use-of-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheters-piccs-in-children-receiving-autologous-or-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Stefano Benvenuti, Rosanna Ceresoli, Giovanni Boroni, Filippo Parolini, Fulvio Porta, Daniele Alberti
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to present our experience with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in pediatric patients receiving autologous or allogenic blood stem-cell transplantation. The insertion of the device in older children does not require general anesthesia and does not require a surgical procedure. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2017, 13 PICCs were inserted as a central venous device in 11 pediatric patients submitted to 14 autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Children's Hospital of Brescia...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032585/infection-surveillance-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#4
Daniela Caldas Teixeira, Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Fabiana Maria Kakehashi, Antonio Vaz de Macedo, Helena Duani, Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Karla Emília de Sá Rodrigues, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVE: Describe the profile of reported Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at a reference center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of pediatric patients who were submitted to HSCT from 2008 to 2016. The criteria for HAI were based on those established by the National Healthcare Safety Network. Data were collected by active surveillance performed daily by professionals. This study was approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031430/leadership-line-care-rounds-application-of-the-engage-educate-execute-and-evaluate-improvement-model-for-the-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-children-with-cancer
#5
Angie Owings, JoBeth Graves, Sherry Johnson, Craig Gilliam, Mike Gipson, Hana Hakim
To prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), leadership line care rounds (LLCRs) used the engage, educate, execute, and evaluate improvement model to audit compliance, identify barriers and opportunities, empower patients and families, and engage leadership. Findings of excellence and improvement opportunities were communicated to unit staff and managers. LLCRs contributed to compliance with CLABSI prevention interventions.
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991406/burden-of-influenza-among-hospitalized-febrile-children-in-ghana
#7
Benedikt Hogan, Luise Ammer, Marlow Zimmermann, Tabea Binger, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Theresa Rettig, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Lisa Reigl, Kennedy G Boahen, Charity Wiafe, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach
BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance data from Africa indicate a substantial disease burden with high mortality. However, local influenza data from district hospitals with limited laboratory facilities are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency and seasonal distribution of influenza among hospitalized febrile children in a rural hospital in Ghana and to describe differential diagnoses to other severe febrile infections. METHODS: Between January 2014 and April 2015, all children with a temperature of ≥38°C admitted to a district hospital in Ghana were screened for influenza A and B by RT-PCR and differentiated to subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951070/optimizing-empiric-therapy-for-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#8
Y Chao, C Reuter, L K Kociolek, R Patel, X Zheng, S J Patel
Antimicrobial stewardship can be challenging in children with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). This retrospective cohort study explored how data elements in the electronic health record could potentially optimize empiric antibiotic therapy for BSIs caused by GNB, via the construction of customized antibiograms for categorical GNB infections and identification of opportunities to minimize organism-drug mismatch and decrease time to effective therapy. Our results suggest potential strategies that could be implemented at key decision points in prescribing at initiation, modification, and targeting of therapy...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948347/central-venous-catheter-salvage-in-children-with-staphylococcus-aureus-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection
#9
Kristine S Corkum, Rachel E Jones, Caroline H Reuter, Larry K Kociolek, Elaine Morgan, Timothy B Lautz
BACKGROUND: Prompt central venous catheter (CVC) removal is currently recommended in children with Staphylococcus aureus central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Our objective was to examine the outcome of attempted line salvage in children with S. aureus CLABSI and assess predictors of success. METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed of all children with S. aureus CLABSI between 2012 and 2015. Patients with and without immediate CVC removal (≤ 2 days after first positive culture) were compared...
