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Cancer development risk low dose ionizing radiation

Nilton Lavatori Correa, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Rossana Corbo
: An increase in the incidence of second primary cancers (SPC) is the late effect of greatest concern that could occur in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). The decision to treat a patient with RAI should therefore incorporate a careful risk-benefit analysis. The objective of this work is to adapt the risk estimation models developed by the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee (BEIR VII) to local epidemiological characteristics, to assess the carcinogenesis risk from radiation in a population of Brazilian DTC patients treated with RAI...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
D D Zhou, L Yao, K M Guo, C W Lu
Long-term radiation exposure is hazardous to health; late-onset effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) pose risks to the lens, and are associated with other non-cancerous diseases. Individuals occupationally exposed to low-dose IR are prone to developing eye cataracts. Cytogenetic evaluations suggest that IR is associated with chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. However, data regarding the association between chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients and occupational exposure to IR is scarce...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Cary Zeitlin, Chiara La Tessa
The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Souparno Bhattacharya, Aroumougame Asaithamby
Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As advancements in radiation therapy (RT) have significantly increased the number of cancer survivors, the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICD) in this group is a growing concern. Recent epidemiological data suggest that accidental or occupational exposure to low dose radiation, in addition to therapeutic ionizing radiation, can result in cardiovascular complications. The progression of radiation-induced cardiotoxicity often takes years to manifest but is also multifaceted, as the heart may be affected by a variety of pathologies...
October 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sujatha Muralidharan, Sharath P Sasi, Maria A Zuriaga, Karen K Hirschi, Christopher D Porada, Matthew A Coleman, Kenneth X Walsh, Xinhua Yan, David A Goukassian
Exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation (IR), as in the case of astronauts exploring space or radiotherapy cancer patients, increases their risk of developing secondary cancers and other health-related problems. Bone marrow (BM), the site in the body where hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation to mature blood cells occurs, is extremely sensitive to low-dose IR, including irradiation by high-charge and high-energy particles. Low-dose IR induces DNA damage and persistent oxidative stress in the BM hematopoietic cells...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
Matthew A Coleman, Sharath P Sasi, Jillian Onufrak, Mohan Natarajan, Krishnan Manickam, John Schwab, Sujatha Muralidharan, Leif E Peterson, Yuriy O Alekseyev, Xinhua Yan, David A Goukassian
There are 160,000 cancer patients worldwide treated with particle radiotherapy (RT). With the advent of proton, and high (H) charge (Z) and energy (E) HZE ionizing particle RT, the cardiovascular diseases risk estimates are uncertain. In addition, future deep space exploratory-type missions will expose humans to unknown but low doses of particle irradiation (IR). We examined molecular responses using transcriptome profiling in left ventricular murine cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to 90 cGy, 1 GeV proton ((1)H) and 15 cGy, 1 GeV/nucleon iron ((56)Fe) over 28 days after exposure...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Mariateresa Mancuso, Emanuela Pasquali, Ignacia Braga-Tanaka, Satoshi Tanaka, Alessandro Pannicelli, Paola Giardullo, Simonetta Pazzaglia, Soile Tapio, Michael J Atkinson, Anna Saran
There is epidemiological evidence for increased non-cancer mortality, primarily due to circulatory diseases after radiation exposure above 0.5 Sv. We evaluated the effects of chronic low-dose rate versus acute exposures in a murine model of spontaneous atherogenesis. Female ApoE-/- mice (60 days) were chronically irradiated for 300 days with gamma rays at two different dose rates (1 mGy/day; 20 mGy/day), with total accumulated doses of 0.3 or 6 Gy. For comparison, age-matched ApoE-/- females were acutely exposed to the same doses and sacrificed 300 days post-irradiation...
October 13, 2015: Oncotarget
Brice Ilharreborde, Emmanuelle Ferrero, Marianne Alison, Keyvan Mazda
PURPOSE: Imaging plays a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine the prognosis and accordingly define the best therapeutic strategy to follow. Conventional radiographs with ionizing radiation have been associated with 1-2 % increased lifetime risk of developing cancer in children, and physicians, therefore, need a sensitive but harmless way to explore patients at risk, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept. The EOS system (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available in routine clinical use since 2007, and allows 3D reconstructions of the trunk in standing position with significant radiation reduction...
February 2016: European Spine Journal
Francis A Cucinotta
The prediction of space radiation induced cancer risk carries large uncertainties with two of the largest uncertainties being radiation quality and dose-rate effects. In risk models the ratio of the quality factor (QF) to the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) parameter is used to scale organ doses for cosmic ray proton and high charge and energy (HZE) particles to a hazard rate for γ-rays derived from human epidemiology data. In previous work, particle track structure concepts were used to formulate a space radiation QF function that is dependent on particle charge number Z, and kinetic energy per atomic mass unit, E...
