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Cancer development risk low dose ionizing radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873026/impact-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-cardiovascular-system-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Stephanie Puukila, Jennifer A Lemon, Simon J Lees, T C Tai, Douglas R Boreham, Neelam Khaper
Radiation therapy has become one of the main forms of treatment for various types of cancers. Cancer patients previously treated with high doses of radiation are at a greater risk to develop cardiovascular complications later in life. The heart can receive varying doses of radiation depending on the type of therapy and can even reach doses in the range of 17 Gy. Multiple studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in radiation-induced cardiovascular damage. Doses of ionizing radiation below 200 mGy, however, have been shown to have beneficial effects in some experimental models of radiation-induced damage, but low-dose effects in the heart is still debated...
October 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852434/a-new-natural-antioxidant-mixture-protects-against-oxidative-and-dna-damage-in-endothelial-cell-exposed-to-low-dose-irradiation
#2
T Cervelli, D Panetta, T Navarra, S Gadhiri, P Salvadori, A Galli, D Caramella, G Basta, E Picano, S Del Turco
Exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic procedures increases systemic oxidative stress and predisposes to higher risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease development. Many studies indicated that antioxidants protect against radiation-induced damage and have high efficacy and lack of toxicity in preventing radiation exposure damages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro protective effect of a new antioxidant mixture, named RiduROS, on oxidative stress generation and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by low doses of X-rays in endothelial cells...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742468/single-ct-scan-prolongs-survival-by-extending-cancer-latency-in-trp53-heterozygous-mice
#3
Jennifer A Lemon, Nghi Phan, Douglas R Boreham
There is growing concern over the effects of medical diagnostic procedures on cancer risk. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that low doses of ionizing radiation can have protective effects including reduced cancer risk and increasing lifespan, the hypothesis that any radiation exposure increases cancer risk still predominates. In this study, we investigated cancer development and longevity of cancer-prone Trp53(+/-) mice exposed at 7-8 weeks of age to a single 10 mGy dose from either a diagnostic CT scan or gamma radiation...
October 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476188/environmental-exposure-and-risk-of-childhood-leukemia-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Joachim Schüz, Friederike Erdmann
Childhood leukemia is the most common cancer diagnosed in children worldwide. However, only a few causes have been established so far, mainly some genetic syndromes and high doses of ionizing radiation. Major efforts have been undertaken to study the relationship between environmental factors and the risk of childhood leukemia, inspired by geographical variation in incidence rates. Some evidence has emerged for parental occupational exposures to pesticides, whereas there is less evidence for an association with postnatal pesticide exposure...
November 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418814/ionizing-radiation-exposure-during-pregnancy-effects-on-postnatal-development-and-life
#5
REVIEW
Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Christopher Thome, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Devon E Jones, Adomas V Kulesza, Neelam Khaper, Simon J Lees, Joanna Y Wilson, Douglas R Boreham, T C Tai
Reliable human data on the effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation are largely based on high-dose exposures. Exposure to low doses may produce effects that are not easily observable at birth, and may persist over the course of the offspring's postnatal life. This is important when considering fetal programing, a phenomenon characterized by changes in offspring phenotype due to a stress experienced in utero. In this review, we briefly summarize the known effects of both high- and low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy in humans...
June 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361232/cancer-immunotherapy-how-low-level-ionizing-radiation-can-play-a-key-role
#6
REVIEW
Marek K Janiak, Marta Wincenciak, Aneta Cheda, Ewa M Nowosielska, Edward J Calabrese
The cancer immunoediting hypothesis assumes that the immune system guards the host against the incipient cancer, but also "edits" the immunogenicity of surviving neoplastic cells and supports remodeling of tumor microenvironment towards an immunosuppressive and pro-neoplastic state. Local irradiation of tumors during standard radiotherapy, by killing neoplastic cells and generating inflammation, stimulates anti-cancer immunity and/or partially reverses cancer-promoting immunosuppression. These effects are induced by moderate (0...
