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Cancer risk low dose radiation

Yeon-Hee Han, Hwan-Jeong Jeong, Myung-Hee Sohn, Sun Y Lee, Seok T Lim
BACKGROUND: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is essential for the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and residual thyroid cancer in patients undergoing high-dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT). Recently, the use of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh- TSH) has increased in preference over the conventional method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, the clinical influences of the two methods, aside from the therapeutic effects, have not been widely evaluated...
March 8, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sunil W Dutta, Kristine Bauer-Nilsen, Jason C Sanders, Daniel M Trifiletti, Bruce Libby, Donna H Lash, Melody Lain, Deborah Christodoulou, Constance Hodge, Timothy N Showalter
PURPOSE: To evaluate the delivery cost of frequently used radiotherapy options offered to patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer using time-driven activity-based costing and compare the results with Medicare reimbursement and relative value units (RVUs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Process maps were created to represent each step of prostate radiotherapy treatment at our institution. Salary data, equipment purchase costs, and consumable costs were factored into the cost analysis...
March 5, 2018: Brachytherapy
Michael Meier-Schroers, Alois Martin Sprinkart, Manuel Becker, Rami Homsi, Daniel Thomas
PURPOSE:  To determine the suitability of T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  60 participants in a lung cancer screening program (30 subjects with pulmonary emphysema, and 30 control subjects without emphysema) were included for this retrospective study. All subjects were examined with low-dose CT (LDCT) and MRI within the screening program. The use of a T2-weighted PROPELLER sequence for the assessment of emphysema was analyzed and correlated with the results of LDCT...
March 7, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Ivan R Vogelius, Søren M Bentzen
PURPOSE: Randomized trials of altered dose/fractionation for external beam radiation therapy are meta-analyzed with the aim of establishing the dose response and fractionation sensitivity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Studies were identified through PubMed through April 1, 2017. Studies of any-risk prostate cancer patients and any modification of external beam radiation therapy were included. The outcomes and comparisons collected were hazard ratios for biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) and overall survival (OS)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
H T Sun, R J Yang, P Jiang, W J Jiang, J N Li, N Meng, J J Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy for breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery. METHODS: Ten patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were selected. Eclipse planning system was used to design volumetric rotating intensity-modulated (2F-RapidArc) and two field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (2F-IMRT) planning for each patient...
February 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Lei Zhou, Xiaoying Zhang, Hui Li, Chao Niu, Dehai Yu, Guozi Yang, Xinyue Liang, Xue Wen, Min Li, Jiuwei Cui
Although low-dose radiation (LDR) possesses the two distinct functions of inducing hormesis and adaptive responses, which result in immune enhancement and tumor inhibition, its clinical applications have not yet been elucidated. The major obstacle that hinders the application of LDR in the clinical setting is that the mechanisms underlying induction of tumor inhibition are unclear, and the risks associated with LDR are still unknown. Thus, to overcome this obstacle and elucidate the mechanisms mediating the antitumor effects of LDR, in this study, we established an in vivo lung cancer model to investigate the participation of the immune system in LDR-induced tumor inhibition and validated the pivotal role of the immune system by impairing immunity with high-dose radiation (HDR) of 1 Gy...
February 25, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jeffry A Siegel, Bennett S Greenspan, Alan H Maurer, Andrew T Taylor, William T Phillips, Douglas Van Nostrand, Bill Sacks, Edward B Silberstein
The 2006 National Academy of Sciences Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report is a well recognized and frequently cited source on the legitimacy of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model - a model entailing a linear and causal relationship between ionizing radiation and human cancer risk. Linearity means that all radiation causes cancer and explicitly excludes a threshold, below which radiogenic cancer risk disappears. However, the BEIR VII Committee has erred in the interpretation of their selected literature; specifically, the in vitro data quoted fail to support LNT...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Tao Peng, Yihuai Wang, Thomas Canhao Xu, Lianmin Shi, Jianwu Jiang, Shilang Zhu
Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer. In radiation therapy, the ideal radiation doses are delivered to the observed tumor while not affecting neighboring normal tissues. In three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scans, the contours of tumors and organs-at-risk (OARs) are often manually delineated by radiologists. The task is complicated and time-consuming, and the manually delineated results will be variable from different radiologists. We propose a semi-supervised contour detection algorithm, which firstly uses a few points of region of interest (ROI) as an approximate initialization...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Jason Klein, Alex Ghasem, Samuel Huntley, Nathan Donaldson, Martin Keisch, Sheila Conway
BACKGROUND: High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are two modalities used in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. Previous work at our institution showed early complications and outcomes for patients treated with HDR-BT, EBRT, or a combination of both radiation therapy modalities. As the general indications for each of these approaches to radiation therapy differ, it is important to evaluate the use of each in an algorithmic way, reflecting how they are used in contemporary practice at sites that use these treatments...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Mohan Doss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Wan-Hua Hsieh, I-Feng Lin, Jung-Chun Ho, Peter Wushou Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Brett C Bade, Paul B Brasher, Branden W Luna, Gerard A Silvestri, Nichole T Tanner
Lung cancer screening with annual low-dose computed tomography (CT) decreases lung cancer mortality in high-risk patients, as defined by smoking history (> 30 pack-years) and age (55-74 years). Risks to screening include overdiagnosis, anxiety about indeterminate nodules, and radiation exposure. To be effective, lung cancer screening must combine individualized risk assessment, shared decision-making, smoking cessation, structured reporting, high quality and multi-specialty cancer care, and reliable follow-up; a multidisciplinary approach is crucial...
