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Cancer risk low dose radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355960/occupational-radiation-exposure-and-thyroid-cancer-incidence-in-a-cohort-of-u-s-radiologic-technologists-1983-2013
#1
Cari M Kitahara, Dale L Preston, Gila Neta, Mark P Little, Michele M Doody, Steven L Simon, Alice J Sigurdson, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet
Although childhood exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer, the risk associated with adulthood exposure remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between cumulative, low-to-moderate dose occupational radiation exposure to the thyroid and thyroid cancer incidence in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. The study included 89,897 members who completed at least two of four mailed questionnaires and were cancer-free at the time of the first questionnaire...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336837/effectiveness-of-definitive-radiotherapy-for-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-vulva-with-gross-inguinal-lymphadenopathy
#2
Shane R Stecklein, Michael Frumovitz, Ann H Klopp, Jillian R Gunther, Patricia J Eifel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and long-term side effects of definitive groin radiotherapy for vulvar cancer with grossly involved inguinal lymph nodes. METHODS: The records of 407 women with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at one institution during 1992-2014 were reviewed to identify patients who had radiographic or histologic evidence of grossly involved inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with lymphadenectomy before radiotherapy and patients treated for recurrent disease were excluded...
January 11, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333114/carcinogenesis-induced-by-low-dose-radiation
#3
Igor Piotrowski, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Agnieszka Skrobała, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Kruszyna-Mochalska, Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki
Background: Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327260/lifetime-study-in-mice-after-acute-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-a-multifactorial-study-with-special-focus-on-cataract-risk
#4
Claudia Dalke, Frauke Neff, Savneet Kaur Bains, Scott Bright, Deborah Lord, Peter Reitmeir, Ute Rößler, Daniel Samaga, Kristian Unger, Herbert Braselmann, Florian Wagner, Matthias Greiter, Maria Gomolka, Sabine Hornhardt, Sarah Kunze, Stefan J Kempf, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Michael Rosemann, Omid Azimzadeh, Soile Tapio, Michaela Aubele, Fabian Theis, Christoph Hoeschen, Predrag Slijepcevic, Munira Kadhim, Michael Atkinson, Horst Zitzelsberger, Ulrike Kulka, Jochen Graw
Because of the increasing application of ionizing radiation in medicine, quantitative data on effects of low-dose radiation are needed to optimize radiation protection, particularly with respect to cataract development. Using mice as mammalian animal model, we applied a single dose of 0, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.5 Gy at 10 weeks of age, determined lens opacities for up to 2 years and compared it with overall survival, cytogenetic alterations and cancer development. The highest dose was significantly associated with increased body weight and reduced survival rate...
January 11, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324353/dietary-habits-during-the-2-months-following-the-chernobyl-accident-and-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-risk-in-a-population-based-case-control-study
#5
Constance Xhaard, Carole Rubino, Vincent Souchard, Stéphane Maillard, Yan Ren, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Geneviève Sassolas, Claire Schvartz, Marc Colonna, Brigitte Lacour, Anne Sophie Woronoff, Michel Velten, Emilie Marrer, Laurent Bailly, Eugènia Mariné Barjoan, Martin Schlumberger, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Andre Bouville, Jacques Orgiazzi, Elisabeth Adjadj, Florent de Vathaire
BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred in Ukraine on April 26th 1986. In France, the radioactive fallout and thyroid radiation doses were much lower than in highly contaminated areas. However, a number of risk projections have suggested that a small excess in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) might occur in eastern France due to this low-level fallout. In order to investigate this potential impact, a case-control study on DTC risk factors was started in 2005, focusing on cases who were less than 15 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313822/direct-adjustment-for-confounding-by-smoking-reduces-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-of-mortality-among-male-nuclear-workers-in-japan-1999-2010
#6
Shin'ichi Kudo, Jun'ichi Ishida, Keiko Yoshimoto, Shoichi Mizuno, Sumio Ohshima, Hiroshige Furuta, Fumiyoshi Kasagi
The causal relationship between protracted exposure to low-dose rate radiation and health effects remains unclear despite extensive international studies of nuclear workers. One reason is that radiation epidemiological studies that adjust for smoking, which heavily influences mortality, have been limited. In the present study, we examined radiation-related cancer risk by directly assessing the possible confounding effect of smoking, using data from two questionnaire surveys performed among Japanese nuclear workers in 1997 and 2003...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306674/a-comparison-of-early-prostate-specific-antigen-decline-between-prostate-brachytherapy-and-different-fractionation-of-external-beam-radiation-impact-on-biochemical-failure
#7
Daniel Taussky, Stéphane Bedwani, Nissan Meissner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Carole Lambert, Maroie Barkati, Marie-Claude Beauchemin, Cynthia Ménard, Guila Delouya
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline patterns and PSA nadirs between low-dose-rate seed prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) and different fractionations of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and their predictive importance for biochemical failure (bF). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with D'Amico low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent a single-modality treatment without androgen deprivation were included in this study...
