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Cancer risk low dose radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917595/societal-preferences-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-balancing-risk-of-death-and-quality-of-life
#1
Amir Khakban, Tima Mohammadi, Larry D Lynd, Don Mabbott, Eric Bouffet, Louise Gastonguay, Zafar Zafari, David Malkin, Michael Taylor, Carlo A Marra
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914779/what-do-radiation-oncologists-require-for-future-advancements-in-lung-sbrt
#2
REVIEW
Umberto Ricardi, Serena Badellino, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well established therapeutic option for patients affected with peripheral early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), given the positive clinical evidence accumulated so far on its efficacy and safety. SBRT is regarded as the best choice for inoperable patients, and could also be offered as an alternative to surgery to selected operable patients. More recently, its use for lung metastases progressively increased, and SBRT is now regarded as a low toxic and highly effective local therapy for lung oligometastases from different primary tumors, especially colorectal cancer...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#3
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888430/radiation-exposure-in-diagnostic-imaging-wisdom-and-prudence-but-still-a-lot-to-understand
#4
Paolo Tomà, Vittorio Cannatà, Elisabetta Genovese, Andrea Magistrelli, Claudio Granata
Since 2000, a series of scientific articles on CT have been raising increasing concern about the risk of radiation induced cancer in children. The alarming conclusions of some of these articles had international echo through global media, provoking widespread public concern. Actually, many of these alarming scientific publications appeared to be flawed by poor study design, but their conclusions were not openly contradicted. In US and Europe pediatric radiologists had to face a huge challenge, which brought to the Image Gently campaign and the Eurosafe initiative with the aim to rebut misinformation and to support medical radiation protection...
November 25, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885078/the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks-a-collaborative-epidemiological-study-to-improve-knowledge-about-health-effects-of-protracted-low-dose-exposure
#5
Dominique Laurier, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Jackie O'Hagan, Ghassan B Hamra, Richard Haylock, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene
INWORKS is a multinational cohort study, gathering 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, with detailed individual monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation. Over a mean duration of follow-up of 27 y, the number of observed deaths was 66 632, including 17 957 deaths due to solid cancers, 1791 deaths due to haematological cancers and 27 848 deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Mean individual cumulative external dose over the period 1945-2005 was 25 mSv...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885077/highlights-of-the-russian-health-studies-program-and-updated-research-findings
#6
Barrett N Fountos
Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885076/estimates-of-radiation-effects-on-cancer-risks-in-the-mayak-worker-techa-river-and-atomic-bomb-survivor-studies
#7
Dale L Preston, Mikhail E Sokolnikov, Lyudmila Yu Krestinina, Daniel O Stram
For almost 50 y, the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivor studies has been the primary source of the quantitative estimates of cancer and non-cancer risks that form the basis of international radiation protection standards. However, the long-term follow-up and extensive individual dose reconstruction for the Russian Mayak worker cohort (MWC) and Techa River cohort (TRC) are providing quantitative information about radiation effects on cancer risks that complement the atomic bomb survivor-based risk estimates...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881134/low-dose-radiation-risks-for-women-surviving-the-a-bombs-in-japan-generalized-additive-model
#8
Greg Dropkin
BACKGROUND: Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. METHODS: GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876887/high-energy-particle-radiation-associated-oncogenic-transformation-in-normal-mice-insight-into-the-connection-between-activation-of-oncotargets-and-oncogene-addiction
#9
Natarajan Aravindan, Sheeja Aravindan, Krishnan Manickam, Mohan Natarajan
Concerns on high-energy particle radiation-induced tumorigenic transformation of normal tissue in astronauts, and in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, emphasizes the significance of elucidating the mechanisms involved in radiogenic transformation processes. Mostly used genetically modified or tumor-prone models are less reliable in determining human health risk in space or protracted post-treatment normal tissue toxicity. Here, in wild type C57BL/6 mice, we related the deregulation of distinctive set of tissue-specific oncotargets in major organs upon (56)Fe (600 MeV/amu; 0...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875901/reducing-radiation-related-morbidity-in-the-treatment-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Jason W Chan, Upendra Parvathaneni, Sue S Yom
While radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the anatomic location of the nasopharynx in close proximity to radiation-sensitive organs such as the salivary glands, optic nerves and chiasm, cochlea, brainstem and temporal lobes presents a special challenge. Technological approaches to reducing the morbidity of nasopharyngeal cancer irradiation have been historically successful with the evolution from 2D techniques to increasingly conformal forms of radiation therapy. This report reviews normal tissue dose constraints and major considerations in target delineation for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy era...
