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endocarditis in children's

Marie-Paule Guillaume, François Dubos, François Godart
We report the case of a 2-year-old boy with severe Langerhans cell histiocytosis who had tricuspid endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and required surgery despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Through this case and literature review of endocarditis caused by S. lugdunensis in children, we highlight pitfalls and mistakes to be avoided in the management of this rare but serious infection.
October 17, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Jeffrey B Kaplan, Vandana Sampathkumar, Meriem Bendaoud, Alexander K Giannakakis, Edward T Lally, Nataliya V Balashova
The Gram-negative bacterium Kingella kingae is part of the normal oropharyngeal mucosal flora of children under four years old. K. kingae can enter the submucosa and cause infections of the skeletal system in children including septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. The organism is also associated with infective endocarditis in children and adults. Although biofilm formation has been coupled with pharyngeal colonization, osteoarticular infections, and infective endocarditis, no studies have investigated biofilm formation in K...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Liesl Zühlke, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Mark E Engel, Sumathy Rangarajan, Pam Mackie, Blanche Cupido, Katya Mauff, Shofiqul Islam, Rezeen Daniels, Veronica Francis, Stephen Ogendo, Bernard Gitura, Charles Mondo, Emmy Okello, Peter Lwabi, Mohammed M Al-Kebsi, Christopher Hugo-Hamman, Sahar S Sheta, Abraham Haileamlak, Wandimu Daniel, Dejuma Yadeta Goshu, Senbeta G Abdissa, Araya G Desta, Bekele A Shasho, Dufera M Begna, Ahmed ElSayed, Ahmed S Ibrahim, John Musuku, Fidelia Bode-Thomas, Christopher C Yilgwan, Ganiyu A Amusa, Olukemi Ige, Basil Okeahialam, Christopher Sutton, Rajeev Misra, Azza Abul Fadl, Neil Kennedy, Albertino Damasceno, Mahmoud U Sani, Okechukwu S Ogah, Taiwo Olunuga, Huda ElHassan, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Abiodun M Adeoye, Pindile S Mntla, Dike B Ojji, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: -There are few contemporary data on the mortality and morbidity associated with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) or information on their predictors. We report the two year follow-up of individuals with RHD from 14 low and middle income countries in Africa and Asia. METHODS: -Between January 2010 and November 2012, we enrolled 3343 patients from 25 centers in 14 countries and followed them for two years to assess mortality, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and infective endocarditis (IE)...
October 4, 2016: Circulation
Jessica C Roediger, Alexander C Outhred, Bruce Shadbolt, Philip N Britton
AIM: We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) at a large, tertiary/quaternary children's hospital in Australia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of SAB cases at the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW) over 5 years; 2006-2011. We compared frequency, clinical profile and outcomes of SAB with published data from CHW; 1994-1998. We compared health-care associated with community-associated (HCA-SAB and CA-SAB; defined epidemiologically) and methicillin-resistant with methicillin susceptible S...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Sumayya Kasuji, Prady Gadaria
AIM: Intravenous gentamicin is given as a 5 day course to paediatric patients who have undergone abdominal surgery. There was an impression that the multiple daily dosing regimen in use at the time (2.5 mg/kg three times a day) did not provide therapeutic levels in this patient cohort therefore the aim was to develop a dosing regimen that did. METHOD: A retrospective audit of pre- and post-dose gentamicin levels in patients on a multiple daily dose regimen was undertaken...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Brendan J McMullan, Asha Bowen, Christopher C Blyth, Sebastiaan Van Hal, Tony M Korman, Jim Buttery, Lesley Voss, Sally Roberts, Celia Cooper, Steven Y C Tong, John Turnidge
Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology in children is not well characterized. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of SAB in children and adolescents younger than 18 years from Australia and New Zealand. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study, using data from the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort for 1153 children with SAB from birth to less than 18 years in pediatric and general hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Jian Xiao, Liang Yin, Yiyun Lin, Yufeng Zhang, Lihui Wu, Zhinong Wang
BACKGROUND: Children with infective endocarditis (IE) have to undergo valve replacement instead of valve repair in China due to severe valve damage. The present study is to review our experience on surgical treatment of children with IE in reference to the incidence, pathologic status, diagnosis, surgical strategies and outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed 35 patients with a mean age of 13.7±2.2 years who were underwent valve replacement surgery for IE during the period from January 1993 to December 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Katherine E Bates, Matthew Hall, Samir S Shah, Kevin D Hill, Sara K Pasquali
OBJECTIVE: National organisations in several countries have recently released more restrictive guidelines for infective endocarditis prophylaxis, including the American Heart Association 2007 guidelines. Initial studies demonstrated no change in infective endocarditis rates over time; however, a recent United Kingdom study suggested an increase; current paediatric trends are unknown. METHODS: Children (5 years of age. Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate rates over time indexed to total hospitalisations...
July 15, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Barbara Mackiewicz, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Marcin Golec, Janusz Milanowski
Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Joshua R Francis, Jennifer Robson, David Wong, Mark Walsh, Ivan Astori, David Gill, Clare Nourse
BACKGROUND: Clinical disease caused by Coxiella burnetii occurs infrequently in children. Chronic Q fever is particularly uncommon and endocarditis is rarely seen. A small number of cases of Q fever osteomyelitis have been described but the pathophysiology is not well understood and optimal treatment is unknown. METHODS: We describe a series of cases of chronic recurrent multifocal Q fever osteomyelitis cases diagnosed in children from a single region in Australia...