January 3, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304991/a-multi-institutional-phase-2-trial-of-prostate-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-using-continuous-real-time-evaluation-of-prostate-motion-with-patient-reported-quality-of-life
#8
William C Jackson, Robert T Dess, Dale W Litzenberg, Pin Li, Matthew Schipper, Seth A Rosenthal, Garrick C Chang, Eric M Horwitz, Robert A Price, Jeff M Michalski, Hiram A Gay, John T Wei, Mary Feng, Felix Y Feng, Howard M Sandler, Robert E Wallace, Daniel E Spratt, Daniel A Hamstra
PURPOSE: The use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer has been reported predominantly from single institutional studies, although concerns for broader adoption exist. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2011 through 2013, 66 men were accrued to a phase 2 trial at 5 centers. SBRT consisted of 5 fractions of 7.4 Gy to a total dose of 37 Gy using conventional linear accelerators. Electromagnetic transponders were used for motion management. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated via the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 26 questionnaire...
January 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304961/editorial-commentary-invisible-odorless-and-deadly-do-computed-tomography-scans-in-young-patients-with-hip-pain-cause-cancer
#9
EDITORIAL
Erik Hohmann
Does imaging of the pelvis using a set of radiographs and computed tomography (CT) cause cancer? A computer-based simulation study using 5 different imaging and radiation dose protocols has calculated the lifetime risk of malignancy for young adults for pelvic radiographs and CT scans. The cumulative lifetime-attributable risk of cancer was 0.2% for males and 0.35% for females. This appears low but the numbers needed to harm were 952 for males and 564 for females. However, the authors have based their calculations on the linear no-threshold model, which is controversial, and a linear relationship between dose and risk may not exist...
January 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303484/a-semiparametric-approach-to-evaluate-the-harm-of-low-dose-exposures
#10
Kyoji Furukawa, Munechika Misumi
While exposure to moderate-high level of radiation exposure is known to cause adverse health effects, what is the lowest dose that could be harmful remains controversial. Given that epidemiological studies of practical sizes are unlikely to provide a sufficient statistical power to detect a small risk in the low-dose range of concern, greater emphasis should be given to evaluating how uncertain the risk estimate is. Using simulations under various dose-response relationships with a threshold, we show that a conventional approach based on simple parametric models (e...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#11
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281848/propensity-matched-comparative-analysis-of-survival-following-chemoradiation-or-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#12
Chad R Ritch, Raymond Balise, Nachiketh Soodana Prakash, David Alonzo, Katherine Almengo, Mahmoud Alameddine, Vivek Venkatramani, Sanoj Punnen, Dipen Parekh, Mark L Gonzalgo
OBJECTIVE: To compare survival outcome between chemoradiation and radical cystectomy for Muscle invasive bladder cancer(MIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using muscle-invasive bladder cancer (≥cT2, N0, M0) patients in the National Cancer Database (2004-2013). Chemoradiation was defined as radiation dose ≥40Gy and chemotherapy within 90d of radiation. Descriptive statistics were used to compare groups. Radical cystectomy and chemoradiation patients were propensity matched...
December 27, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281088/prediction-of-acute-gastrointestinal-and-genitourinary-radiation-toxicity-in-prostate-cancer-patients-using-lymphocyte-microrna
#13
Masanori Someya, Masakazu Hori, Toshio Gocho, Kensei Nakata, Takaaki Tsuchiya, Mio Kitagawa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Yuuki Fukushima, Koh-Ichi Sakata
Background: To search for novel biomarkers that can predict acute radiation toxicity, we conducted microRNA expression analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Methods: The discovery cohort was 69 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy between October 2007 and October 2010. The validation cohort was 72 patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy between May 2008 and March 2014. After13 microRNAs were selected by TaqMan® Array analysis in a preliminary experiment, expression of these microRNAs in all samples was analyzed by RT-PCR...