July 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001909/neudose-a-cubesat-mission-for-dosimetry-of-charged-particles-and-neutrons-in-low-earth-orbit
#7
A R Hanu, J Barberiz, D Bonneville, S H Byun, L Chen, C Ciambella, E Dao, V Deshpande, R Garnett, S D Hunter, A Jhirad, E M Johnston, M Kordic, M Kurnell, L Lopera, M McFadden, A Melnichuk, J Nguyen, A Otto, R Scott, D L Wagner, M Wiendels
During space missions, astronauts are exposed to a stream of energetic and highly ionizing radiation particles that can suppress immune system function, increase cancer risks and even induce acute radiation syndrome if the exposure is large enough. As human exploration goals shift from missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to long-duration interplanetary missions, radiation protection remains one of the key technological issues that must be resolved. In this work, we introduce the NEUtron DOSimetry & Exploration (NEUDOSE) CubeSat mission, which will provide new measurements of dose and space radiation quality factors to improve the accuracy of cancer risk projections for current and future space missions...
January 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#8
REVIEW
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762670/estimation-of-second-primary-cancer-risk-after-treatment-with-radioactive-iodine-for-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma
#9
Nilton Lavatori Corrêa, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Rossana Corbo Ramalho de Mello
BACKGROUND: An increase in the incidence of second primary cancers is the late effect of greatest concern that could occur in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). The decision to treat a patient with RAI should therefore incorporate a careful risk-benefit analysis. The objective of this work was to adapt the risk-estimation models developed by the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee to local epidemiological characteristics in order to assess the carcinogenesis risk from radiation in a population of Brazilian DTC patients treated with RAI...
February 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706730/cytogenetic-evaluation-of-cataract-patients-occupationally-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-in-northeast-china
#10
D D Zhou, L Yao, K M Guo, C W Lu
Long-term radiation exposure is hazardous to health; late-onset effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) pose risks to the lens, and are associated with other non-cancerous diseases. Individuals occupationally exposed to low-dose IR are prone to developing eye cataracts. Cytogenetic evaluations suggest that IR is associated with chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. However, data regarding the association between chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients and occupational exposure to IR is scarce...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065350/the-role-of-nuclear-fragmentation-in-particle-therapy-and-space-radiation-protection
#11
REVIEW
Cary Zeitlin, Chiara La Tessa
The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849909/ionizing-radiation-and-heart-risks
#12
REVIEW
Souparno Bhattacharya, Aroumougame Asaithamby
Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As advancements in radiation therapy (RT) have significantly increased the number of cancer survivors, the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICD) in this group is a growing concern. Recent epidemiological data suggest that accidental or occupational exposure to low dose radiation, in addition to therapeutic ionizing radiation, can result in cardiovascular complications. The progression of radiation-induced cardiotoxicity often takes years to manifest but is also multifaceted, as the heart may be affected by a variety of pathologies...
October 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26528440/ionizing-particle-radiation-as-a-modulator-of-endogenous-bone-marrow-cell-reprogramming-implications-for-hematological-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Sujatha Muralidharan, Sharath P Sasi, Maria A Zuriaga, Karen K Hirschi, Christopher D Porada, Matthew A Coleman, Kenneth X Walsh, Xinhua Yan, David A Goukassian
Exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation (IR), as in the case of astronauts exploring space or radiotherapy cancer patients, increases their risk of developing secondary cancers and other health-related problems. Bone marrow (BM), the site in the body where hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation to mature blood cells occurs, is extremely sensitive to low-dose IR, including irradiation by high-charge and high-energy particles. Low-dose IR induces DNA damage and persistent oxidative stress in the BM hematopoietic cells...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408534/low-dose-radiation-affects-cardiac-physiology-gene-networks-and-molecular-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes
#14
Matthew A Coleman, Sharath P Sasi, Jillian Onufrak, Mohan Natarajan, Krishnan Manickam, John Schwab, Sujatha Muralidharan, Leif E Peterson, Yuriy O Alekseyev, Xinhua Yan, David A Goukassian