September 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Chun-Fu Yeh, Shih-Cheng Chang, Chun-Wen Cheng, Jung-Fu Lin, Tsui-Ping Liu, Jang-Jih Lu
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a major cause of aggressive endocarditis, but it is also responsible for a broad spectrum of infections. The differences in clinical and molecular characteristics between community-associated (CA) and health care-associated (HA) S. lugdunensis infections have remained unclear. We performed a retrospective study of S. lugdunensis infections between 2003 and 2014 to compare the clinical and molecular characteristics of CA and HA isolates. We collected 129 S. lugdunensis isolates in total: 81 (62...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Georgios Kranidiotis, Efrosini Efstratiadis, Georgios Kapsalakis, Georgios Loizos, Apostolos Bilis, Andreas Melidonis
INTRODUCTION: Human parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus most known for causing erythema infectiosum in children, and polyarthropathy or transient aplastic crisis in adults. However, various unusual clinical manifestations have also been reported in association with it. We describe a young patient who presented with splenic infarcts as a rare complication of B19 infection. CASE REPORT: A 33-year old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever and headache...
2016: IDCases
Zakaria Jalal, Sebastien Hascoet, Alban-Elouen Baruteau, Xavier Iriart, Bernard Kreitmann, Younes Boudjemline, Jean-Benoit Thambo
Percutaneous closure has evolved to become the first-line treatment strategy for most cases of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) in both adults and children. Its safety and efficacy have been proved; percutaneous ASD occlusion offers many advantages over surgical closure, including avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass, avoidance of sternotomy scar, shorter hospitalization, and a potentially lower incidence of postprocedural complications. Periprocedural course and short-term outcome have been widely described, with low mortality and morbidity rates...
March 3, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Bruno C Flores, Ankur R Patel, Bruno P Braga, Bradley E Weprin, H Hunt Batjer
INTRODUCTION: Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. BACKGROUND: The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage...
July 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Song-Yi Kim, Ahram Han, Chanjoong Choi, Sang-Il Min, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Jongwon Ha, Seung-Kee Min
Acute arterial thromboembolism (ATE) is rare in childhood, but this medical emergency requires immediate treatment. Described herein are separate instances of lower extremity ATE in 2 children, both of whom were successfully managed through image-guided thromboembolectomy (IGT). One patient, a 34-month-old female child with nephrotic syndrome, developed bilateral iliac and popliteal thromboembolic arterial occlusions after high-dose steroid therapy. Another 9-year-old girl suffered an embolism of left popliteal artery due to infectious endocarditis...
July 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Julien I E Hoffman
As closing a patent arterial duct is relatively simple, safe, and successful, most children with a patent arterial duct have it closed soon after diagnosis. The larger ducts are closed to prevent congestive heart failure, pulmonary vascular disease, or aneurysmal dilatation of the ductus, and smaller ducts are closed to prevent infective endocarditis. Consequently, there is no opportunity to determine whether spontaneous closure or diminution in size of the patent arterial duct is common. If the duct does become smaller, flow through it may be so low that no murmur is produced - the silent ductus...
May 10, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Armando Gonzalez-Ruiz, R Andrew Seaton, Kamal Hamed
Infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens remain a major public health burden and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Increasing rates of infection with Gram-positive bacteria and the emergence of resistance to commonly used antibiotics have led to the need for novel antibiotics. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide with rapid bactericidal activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, has been shown to be effective and has a good safety profile for the approved indications of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (4 mg/kg/day), right-sided infective endocarditis caused by S...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Cemşit Karakurt, Rıza Türköz, Bülent Sarıtaş, Serkan Çelik, Özlem Elkıran
UNLABELLED: Cardiac pseudoaneurysm is an extremely rare condition in children. It can be congenital or acquired and has been primarily described in the left side of the heart. The congenital form of pseudoaneurysm is thought to be related to muscular dysplasia of the muscular layer of the heart. The acquired form is related to myocardial infarction, infective endocarditis or chest trauma. In this report we described a 5-month-old baby with left atrial pseudoaneurysm who was referred to our hospital due to tachycardia and hemodynamic instability...
January 2016: Acta Cardiol Sin
Jarle Jortveit, Elisabeth Leirgul, Leif Eskedal, Gottfried Greve, Tatiana Fomina, Gaute Døhlen, Grethe S Tell, Sigurd Birkeland, Nina Øyen, Henrik Holmstrøm
BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital heart defects (CHDs). Previous studies indicate an increased risk of endocarditis, aortic regurgitation, left ventricular outflow tract obstructions, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with isolated VSDs. The present nationwide cohort study reports mortality and cardiac complications requiring hospitalisation or intervention in children with isolated VSDs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Medical information concerning all 943 871 live births in Norway in 1994-2009 was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project, the Oslo University Hospital's Clinical Registry of Congenital Heart Defects and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sriram Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Subramanian Mahadevan, P S Priyamvada, Nachiappa Ganesh Rajesh
Renal involvement in infective endocarditis (IE) may manifest with different clinical patterns, including diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis, which may lead to haematuria and/or proteinuria. However, severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases is extremely uncommon and is reported mostly in adults. Two children with rheumatic heart disease and a peri-membranous ventricular septal defect, respectively, who developed haematuria, proteinuria and severe AKI in association with IE are reported...
January 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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