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Bloodstream Infections in Children's

Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Fabio Araujo Motta, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Mariana Nadal Cardoso, Gledson Luiz Picharski, Gregory Jaeger, Marion Burger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with death due to bloodstream infection caused by Candida spp. in pediatric patients and evaluate the resistance to the main anti-fungal used in clinical practice. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational, analytical study with retrospective collection that included 65 hospitalized pediatric patients with bloodstream infection by Candida spp. A univariate analysis was performed to estimate the association between the characteristics of the candidemia patients and death...
October 3, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Michelle Ribeiro Viana Taveira, Luciana Santana Lima, Cláudia Corrêa de Araújo, Maria Júlia Gonçalves de Mello
BACKGROUND: Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are used for prolonged central venous access, allowing the infusion of chemotherapy and other fluids and improving the quality of life of children with cancer. TIVAPs were developed to reduce the infection rates associated with central venous catheters; however, infectious events remain common and have not been fully investigated in pediatric oncology patients. PROCEDURE: A retrospective cohort was formed to investigate risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in pediatric cancer patients...
September 26, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
İlker Devrim, Rana İşgüder, Hasan Ağın, Gökhan Ceylan, Yüce Ayhan, Özlem Sara Sandal, Ferhat Sarı, Ahu Kara, Mine Düzgöl, Gamze Gülfidan, Nuri Bayram
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the correlation of caspofungin E-tests with the prognosis and response to caspofungin therapy of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections in children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: All children who had C. parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections and who were treated with caspofungin were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, the following parameters, including all consecutive blood and central venous catheter (CVC) cultures, the duration between diagnosis and CVC removal, mortality rate, relapses of the C...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
İlker Devrim, Ahu Kara, Mine Düzgöl, Aytaç Karkıner, Nuri Bayram, Günyüz Temir, Arzu Şencan, Yelda Sorguç, Gamze Gülfidan, Münevver Hoşgör
BACKGROUND: Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burns in burn units. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with burns may result from burn wound infection, use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters, and translocation of the gastrointestinal flora. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance of causative pathogens in children with burns and the durational changes of microorganisms in the distribution of BSIs in children...
September 8, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Maya Dahan, Shauna O'Donnell, Julie Hebert, Milagros Gonzales, Bonita Lee, A Uma Chandran, Samantha Woolsey, Sandra Escoredo, Heather Chinnery, Caroline Quach
OBJECTIVE Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. We aimed to determine whether intra-abdominal pathologies are an independent risk factor for CLABSI. METHODS We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Montreal Children's Hospital (Montreal) and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. CLABSI cases that occurred between April 2009 and March 2014 were identified through local infection control databases...
September 9, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Appiah-Korang Labi, Naa Okaikor Addison, Juliana Ewuramma Mbiriba Labi, Georgina Awuah-Mensah
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common pathogens and their susceptibility patterns is necessary for timely empirical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a 4-year retrospective analysis of blood cultures from all patients excluding neonates at the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana, from January 2010 through December 2013. Laboratory report data were used to determine BSI, blood culture contamination, pathogen profile, and antimicrobial resistance patterns...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Laura Folgori, Paola Bernaschi, Simone Piga, Michaela Carletti, Filippe Pirrone Cunha, Paulo Henrique Rodriguez Lara, Nicholas Cafieiro de Castro Peixoto, Bárbara Gomes Alves Guimarães, Mike Sharland, André Ricardo Araujo da Silva, Marta Ciofi Degli Atti
OBJECTIVES To describe trends in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric/neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate risk factors and impact of multidrug resistance in children admitted to ICUs. DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study with a nested case-control study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014. SETTING Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals in Italy and Brazil with a total of 103 ICU beds. PATIENTS Inclusion criteria were admission to ICU during the study period, age at onset less than 18 years, and microbiologically confirmed HAI...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Shilpa Tomar, Rakesh Lodha, Bimal Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
OBJECTIVE: To carry out surveillance of central-line associated blood stress inrections in a Pediatric intensive care unit and determine associated risk factors. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted over 1.5 years in the pediatric intensive care unit. CDC definitions for these infections were followed and associated risk factors were identified. RESULTS: Of 265 enrolled children with central line, 13 developed blood stream infections (incidence density 5...
