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Mathieu Bangert, María D Flores-Chávez, Ivonne P Llanes-Acevedo, Carolina Arcones, Carmen Chicharro, Emilia García, Sheila Ortega, Javier Nieto, Israel Cruz
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is endemic in Europe with Mediterranean countries reporting endemic status alongside a worrying northward spread. Serological diagnosis, including immunochromatographic test based on the recombinant antigen rK39 (rK39-ICT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT) based on the whole parasite antigen, have been validated in regions with high VL burden, such as eastern Africa and the Indian subcontinent. To date, no studies using a large set of patients have performed an assessment of both methods within Europe...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tália S Machado de Assis, André Luis Ferreira Azeredo-da-Silva, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Ana Rabello
BACKGROUND: The objective of study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of diagnostic options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. METHODS: Six diagnostic tests were considered: IT LEISH, Kalazar Detect, DAT-LPC (DAT made in the Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas), IFAT, PCR and direct examination of bone marrow aspirate performed in either an ambulatory or a hospital setting. A database was built using the cost and effectiveness...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Giorgi Babuadze, Jason Farlow, Harry P de Koning, Eugenia Carrillo, Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Mari Murskvaladze, Merab Kekelidze, Irakli Karseladze, Nora Kokaia, Irine Kalandadze, David Tsereteli, Ivane Markhvashvili, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Gvantsa Chanturia, Ekaterine Adeishvili, Paata Imnadze
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis includes multiple clinical syndromes, most notably visceral, cutaneous, and mucosal forms. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Africa and Asia, and in South-Eastern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Georgia). Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by species of the L. donovani complex. In the classical epidemiological model the main reservoir for VL are canines. METHODS: The study included a cohort of 513 individuals of both genders (190 males and 323 females) from the ages of 1 to 70 years that were screened in ten villages across two districts in Kakheti using the Kalazar Detect™ rK39 rapid diagnostic test...
May 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
César Omar Carranza-Tamayo, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero
A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Ilka Afonso Reis, Julia Angélica da Silveira, Daniel Moreira Avelar, Andreza Pain Marcelino, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Gustavo Fontes Paz
INTRODUCTION: The present study was designed to assess the occurrence of co-infection or cross-reaction in the serological techniques used for detecting the anti-Leishmania spp., -Babesia canis vogeli and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in urban dogs from an area endemic to these parasites. METHODS: The serum samples from dogs were tested for the Babesia canis vogeli strain Belo Horizonte antigen and Ehrlichia canis strain São Paulo by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody detection to assess Leishmania infection...
January 2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Abhimanyu Jha, Dipendra Gurung
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rare in Nepal although visceral leishmaniasis and post-kalazar dermal leishmansis have frequently been reported. Diagnosis is often made in skin biopsy. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of the disease is a rare event. This was a 33 year male presenting with ulcerated cutaneous nodule at anterior neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed granulomatous inflammation with numerous intracellular and extracellular amastigotes. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of this condition is easy and less time consuming compared to skin biopsy...
October 2013: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Giorgi Babuadze, Jorge Alvar, Daniel Argaw, Harry P de Koning, Merab Iosava, Merab Kekelidze, Nikoloz Tsertsvadze, David Tsereteli, Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Tamar Mamatsashvili, Nino Beria, Irine Kalandadze, Mikhail Ejov, Paata Imnadze
This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi...
March 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maurício Franco Zanette, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Claudio Nazaretian Rossi, Juliana Peloi Vides, Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira, Alexander Welker Biondo, Mary Marcondes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. METHODS: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42...
January 2014: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
K J Bhat, K K Pandita, A Khajuria, S M Wani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Alexandre Sampaio Moura, Helen Maria Ramos de Oliveira Lopes, Maria Vitória Assumpção Mourão, Maria Helena Franco Morais
INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may improve the early detection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but their real-world performance requires additional study. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of an rK39-based RDT (Kalazar Detect™) for the detection of VL in an endemic, large urban area. METHODS: Data were collected from a registry of rK39 RDT performed at 11 emergency care units in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and from a national database of reportable communicable diseases of the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN)...
