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Cancer risk low dose radiation

Nilton Lavatori Correa, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Rossana Corbo
: An increase in the incidence of second primary cancers (SPC) is the late effect of greatest concern that could occur in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). The decision to treat a patient with RAI should therefore incorporate a careful risk-benefit analysis. The objective of this work is to adapt the risk estimation models developed by the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee (BEIR VII) to local epidemiological characteristics, to assess the carcinogenesis risk from radiation in a population of Brazilian DTC patients treated with RAI...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Felipe P Andrade, Roberto Montoro, Renan Oliveira, Gabriela Loures, Luana Flessak, Roberta Gross, Camille Donnabella, Andrea Puchnick, Lisa Suzuki, Rodrigo Regacini
OBJECTIVES: 1) To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2) To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Bjorn Baselet, Charlotte Rombouts, Abderrafi Mohammed Benotmane, Sarah Baatout, An Aerts
Traditionally, non-cancer diseases are not considered as health risks following exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Indeed, non-cancer diseases are classified as deterministic tissue reactions, which are characterized by a threshold dose. It is judged that below an absorbed dose of 100 mGy, no clinically relevant tissue damage occurs, forming the basis for the current radiation protection system concerning non-cancer effects. Recent epidemiological findings point, however, to an excess risk of non-cancer diseases following exposure to lower doses of ionizing radiation than was previously thought...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Peter J Mazzone
Lung cancer screening with a low radiation dose chest CT scan has been shown to reduce the number of people, in a well-defined very high-risk cohort, who die from lung cancer. Many potential screening-related harms have been identified, including anxiety and morbidity related to the evaluation of screen-detected findings. A favorable balance of the benefit and harms of lung cancer screening requires careful implementation of a screening program, with a focus on several obstacles to the success of the program...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jan Christian Kaiser, Reinhard Meckbach, Markus Eidemüller, Martin Selmansberger, Kristian Unger, Viktor Shpak, Maria Blettner, Horst Zitzelsberger, Peter Jacob
Strong evidence for the statistical association between radiation exposure and disease has been produced for thyroid cancer by epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl accident. However limitations of the epidemiological approach in order to explore health risks especially at low doses of radiation appear obvious. Statistical fluctuations due to small case numbers dominate the uncertainty of risk estimates. Molecular radiation markers have been searched extensively to separate radiation- induced cancer cases from sporadic cases...
October 11, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Naomi Fleury, Sian Geldenhuys, Shelley Gorman
Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ryuya Yamanaka, Azusa Hayano, Tomohiko Kanayama
By conducting a systemic search of the PubMed database, we performed a comprehensive literature review to characterize secondary gliomas following radiotherapy treatment and to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy. Our analysis included 296 cases of radiation-induced gliomas. The primary lesion was characterized as a hematological malignancy in 104 cases (35.1 %), pituitary adenoma in 35 (11.8 %), craniopharyngioma in 19 (6.4 %), medulloblastoma in 38 (12.8 %), germ cell tumor in 13 (4.3 %), low-grade glioma in 28 (9...
October 5, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
D D Zhou, L Yao, K M Guo, C W Lu
Long-term radiation exposure is hazardous to health; late-onset effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) pose risks to the lens, and are associated with other non-cancerous diseases. Individuals occupationally exposed to low-dose IR are prone to developing eye cataracts. Cytogenetic evaluations suggest that IR is associated with chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. However, data regarding the association between chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients and occupational exposure to IR is scarce...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Qi Shi, Nanbo Sun, Tao Sun, Jing Wang, Shan Tan
The exposure of normal tissues to high radiation during cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging increases the risk of cancer and genetic defects. Statistical iterative algorithms with the total variation (TV) penalty have been widely used for low dose CBCT reconstruction, with state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noise and preserving edges. However, TV is a first-order penalty and sometimes leads to the so-called staircase effect, particularly over regions with smooth intensity transition in the reconstruction images...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Scott R Silva, Murat Surucu, Jennifer Steber, Matthew M Harkenrider, Mehee Choi
OBJECTIVE: Radiation treatment planning for locally advanced lung cancer can be technically challenging, as delivery of ≥60 Gy to large volumes with concurrent chemotherapy is often associated with significant risk of normal tissue toxicity. We clinically implemented a novel hybrid RapidArc technique in patients with lung cancer and compared these plans with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and RapidArc-only plans. MATERIALS/METHODS: Hybrid RapidArc was used to treat 11 patients with locally advanced lung cancer having bulky mediastinal adenopathy...