There are 160,000 cancer patients worldwide treated with particle radiotherapy (RT). With the advent of proton, and high (H) charge (Z) and energy (E) HZE ionizing particle RT, the cardiovascular diseases risk estimates are uncertain. In addition, future deep space exploratory-type missions will expose humans to unknown but low doses of particle irradiation (IR). We examined molecular responses using transcriptome profiling in left ventricular murine cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to 90 cGy, 1 GeV proton ((1)H) and 15 cGy, 1 GeV/nucleon iron ((56)Fe) over 28 days after exposure...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359350/acceleration-of-atherogenesis-in-apoe-mice-exposed-to-acute-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mariateresa Mancuso, Emanuela Pasquali, Ignacia Braga-Tanaka, Satoshi Tanaka, Alessandro Pannicelli, Paola Giardullo, Simonetta Pazzaglia, Soile Tapio, Michael J Atkinson, Anna Saran
There is epidemiological evidence for increased non-cancer mortality, primarily due to circulatory diseases after radiation exposure above 0.5 Sv. We evaluated the effects of chronic low-dose rate versus acute exposures in a murine model of spontaneous atherogenesis. Female ApoE-/- mice (60 days) were chronically irradiated for 300 days with gamma rays at two different dose rates (1 mGy/day; 20 mGy/day), with total accumulated doses of 0.3 or 6 Gy. For comparison, age-matched ApoE-/- females were acutely exposed to the same doses and sacrificed 300 days post-irradiation...
October 13, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25906380/eos-microdose-protocol-for-the-radiological-follow-up-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#16
Brice Ilharreborde, Emmanuelle Ferrero, Marianne Alison, Keyvan Mazda
PURPOSE: Imaging plays a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine the prognosis and accordingly define the best therapeutic strategy to follow. Conventional radiographs with ionizing radiation have been associated with 1-2 % increased lifetime risk of developing cancer in children, and physicians, therefore, need a sensitive but harmless way to explore patients at risk, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept. The EOS system (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available in routine clinical use since 2007, and allows 3D reconstructions of the trunk in standing position with significant radiation reduction...
February 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25789764/a-new-approach-to-reduce-uncertainties-in-space-radiation-cancer-risk-predictions
#17
Francis A Cucinotta
The prediction of space radiation induced cancer risk carries large uncertainties with two of the largest uncertainties being radiation quality and dose-rate effects. In risk models the ratio of the quality factor (QF) to the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) parameter is used to scale organ doses for cosmic ray proton and high charge and energy (HZE) particles to a hazard rate for γ-rays derived from human epidemiology data. In previous work, particle track structure concepts were used to formulate a space radiation QF function that is dependent on particle charge number Z, and kinetic energy per atomic mass unit, E...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551493/review-of-nasa-approach-to-space-radiation-risk-assessments-for-mars-exploration
#18
REVIEW
Francis A Cucinotta
Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions...
February 2015: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25076115/combinatorial-dna-damage-pairing-model-based-on-x-ray-induced-foci-predicts-the-dose-and-let-dependence-of-cell-death-in-human-breast-cells
#19
Nikhil Vadhavkar, Christopher Pham, Walter Georgescu, Thomas Deschamps, Anne-Catherine Heuskin, Jonathan Tang, Sylvain V Costes
In contrast to the classic view of static DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) being repaired at the site of damage, we hypothesize that DSBs move and merge with each other over large distances (μm). As X-ray dose increases, the probability of having DSB clusters increases as does the probability of misrepair and cell death. Experimental work characterizing the X-ray dose dependence of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) is used here to validate a DSB clustering model...
September 2014: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24918273/-very-late-effects-of-radiotherapy%C3%A2-%C3%A2-limiting-factor-of-current-radiotherapy-techniques
#20
J Kubeš, P Vítek, K Dědečková, B Ondrová
BACKGROUND: Very late effects of radiotherapy occur within decades after the initial exposure. Their development is induced by low doses of ionizing radiation (from 4 Gy per radiation series) and their clinical manifestations are difficult to distinguish from other independent diseases diagnosed in individuals not formerly treated with radiation. A long time period from the exposure confounds any causal relationships between radiation and adverse events. Still, these side effects not only reduce the patients quality of life but also lead to an early morbidity and mortality, hence generating significant costs in health care and social systems...
2014: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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