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Cancer risk low dose radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#1
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779936/early-response-assessment-on-mid-treatment-computed-tomography-predicts-for-locoregional-recurrence-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients-treated-with-definitive-radiation-therapy
#2
Rafi Kabarriti, N Patrik Brodin, George Lundgren, Nitin Ohri, Wolfgang A Tomé, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur K Garg
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a response assessment using mid-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans during definitive radiation therapy (RT) for oropharyngeal head and neck cancer can predict for locoregional recurrence (LRR). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Head and neck cancer patients who receive RT at our institution undergo CT repeat scans at the 15th fraction, with treatment replanning in the case of an inadequate dose to gross disease or an increased dose to organs at risk...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778738/risk-adapted-therapy-for-young-children-with-medulloblastoma-sjyc07-therapeutic-and-molecular-outcomes-from-a-multicentre-phase-2-trial
#3
Giles W Robinson, Vasilisa A Rudneva, Ivo Buchhalter, Catherine A Billups, Sebastian M Waszak, Kyle S Smith, Daniel C Bowers, Anne Bendel, Paul G Fisher, Sonia Partap, John R Crawford, Tim Hassall, Daniel J Indelicato, Frederick Boop, Paul Klimo, Noah D Sabin, Zoltan Patay, Thomas E Merchant, Clinton F Stewart, Brent A Orr, Jan O Korbel, David T W Jones, Tanvi Sharma, Peter Lichter, Marcel Kool, Andrey Korshunov, Stefan M Pfister, Richard J Gilbertson, Robert P Sanders, Arzu Onar-Thomas, David W Ellison, Amar Gajjar, Paul A Northcott
BACKGROUND: Young children with medulloblastoma have a poor overall survival compared with older children, due to use of radiation-sparing therapy in young children. Radiotherapy is omitted or reduced in these young patients to spare them from debilitating long-term side-effects. We aimed to estimate event-free survival and define the molecular characteristics associated with progression-free survival in young patients with medulloblastoma using a risk-stratified treatment strategy designed to defer, reduce, or delay radiation exposure...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772077/a-feature-alignment-score-for-online-cone-beam-ct-based-image-guided-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#4
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Michael Poulsen, Tomasz Bednarz, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To develop a method for scoring online cone-beam CT (CBCT)-to-planning CT image feature alignment to inform prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) decision-making. The feasibility of incorporating volume variation metric thresholds, predictive of delivering planned dose into weighted functions, was investigated. METHODS: Radiation therapists and radiation oncologists participated in workshops where they reviewed prostate CBCT-IGRT case examples and completed a paper-based survey of image feature matching practices...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764515/long-term-outcome-of-a-moderately-hypofractionated-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-approach-using-an-endorectal-balloon-for-patients-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#5
Bin S Teh, Gary D Lewis, Weiyuan Mai, Ramiro Pino, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Edward Brian Butler
BACKGROUND: Technical advances in radiotherapy delivery have simultaneously enabled dose escalation and enhanced bladder and rectal sparing. However, the optimal radiation fractionation regimen for localized prostate cancer is unclear. Laboratory and clinical evidence suggest that hypofractionation may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. We report our institutional outcomes using moderately hypofractionated, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and an endorectal balloon, with emphasis on long-term biochemical control and treatment-related adverse events in patients with localized prostate cancer...