September 2013: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Luciana Baggiani, Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Roberta Perego
This study compares a rapid Immunospecific Kalazar Canine Rapid Spot IF with the gold standard test (indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT)) for detection of Leishmania infantum specific IgG serum antibodies in naturally exposed dogs. Serum samples were obtained from 89 healthy dogs and dogs affected by canine leishmaniosis (CanL). IgG-IFAT titers ≥80 were considered positive. Anti-L. infantum IgG antibodies were found in 54 samples with titers ranging from 1 : 80 to 1 : 5120. The performance of the rapid Immunospecific Kalazar was evaluated using a ROC curve...
2013: BioMed Research International
Félix Javier León Molinet, Julia Sonia Ampuero, Rodrigo Diniz Costa, Elza Ferreira Noronha, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero
The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of a rapid immunochromatographic test that was developed to detect antibodies against the rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This evaluation was performed using sera from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of active cutaneous leishmaniasis. The sera from 272 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) who resided in an area endemic for Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil were obtained before the initiation of antileishmanial treatment...
May 2013: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rupert J Quinnell, Connor Carson, Richard Reithinger, Lourdes M Garcez, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: There is a need for sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for canine visceral leishmaniasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic dipstick RDTs using rK39 antigen for canine visceral leishmaniasis by (i) investigating the sensitivity of RDTs to detect infection, disease and infectiousness in a longitudinal cohort study of natural infection in Brazil, and (ii) using meta-analysis to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs from published studies...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Manuel Morales-Yuste, Francisco Morillas-Márquez, Victoriano Díaz-Sáez, Sergio Barón-López, Carmen Acedo-Sánchez, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez
Our aim was to establish the influence on the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) of the following: (1) the use of different diagnostic techniques; (2) different positivity thresholds; (3) selection of animals either at random from a population or focused on symptomatic individuals, (4) the function which the dog performs; and (5) scenarios with differing epidemiological characteristic. Three groups of dogs were analysed (416 sampled at random from an endemic area, 71 with symptomatology compatible with CanL and 15 from a non-endemic area) using three serological techniques (indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), Kalazar Detect(TM) and Q Letitest ELISA) and a PCR-ELISA...
July 2012: Parasitology Research
S Kalayou, H Tadelle, A Bsrat, N Abebe, M Haileselassie, H D F H Schallig
Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L...
June 2011: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Carmen Cañavate, Merce Herrero, Javier Nieto, Israel Cruz, Carmen Chicharro, Pilar Aparicio, Abate Mulugeta, Daniel Argaw, Anna J Blackstock, Jorge Alvar, Caryn Bern
We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect(®), DiaMed-IT Leish(®), DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98...
January 2011: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Guillermo Terán-Ángel, Vestalia Rodríguez, Rosilved Silva, Olga Zerpa, Henk Schallig, Marian Ulrich, Maira Cabrera
INTRODUCTION: Human visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in endemic countries because of its high potential lethality, particularly in children. Rapid diagnosis is essential to early treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare three serodiagnostic tools for human visceral leishmaniasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three methods were compared: the rK39 dipstick (Kalazar detection test, Inbios International Inc...
January 2010: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Elenice Moreira Lemos, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Márcio Antônio Batistela Moreira, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti, Syamal Raychaudhuri, Reynaldo Dietze
Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program...
August 2008: Acta Tropica
Francisco Salomao de Medeiros, Jose Tavares-Neto, Argemiro D'Oliveira, Raymundo Paraná
UNLABELLED: Visceral Leisshimaniosis or Kalazar is a parasitic infection caused by Leishimania Donovani subspecies. It is transmitted by phlebotomineos and may lead to liver and spleen enlargements as well as immunological impairment. Sometimes it is described liver injury simulating acute or chronic viral hepatitis and even portal hypertension. The liver injury makes difficult the diffencial diagnosis of Kalazar and other liver diseases in endemic regions. OBJECTIVE: To define and clarify the liver injury spectrum described in published cases reports...
September 2007: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Shyam Sundar, Radheshyam Maurya, Rakesh K Singh, K Bharti, Jaya Chakravarty, Ashish Parekh, Madhukar Rai, Kailash Kumar, Henry W Murray
Used with blood or serum, a new anti-K39 antibody immunochromatographic strip test (IT-Leish; DiaMed AG) proved sensitive (range, 99 to 100%) and specific (range, 95 to 100%) for the noninvasive serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Used with serum, the IT-Leish test and the existing Kalazar Detect test (InBios International, Inc.) yielded comparable results for symptomatic infection and identified apparent subclinical infection in 15 to 32% of healthy residents in a region where visceral leishmaniasis is highly endemic...
January 2006: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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