November 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912948/outbreak-of-fusarium-oxysporum-infections-in-children-with-cancer-an-experience-with-7-episodes-of-catheter-related-fungemia
#10
Fabianne Carlesse, Anna-Paula C Amaral, Sarah S Gonçalves, Hemilio Xafranski, Maria-Lucia M Lee, Victor Zecchin, Antonio S Petrilli, Abdullah M Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Fusarium species are widely spread in nature as plant pathogens but are also able to cause opportunistic fungal infections in humans. We report a cluster of Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections in a single pediatric cancer center. METHODS: All clinical and epidemiological data related to an outbreak involving seven cases of fungemia by Fusarium oxysporum during October 2013 and February 2014 were analysed. All cultured isolates (n = 14) were identified to species level by sequencing of the TEF1 and RPB2 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#11
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875883/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-resource-limited-south-african-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
C Geldenhuys, A Dramowski, A Jenkins, A Bekker
BACKGROUND: The rate of central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in South African (SA) public sector neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is unknown. Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH), Cape Town, introduced a neonatal CLABSI surveillance and prevention programme in August 2012. OBJECTIVES: To describe CLABSI events and identify risk factors for development of CLABSI in a resource-limited NICU. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using prospectively collected NICU CLABSI events matched to four randomly selected controls, sampled from the NICU registry between 9 August 2012 and 31 July 2014...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866623/epidemiology-management-and-outcome-of-ultrashort-bowel-syndrome-in-infancy
#13
REVIEW
Akshay Batra, Simon Charlie Keys, Mark John Johnson, Robert A Wheeler, Robert Mark Beattie
Ultrashort bowel syndrome (USBS) is a group of heterogeneous disorders where the length of small bowel is less than 10 cm or 10% of expected for the age. It is caused by massive loss of the gut which in the neonatal period can be a result of vanishing gastroschisis or surgical resection following mid-gut volvulus, jejunoileal atresia and/or extensive necrotising enterocolitis. The exact prevalence of USBS is not known although there is a clear trend towards increasing numbers because of increased incidence and improved survival...
November 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859015/characteristics-and-risk-factors-of-late-onset-bloodstream-infection-beyond-six-months-after-liver-transplantation-in-children
#14
Munehiro Furuichi, Akinari Fukuda, Seisuke Sakamoto, Mureo Kasahara, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pediatric liver transplantation (LT). However, most studies have focused on BSI occurring within a few months after LT. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of BSI occurring beyond six months after pediatric LT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a pediatric LT center in Japan from November 2005 to March 2016. We evaluated the causative organisms and site of late-onset BSI in children ≤18 years of age...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854967/innovative-dressing-and-securement-of-tunneled-central-venous-access-devices-in-pediatrics-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Amanda J Ullman, Tricia Kleidon, Victoria Gibson, Craig A McBride, Gabor Mihala, Marie Cooke, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Central venous access device (CVAD) associated complications are a preventable source of patient harm, frequently resulting in morbidity and delays to vital treatment. Dressing and securement products are used to prevent infectious and mechanical complications, however current complication rates suggest customary practices are inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomized controlled efficacy trial of innovative dressing and securement products for pediatric tunneled CVAD to prevent complication and failure...
August 30, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828970/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-the-gram-positive-bacteria-isolated-from-children-with-bloodstream-infection-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital-a-6-year-study
#16
Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Mina Moradzadeh, Masoumeh Mahzari, Mohammad TaghiHaghi Ashtiani, Parin Tanzifi
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are considered as a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatricschildren. The aim of this study was to depict report the common Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) responsible for bloodstream infections in children and determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), ) Hospital, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted within a six-year period (March 2011 to September 2016) for pediatric patients with BSI...
August 21, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818544/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bloodstream-infection-isolates-at-a-large-urban-hospital-in-malawi-1998-2016-a-surveillance-study
#17
Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. METHODS: In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016...
October 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815094/add-on-therapy-with-ertapenem-in-infections-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-pediatric-experience
#18
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Kamile Oktay Arıkan, Ayse Buyukcam, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ates Kara
Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant GNB is not well established due to the weakness of data. Patients presenting with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were treated with a combination treatment. Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem in pediatric patients. We presented three cases who were successfully treated with addition of ertapenem to the combination treatment for bacteremia with multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738121/incidence-risks-and-types-of-infections-in-pediatric-long-term-care-facilities
#19
Lisa Saiman, Philip Maykowski, Meghan Murray, Bevin Cohen, Natalie Neu, Haomioa Jia, Gordon Hutcheon, Edwin Simpser, Linda Mosiello, Luis Alba, Elaine Larson
Importance: The population of infants, children, and adolescents cared for at pediatric long-term care facilities is increasing in complexity and size and thus consumes substantial health care resources. Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this population, but few recent data describe their incidence and effects. Objectives: To describe the types of infections diagnosed in residents of pediatric long-term care facilities, calculate infection rates, and identify risk factors for respiratory tract infections (RTIs)...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-paediatric-hospital-a-5-5-year-study
#20
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
OBJECTIVES: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from BSIs in children admitted to an Iranian paediatric hospital. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of patients with positive blood cultures were collected from March 2011 to September 2016. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture and bacterial identification...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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