July 1, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Aynur Camkiran Firat, Pinar Zeyneloglu, Murat Ozkan, Arash Pirat
OBJECTIVES: To compare internal jugular vein and subclavian vein access for central venous catheterization in terms of success rate and complications. DESIGN: A 1:1 randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Baskent University Medical Center. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Two hundred and eighty children undergoing central venous catheterization were randomly allocated to the internal jugular vein or subclavian vein group during a period of 18 months...
September 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Minna Koskenvuo, Jaana Rahiala, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen, Maija Lappalainen, Päivi Norja, Mari Toppinen, Ulla Saarinen-Pihkala, Tobias Allander, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Klaus Hedman, Olli Ruuskanen, Kim Vettenranta
BACKGROUND: Viral infections remain the cause of key complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The impact of multiple, concurrent viral reactivations/infections remains to be delineated. METHODS: The clinical correlates of single or multiple viremic infections following HSCT and especially the occurrence of respiratory viruses in the bloodstream were investigated. We retrospectively searched for 23 viruses in a total of 184 sera from 53 paediatric patients...
July 28, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Takafumi Kawano, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Koji Yamada, Waka Yamada, Kazuhiko Nakame, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Children with intestinal failure (IF) requiring central venous catheters (CVCs) often experience frequent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), which is a serious and life-threatening complication. To reduce the incidence of CRBSI, prophylactic ethanol lock therapy (ELT) was initiated. METHODS: Patients with IF received home parenteral nutrition via a silicone tunneled CVC. All of them had received therapeutic ELT from January 2009 (first period) and prophylactic ELT from December 2012 (second period)...
September 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Marco Denina, Carlo Scolfaro, Sara Colombo, Carmelina Calitri, Silvia Garazzino, Anna Maria Barbui, Silvia Brossa, Pier-Angelo Tovo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ellen G Szydlowski, Jeffrey A Rudolph, Melissa A Vitale, Noel S Zuckerbraun
OBJECTIVE: Previous small studies have found a high occurrence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with intestinal failure, and these rates are higher than reported rates in other pediatric populations with central lines. The primary study objective was to describe the occurrence of BSIs in patients with intestinal failure who present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with fever. METHODS: This 5-year retrospective chart review included febrile patients with intestinal failure and central lines who presented to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh ED between 2006 and 2011...
July 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Susanne Janum, Arash Afshari
BACKGROUND: Candida bloodstream infections most often affect those already suffering serious, potentially life-threatening conditions and often cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most affected persons have a central venous catheter (CVC) in place. The best CVC management in these cases has been widely debated in recent years, while the incidence of candidaemia has markedly increased. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this review is to examine the impact of removing versus retaining a CVC on mortality in adults and children with candidaemia who have a CVC in place...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Beatriz Ruiz, Mark A Turner, John S Bradley, Daniel K Benjamin, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Irja Lutsar, Carlo Giaquinto, Paolo Rossi, Mike Sharland
There is no global consensus on the conduct of clinical trials in children and neonates with complicated clinical infection syndromes. No comprehensive regulatory guidance exists for the design of antibiotic clinical trials in neonates and children. We did a systematic review of antibiotic clinical trials in complicated clinical infection syndromes (including bloodstream infections and community-acquired pneumonia) in children and neonates (0-18 years) to assess whether standardised European Medicines Agency (EMA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for adults was used in paediatrics, and whether paediatric clinical trials applied consistent definitions for eligibility and outcomes...
September 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Denina Marco, Scolfaro Carlo, Colombo Sara, Calitri Carmelina, Garazzino Silvia, Barbui Anna Maria, Brossa Silvia, Tovo Pier-Angelo
UNLABELLED: Sepsis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in immunocompromised patients, and a rapid identification of causative pathogen is strongly related with a better outcome. This prospective study analyzes the role of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction in sepsis' etiological diagnosis. Magicplex(TM) Sepsis Real-Time tests were performed in tertiary Regina Margherita Children's Hospital (Turin, Italy), and the medical records of children who underwent a Magicplex test were prospectively evaluated...
August 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Caroline Malcolmson, Karen Ng, Shevaun Hughes, Niranjan Kissoon, Jillian Schina, Peter A Tilley, Ashley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Early definitive identification of infectious pathogens coupled with antimicrobial stewardship interventions allow for targeted and timely administration of antimicrobials. We investigated the combined impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology and an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in pediatric patients with blood stream infections (BSIs). METHODS: This is a single-center study comparing a control group of patients from October 2009 to July 2010 with BSIs to a cohort of patients postimplementation of MALDI-TOF and an ASP, from October 2013 to July 2014...
June 23, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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