2015: PloS One
Francis A Cucinotta
Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions...
February 2015: Health Physics
Nikhil Vadhavkar, Christopher Pham, Walter Georgescu, Thomas Deschamps, Anne-Catherine Heuskin, Jonathan Tang, Sylvain V Costes
In contrast to the classic view of static DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) being repaired at the site of damage, we hypothesize that DSBs move and merge with each other over large distances (μm). As X-ray dose increases, the probability of having DSB clusters increases as does the probability of misrepair and cell death. Experimental work characterizing the X-ray dose dependence of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) is used here to validate a DSB clustering model...
September 2014: Radiation Research
J Kubeš, P Vítek, K Dědečková, B Ondrová
BACKGROUND: Very late effects of radiotherapy occur within decades after the initial exposure. Their development is induced by low doses of ionizing radiation (from 4 Gy per radiation series) and their clinical manifestations are difficult to distinguish from other independent diseases diagnosed in individuals not formerly treated with radiation. A long time period from the exposure confounds any causal relationships between radiation and adverse events. Still, these side effects not only reduce the patients quality of life but also lead to an early morbidity and mortality, hence generating significant costs in health care and social systems...
2014: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Madeleine Nordén Lyckesvärd, Ulla Delle, Helena Kahu, Sture Lindegren, Holger Jensen, Tom Bäck, John Swanpalmer, Kecke Elmroth
Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation...
July 2014: Mutation Research
G Sommer, M Koenigkam-Santos, J Biederer, M Puderbach
BACKGROUND: Due to physical and technical limitations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has hitherto played only a minor role in image-based diagnostics of the lungs. However, as a consequence of important methodological developments during recent years, MRI has developed into a technically mature and clinically well-proven method for specific pulmonary questions. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the currently available sequences and techniques for assessment of pulmonary nodules and analyzes the clinical significance according to the current literature...
May 2014: Der Radiologe
Nori Nakamura
It is well established that those who were exposed to ionizing radiation have increased risks of developing malignancies. The magnitude of the risk varies depending on not only the dose but also age at the time of exposure, gender, background incidence rate etc. In the case of atomic bomb survivors, the relative risk of cancer is linearly related to the dose, and the sex averaged relative risk (exposure age is 30, risk calculation is when they reached age 70) is 1.5 at 1 Gy. Because the increased risks below 100 to 200 mGy are too small and not statistically significant, there are arguments in interpreting the risks at the low dose range...
2012: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics
Masao S Sasaki, Akira Tachibana, Shunichi Takeda
Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation...
May 2014: Journal of Radiation Research
Maya Kansara, Huei San Leong, Dan Mei Lin, Sophie Popkiss, Puiyi Pang, Dale W Garsed, Carl R Walkley, Carleen Cullinane, Jason Ellul, Nicole M Haynes, Rod Hicks, Marieke L Kuijjer, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Philip W Hinds, Mark J Smyth, David M Thomas
Ionizing radiation (IR) and germline mutations in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) are the strongest risk factors for developing osteosarcoma. Recapitulating the human predisposition, we found that Rb1+/- mice exhibited accelerated development of IR-induced osteosarcoma, with a latency of 39 weeks. Initial exposure of osteoblasts to carcinogenic doses of IR in vitro and in vivo induced RB1-dependent senescence and the expression of a panel of proteins known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), dominated by IL-6...
December 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gunnar Brix, Elke A Nekolla, Markus Borowski, Dietmar Noßke
Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined...
May 2014: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Patrick R Lawler, Jonathan Afilalo, Mark J Eisenberg, Louise Pilote
Patients with cardiovascular disease are increasingly exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) from diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Previous studies have suggested that the malignancy risk associated with LDIR may be greatest in women and in young patients. We sought to compare the effect of LDIR on incident cancer across gender and age strata in a population-based cohort of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). All initially cancer-free patients with MI from 1996 to 2006 were identified in a province-wide administrative database...
November 15, 2013: American Journal of Cardiology
Dimitri Hauri, Ben Spycher, Anke Huss, Frank Zimmermann, Michael Grotzer, Nicolas von der Weid, Damien Weber, Adrian Spoerri, Claudia E Kuehni, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide census-based cohort study including all children < 16 years of age living in Switzerland on 5 December 2000, the date of the 2000 census...
October 2013: Environmental Health Perspectives
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