September 28, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Arndt-Christian Müller, Johannes Mischinger, Theodor Klotz, Bernd Gagel, Gregor Habl, Gencay Hatiboglu, Michael Pinkawa
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to reach a consensus on indication and application of a hydrogel spacer based on multicentre experience and give new users important information to shorten the learning curve for this innovative technique. METHODS: The interdisciplinary meeting was attended by radiation oncologists and urologists, each with experience of 23 - 138 hydrogel injections (SpaceOAR®) in prostate cancer patients before dose-escalated radiotherapy. User experience was discussed and questions were defined to comprise practical information relevant for successful hydrogel injection and treatment...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
J Helou, S Torres, H B Musunuru, P Cheung, D Vesprini, H T Chung, L D'Alimonte, A Ravi, M Krahn, G Morton, D A Loblaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
I S Gallaher, J Johnson, X Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sergiu Scobioala, Christopher Kittel, Nicolas Wissmann, Uwe Haverkamp, Mohammed Channaoui, Omar Habibeh, Khaled Elsayad, Hans Theodor Eich
BACKGROUND: Comparing radiation treatment plans to ascertain the optimal intensity-modulated radiation technique for low-risk prostate cancer. METHODS: Treatment plans for 20 randomly selected patients were generated using the same dose objectives. A dosimetric comparison was performed between various intensity-modulated techniques, including protons. All treatment plans provided conventional treatment with 79.2Gy. Dosimetric indices for the target volume and organs at risk (OAR), including homogeneity index and four conformity indices were analyzed...
September 27, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Dániel Deme, András Telekes
The International Commission on Radiological Protection estimates, that 100 mSv exposure of radiation increases cancer risk by 0.5%. The central hypothesis of the Linear No Threshold model is that low dose ionizing radiation can induce carcinogenesis through the so called "one hit action", that is one or more deoxyribonucleic acid strands can be broken by the hit of only one electron particule. Regardless of the radiation dose, radiation exposure increases cancer risk. In the United States of America, one-third of computed tomographic scans are carried with no clear clinical indication, i...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Paula Boaventura, Cecília Durães, Adélia Mendes, Natália Rios Costa, Inês Chora, Sara Ferreira, Emanuel Araújo, Pedro Lopes, Gilberto Rosa, Pedro Marques, Paulo Bettencourt, Inês Oliveira, Francisco Costa, Isabel Ramos, Maria José Teles, João Tiago Guimarães, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort...
2016: PloS One
Michał Biegała, Adam Hydzik
This study describes a comparative analysis of treatment plans in 48 patients with prostate cancer treated with ionizing radiation. Each patient was subjected to the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc technique. In each treatment plan, the organs at risk were assessed: the urinary bladder, rectum and heads of the femur, as well as the volume of normal tissue. The following features were compared: treatment time, conformity indices for the planning target volume, mean doses and standard deviation in organs at risk, and organ volumes for each particular dose...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
Gareth C Livingston, Andrew J Last, Thomas P Shakespeare, Patrick M Dwyer, Justin Westhuyzen, Michael J McKay, Lisa Connors, Stephanie Leader, Stuart Greenham
INTRODUCTION: For patients receiving radiotherapy for locally advance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the probability of experiencing severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) appears to rise with an increase in radiation received by the lungs. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) provides the ability to reduce planned doses to healthy organs at risk (OAR) and can potentially reduce treatment-related side effects. This study reports toxicity outcomes and provides a dosimetric comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT)...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Peter W Henderson, David I Kutler, Bhupesh Parashar, David M Otterburn, Marc A Cohen, Jason A Spector
PURPOSE: While brachytherapy is often used concurrently with flap reconstruction following surgical ablation for head and neck cancer, it remains unclear whether it increases morbidity in the particularly high risk subset of patients undergoing salvage treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer (RH&NC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was undertaken that evaluated patients with RH&NC who underwent flap coverage after surgical re-resection and concomitant brachytherapy...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
K Hamasaki, R D Landes, A Noda, N Nakamura, Y Kodama
While it is generally believed that fetuses are at high risk of developing cancers, including leukemia, after low doses of radiation, it has been reported that atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero did not show a dose response for translocations in blood T lymphocytes when they were examined at approximately 40 years of age. Subsequent mouse studies confirmed that animals irradiated during the fetal stage did not show evidence of radiation effects in lymphocytes and bone marrow cells when they were examined after reaching adulthood...
September 14, 2016: Radiation Research
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