April 17, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763379/hypothyroidism-after-radiation-therapy-for-childhood-cancer-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#6
Peter D Inskip, Lene H S Veiga, Alina V Brenner, Alice J Sigurdson, Evgenia Ostroumova, Eric J Chow, Marilyn Stovall, Susan A Smith, Rita E Weathers, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Charles A Sklar, Jay H Lubin
While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749344/usefulness-of-cancer-free-survival-in-estimating-the-lifetime-attributable-risk-of-cancer-incidence-from-radiation-exposure
#7
Songwon Seo, Dal Nim Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Won Jin Lee, Sunhoo Park
Risk projection models estimating the lifetime cancer risk from radiation exposure are generally based on exposure dose, age at exposure, attained age, gender, and study population-specific factors, such as baseline cancer risks and survival rates. Because such models have been mostly based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the baseline risks and survival rates in the target population should be considered when applying the cancer risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The survival function used in risk projection models that are commonly used in radiological protection field to estimate cancer risk from medical or occupational exposure is based on all-cause mortality...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741403/radiotherapeutic-implications-of-the-updated-icrp-thresholds-for-tissue-reactions-related-to-cataracts-and-circulatory-diseases
#8
L T Dauer, E Yorke, M Williamson, Y Gao, Z L Dauer, D L Miller, E Vañó
Radiation therapy of cancer patients involves a trade-off between a sufficient tumour dose for a high probability of local control and dose to organs at risk that is low enough to lead to a clinically acceptable probability of toxicity. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed epidemiological evidence and provided updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury, as defined at the level of 1% incidence, in ICRP Publication 118. Particular attention was paid to cataracts and circulatory diseases...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739328/a-novel-ultrafast-low-dose-computed-tomography-protocol-allows-concomitant-coronary-artery-evaluation-and-lung-cancer-screening
#9
Carlo Gaudio, Gennaro Petriello, Francesco Pelliccia, Alessandra Tanzilli, Alberto Bandiera, Gaetano Tanzilli, Francesco Barillà, Vincenzo Paravati, Massimo Pellegrini, Enrico Mangieri, Paolo Barillari
BACKGROUND: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is often performed in patients who are at high risk for lung cancer in whom screening is currently recommended. We tested diagnostic ability and radiation exposure of a novel ultra-low-dose CT protocol that allows concomitant coronary artery evaluation and lung screening. METHODS: We studied 30 current or former heavy smoker subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent CT assessment of both coronary arteries and thoracic area (Revolution CT, General Electric)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738613/results-of-the-ahod0431-trial-of-response-adapted-therapy-and-a-salvage-strategy-for-limited-stage-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#10
Frank G Keller, Sharon M Castellino, Lu Chen, Qinglin Pei, Stephan D Voss, Kathleen M McCarten, Stacy L Senn, Allen B Buxton, Rizvan Bush, Louis S Constine, Cindy L Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Children's Oncology Group AHOD0431 study evaluated a response-directed treatment paradigm in which minimal initial chemotherapy and low-dose radiation was received only by patients who did not achieve a complete remission, and a chemotherapy/low-dose radiation salvage regimen was received by those who had a protocol-defined, low-risk recurrence. METHODS: Patients younger than 21 years who had stage IA or IIA nonbulky disease were eligible. The treatment strategy was evaluated by determining the proportion that received minimal chemotherapy alone, the proportion that had a first or second remission without the receipt of high-dose chemotherapy/stem cell rescue or higher dose involved-field radiation therapy (>21 grays), and overall survival...
May 8, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730697/risk-related-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-new-diagnostic-strategies-in-patients-with-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-the-italian-multicenter-trial
#11
Marco Spadafora, Leonardo Pace, Laura Evangelista, Luigi Mansi, Francesco Del Prete, Giorgio Saladini, Paolo Miletto, Stefano Fanti, Silvana Del Vecchio, Luca Guerra, Giovanna Pepe, Giuseppina Peluso, Emanuele Nicolai, Giovanni Storto, Marco Ferdeghini, Alessandro Giordano, Mohsen Farsad, Orazio Schillaci, Cesare Gridelli, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: Diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is an important public health issue and 18 F-FDG PET/CT has proven to be more effective than CT alone. Pre-test risk stratification and clinical presentation of SPN could affect the diagnostic strategy. A relevant issue is whether thoracic segmental (s)-PET/CT could be implemented in patients with SPN. This retrospective multicenter study compared the results of FDG whole-body (wb)-PET/CT to those of s-PET/CT. METHODS: 18 F-FDG PET/CT of 502 patients, stratified for pre-test cancer risk, were retrospectively analyzed...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#12
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726091/factors-influencing-long-term-urinary-symptoms-following-prostate-brachytherapy
#13
Nelson N Stone, Jared S Winoker, Steven A Kaplan, Richard G Stock
OBJECTIVES: To determine which patient and treatment related factors were associated with increased AUA symptom score (AUASS) in men who presented with minimal symptoms prior to treatment for prostate cancer by permanent seed implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 1842 men with a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 9.4) 1110 (60.3%) had initial AUASS of 0-7 and were treated with BT alone (n=491) or BT with hormone therapy (NHT) and or external beam irradiation (EBRT, n=619)...