December 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280456/magnetic-resonance-image-guided-adaptive-brachytherapy-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-an-experience-from-a-tertiary-cancer-center-in-a-low-and-middle-income-countries-setting
#14
Umesh Mahantshetty, Rahul Krishnatry, Vinod Hande, Swamidas Jamema, Yogesh Ghadi, Reena Engineer, Supriya Chopra, Lavanya Gurram, Deepak Deshpande, Shyamkishore Shrviastava
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical impact of magnetic resonance image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) (stages II and III) in a tertiary care cancer hospital in a low and middle income countries setting. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-four LACC patients enrolled in a prospective EMBRACE (An International Study on MRI-Guided Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer) protocol treated with external radiation therapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) with or without weekly cisplatin, followed by magnetic resonance IGABT (4 fractions of 7 Gy), were analyzed in detail for dosimetric and clinical outcomes including late toxicities...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280448/effect-of-breast-irradiation-on-cardiac-disease-in-women-enrolled-in-bcirg-001-at-10-year-follow-up
#15
S Peter Wu, Moses Tam, Raymond Mailhot Vega, Carmen A Perez, Naamit Kurshan Gerber
PURPOSE: To investigate cardiac toxicity associated with breast radiation therapy (RT) at 10-year follow-up in BCIRG-001, a phase 3 trial comparing adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) with anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) in women with lymph node-positive early breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prospective data from all 746 patients in the control arm (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) of BCIRG-001 at 10-year follow-up were obtained from Project Data Sphere...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251165/prostate-cancer-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-review-of-evidence-and-current-perspectives
#16
Sunil W Dutta, Clayton E Alonso, Bruce Libby, Timothy N Showalter
Patients with intermediate to high risk disease (prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 10, Gleason score ≥ 7, or clinical stage ≥ T2b) suffer from poorer long-term biochemical control (freedom from an increasing prostate specific antigen level) when treated with external beam radiation (EBRT) alone. In order to improve biochemical control while limiting long-term complications, brachytherapy has been incorporated into radiotherapy treatment, either alone or in combination with EBRT. Areas covered: Current literature regarding the use of high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer, including as a boost and monotherapy...
December 22, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249566/evaluation-of-mlc-leaf-transmission-on-imrt-treatment-plan-quality-of-patients-with-advanced-lung-cancer
#17
Jiayun Chen, Guishan Fu, Minghui Li, Yixin Song, Jianrong Dai, Junjie Miao, Zhiqiang Liu, Yexiong Li
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of leaf treatment of multileaf collimator (MLC) in plan quality of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of patients with advanced lung cancer. Five MLCs with different leaf transmissions (0.01%, 0.5%, 1.2%, 1.8%, and 3%) were configured for an accelerator in a treatment planning system. Correspondingly, 5 treatment plans with the same optimization setting were created and evaluated quantitatively for each patient (11 patients total) who was diagnosed with advanced lung cancer...
December 14, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249527/positron-emission-tomography-adjusted-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Nitin Ohri, William R Bodner, Rafi Kabarriti, Viswanathan Shankar, Haiying Cheng, Tony Abraham, Balazs Halmos, Rasim Gucalp, Roman Perez-Soler, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur Garg
PURPOSE: To perform a prospective trial examining positron emission tomography (PET)-based, dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the setting of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with stage IIB-III NSCLC were treated with 25 fractions of dose-painted IMRT. Tumors or lymph nodes with metabolic tumor volume exceeding 25 cm3 were deemed "high risk" and received 65 Gy. Smaller lesions were treated with 57 Gy or 52...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249526/curative-radiation-therapy-at-time-of-progression-under-active-surveillance-compared-with-up-front-radical-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#19
Alejandro Berlin, Ardalan E Ahmad, Melvin L K Chua, Fabio Y Moraes, Haiyan Jiang, Maria Komisarenko, Narhari Trimilshina, Hamid Raziee, Ali Hosni, Jure Murgic, Peter Chung, Robert G Bristow, Antonio Finelli
PURPOSE: To describe and compare outcomes in men with initially presumed indolent prostate cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy after active surveillance (AS) versus those in a risk-matched cohort undergoing up-front radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Men prospectively enrolled in an AS program between 1992 and 2014 and subsequently undergoing curative radiation therapy (ie, image guided radiation therapy [IGRT] or low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT]) were identified...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248885/occupational-radiation-exposure-and-its-health-effects-on-interventional-medical-workers-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Seulki Ko, Hwan Hoon Chung, Sung Bum Cho, Young Woo Jin, Kwang Pyo Kim, Mina Ha, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha, Won Jin Lee
INTRODUCTION: Although fluoroscopically guided procedures involve a considerably high dose of radiation, few studies have investigated the effects of radiation on medical workers involved in interventional fluoroscopy procedures. Previous research remains in the early stages and has not reached a level comparable with other occupational studies thus far. Furthermore, the study of radiation workers provides an opportunity to estimate health risks at low doses and dose rates of ionising radiation...
December 15, 2017: BMJ Open
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