March 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Mohamed El-Shebiney, Nehal El-Mashad, Wael El-Mashad, Ahmed A El-Ebiary, Abdallah E Kotkat
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine radiotherapy (RT) dose-volumetric threshold of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (HT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The diagnosis of HT in 78 HNSCC patients treated with RT was based on a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level greater than the maximum value of laboratory range. In all patients, dose-volumetric parameters were analyzed according to their relation to development of HT, and thyroid volumes spared from doses ≥10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy (V10, V20, V30, V40 and V50) were analyzed from the dose volume histograms (DVHs)...
March 2018: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Dong Wook Shin, Sohyun Chun, Young Il Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Jung Soo Kim, SeMin Chong, Young Sik Park, Sang-Yun Song, Jin Han Lee, Hee Kyung Ahn, Eun Young Kim, Sei Hoon Yang, Myoung Kyu Lee, Deog Gon Cho, Tae Won Jang, Ji Woong Son, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Moon-June Cho
Lung cancer specialists play an important role in designing and implementing lung cancer screening. We aimed to describe their 1) attitudes toward low-dose lung computed tomography (LDCT) screening, 2) current practices and experiences of LDCT screening and 3) attitudes and opinions towards national lung cancer screening program (NLCSP). We conducted a national web-based survey of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiological oncologists who are members of Korean Association for Lung Cancer (N = 183)...
2018: PloS One
Christian L Barney, Nicholas Scoville, Eric Allan, Ahmet Ayan, Dominic DiCostanzo, Karl E Haglund, John Grecula, Terence Williams, Meng Xu-Welliver, Gregory A Otterson, Jose G Bazan
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that increasing radiation therapy (RT) dose to the thoracic vertebral bodies (TVBs) contributes to the development of hematologic toxicities (HTs) in patients with lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) treated with definitive chemoradiation with concurrent platinum-based doublet chemotherapy at our institution from 2007 to 2016 were identified. Mean TVB dose and the volume of TVBs receiving at least 5 to 60 Gy (V 5 -V 60 ) were retrospectively recorded...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
David G Hoel
PURPOSE: Estimating cancer risks for continuous radiation exposures based upon data from acute exposures has been an important public health problem. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) is typically used to estimate cancer risks for chronic exposures based upon risk estimates from acute exposures. A value of 2 for a DDREF has most often been used as proposed by the ICRP in ICRP60, however an influential analysis of several cohorts concluded that there is no risk difference between acute and chronic exposures...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Brian J Gebhardt, John A Vargo, Diane Ling, Brianna Jones, Mary Mohney, David A Clump, James P Ohr, Robert L Ferris, Dwight E Heron
PURPOSE: To correlate carotid dose and risk of carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), hypothesizing that carotid dose does not correlate with CBOS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed 186 patients with recurrent, previously irradiated head and neck cancer treated between January 2008 and March 2013. Patients treated early in our experience with incomplete dosimetry were excluded from analysis (n = 111). A total of 75 patients were identified, providing 150 carotid arteries for analysis...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J Soares Machado, J Tran-Gia, S Schlögl, A K Buck, M Lassmann
BACKGROUND: Renal scans are among the most frequent exams performed on infants and toddlers. Due to the young age, this patient group can be classified as a high-risk group with a higher probability for developing stochastic radiation effects compared to adults. As there are only limited data on biokinetics and dosimetry in this patient group, the aim of this study was to reassess the dosimetry and the associated radiation risk for infants undergoing 99mTc-MAG3 renal scans based on a retrospective analysis of existing patient data...
February 2, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Hao Feng, Jing-Kun Zhao, Tobias S Schiergens, Pu-Xiongzhi Wang, Bao-Chi Ou, Rami Al-Sayegh, Ming-Lun Li, Ai-Guo Lu, Shuai Yin, Wolfgang E Thasler
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy remains one of the cornerstones to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Radiotherapy of the CRC not only help to destroy cancer cells but also remodel the tumour microenvironment by enhancing tumour-specific tropism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) from the peripheral circulation. However, the role of local MSCs and recruited BM-MSC under radiation were not well defined. Indeed, the functions of BM-MSC without irradiation intervention remained controversial in tumour progression: BM-MSC was previously shown to modulate the immune function of major immune cells, resulting in an impaired immunological sensitivity and to induce an increased risk of tumour recurrence...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Richard Schmidt, Marie Breyer, Robab Breyer-Kohansal, Matthias Urban, Georg-Christian Funk
BACKGROUND: Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening...
January 25, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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