May 3, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725540/low-dose-ionizing-radiation-increases-the-mortality-risk-of-solid-cancers-in-nuclear-industry-workers-a-meta-analysis
#14
Shu-Gen Qu, Jin Gao, Bo Tang, Bo Yu, Yue-Ping Shen, Yu Tu
Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) may increase the mortality of solid cancers in nuclear industry workers, but only few individual cohort studies exist, and the available reports have low statistical power. The aim of the present study was to focus on solid cancer mortality risk from LDIR in the nuclear industry using standard mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals. A systematic literature search through the PubMed and Embase databases identified 27 studies relevant to this meta-analysis. There was statistical significance for total, solid and lung cancers, with meta-SMR values of 0...
May 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717567/risk-of-brain-tumor-induction-from-pediatric-head-ct-procedures-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, Joel S Beckett, Noriko Salamon, Isaac Yang
Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706460/local-control-and-fracture-risk-following-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-non-spine-bone-metastases
#16
Darby Erler, Drew Brotherston, Arjun Sahgal, Patrick Cheung, Andrew Loblaw, William Chu, Hany Soliman, Hans Chung, Alex Kiss, Edward Chow, Ian Poon
AIMS: To report local control and toxicity rates for patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-spine bone metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-one patients with 106 non-spine bone metastases were treated between 2011 and 2014 and retrospectively reviewed. Indications included: oligometastases (63%), oligoprogression (17.3%), retreatment (2.4%) or other (17.3%). Cumulative incidence function was used to assess local recurrence and fracture probability...
April 26, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703704/dosimetric-analysis-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-using-mr-guided-tri-60-co-unit-mr-guided-linac-and-conventional-linac-based-plans
#17
Stephen James Ramey, Kyle R Padgett, Narottam Lamichhane, Hanmath J Neboori, Deukwoo Kwon, Eric A Mellon, Karen Brown, Melissa Duffy, James Victoria, Nesrin Dogan, Lorraine Portelance
PURPOSE: This study aims to perform a dosimetric comparison of 2 magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiation therapy systems capable of performing online adaptive radiation therapy versus a conventional radiation therapy system for pancreas stereotactic body radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten cases of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously treated in our institution were used for this analysis. MR-guided tri-cobalt 60 therapy (MR-cobalt) and MR-LINAC plans were generated and compared with conventional LINAC (volumetric modulated arc therapy) plans...
March 1, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697512/probability-distribution-of-dose-and-dose-rate-effectiveness-factor-for-use-in-estimating-risks-of-solid-cancers-from-exposure-to-low-let-radiation
#18
David C Kocher, A Iulian Apostoaei, F Owen Hoffman, John R Trabalka
This paper presents an analysis to develop a subjective state-of-knowledge probability distribution of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for use in estimating risks of solid cancers from exposure to low linear energy transfer radiation (photons or electrons) whenever linear dose responses from acute and chronic exposure are assumed. A dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor represents an assumption that the risk of a solid cancer per Gy at low acute doses or low dose rates of low linear energy transfer radiation, RL, differs from the risk per Gy at higher acute doses, RH; RL is estimated as RH divided by a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, where RH is estimated from analyses of dose responses in Japanese atomic-bomb survivors...
June 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681411/lung-dose-and-the-potential-risk-of-death-in-postoperative-radiation-therapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-study-using-the-method-of-stratified-grouping
#19
Jaesung Heo, O Kyu Noh, Hwan-Ik Kim, Mison Chun, Oyeon Cho, Rae Woong Park, Dukyong Yoon, Young-Taek Oh
PURPOSE: Postoperative radiation therapy may have a detrimental effect on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We investigated the association of the lung radiation dose with the risk of death in patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy. METHODS: We analyzed 178 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received postoperative radiation therapy. The mean lung dose was calculated from dose-volume data, and we categorized patients into the high and low lung dose groups using 2 different methods; (1) simple grouping using the median lung dose of all patients, and (2) stratified grouping using the median lung dose of each subgroup sharing the same confounders...
April 19, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681140/physician-s-awareness-of-lung-cancer-screening-and-its-related-medical-radiation-exposure-in-korea
#20
Seri Hong, Suyeon Kim, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Kui Son Choi, Jae Kwan Jun
OBJECTIVES: Through a survey on perception of lung cancer screening and accompanying medical radiation exposure in Korea, the present study was to investigate its current situations and evaluate various perception of physicians regarding it in order to propose measures for improvements. METHODS: Medical specialists in national cancer screening institutions selected through stratified random sampling were subjected to face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
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