November 23, 2016: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872946/implementation-of-image-guided-intensity-modulated-accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation-three-year-results-of-a%C3%A2-phase%C3%A2-ii-clinical-study
#11
Norbert Mészáros, Tibor Major, Gábor Stelczer, Zoltán Zaka, Emőke Mózsa, Dávid Pukancsik, Zoltán Takácsi-Nagy, János Fodor, Csaba Polgár
PURPOSE: To report 3‑year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive breast cancer underwent BCS and were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. The total dose was 36.9 Gy (9 fractions of 4.1 Gy, two fractions/day)...
November 21, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855443/in-utero-exposure-to-radiation-and-haematological-malignancies-pooled-analysis-of-southern-urals-cohorts
#12
Joachim Schüz, Isabelle Deltour, Lyudmila Y Krestinina, Yulia V Tsareva, Evgenia I Tolstykh, Mikhail E Sokolnikov, Alexander V Akleyev
BACKGROUND: It is scientifically uncertain whether in utero exposure to low-dose ionising radiation increases the lifetime risk of haematological malignancies. METHODS: We pooled two cohorts from the Southern Urals comprising offspring of female workers of a large nuclear facility (the Mayak Production Association) and of women living in areas along the Techa River contaminated by nuclear accidents/waste from the same facility, with detailed dosimetry. RESULTS: The combined cohort totalled 19 536 subjects with 700 504 person-years at risk over the period of incidence follow-up, and slightly more over the period of mortality follow-up, yielding 58 incident cases and 36 deaths up to age 61 years...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843033/benchmark-credentialing-results-for-nrg-br001-the-first-national-cancer-institute-sponsored-trial-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-multiple-metastases
#13
Hania A Al-Hallaq, Steven J Chmura, Joseph K Salama, Jessica R Lowenstein, Susan McNulty, James M Galvin, David S Followill, Clifford G Robinson, Thomas M Pisansky, Kathryn A Winter, Julia R White, Ying Xiao, Martha M Matuszak
PURPOSE: The NRG-BR001 trial is the first National Cancer Institute-sponsored trial to treat multiple (range 2-4) extracranial metastases with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Benchmark credentialing is required to ensure adherence to this complex protocol, in particular, for metastases in close proximity. The present report summarizes the dosimetric results and approval rates. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The benchmark used anonymized data from a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases, separated by <5 cm of normal tissue...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842674/radiation-dose-in-cardiac-spect-ct-an-estimation-of-ssde-and-effective-dose
#14
Hamid Abdollahi, Isaac Shiri, Yazdan Salimi, Maghsoud Sarebani, Reza Mehdinia, Mohammad Reza Deevband, Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Ahmad Sohrabi, Ahmad Bitarafan-Rajabi
AIMS: The dose levels for Computed Tomography (CT) localization and attenuation correction of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are limited and reported as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose-Length Product (DLP). This work presents CT dose estimation from Cardiac SPECT/CT based on new American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Size Specific Dose Estimation (SSDE) parameter, effective dose, organ doses and also emission dose from nuclear issue...
December 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833872/effects-of-chemoradiation-on-hearing-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-malignancies-experience-at-a-tertiary-referral-care-hospital
#15
Abhineet Jain, Praveer K Banerjee, D Manjunath
Hearing loss as a side effect in patients with head and neck malignancies with chemoradiation is frequently ignored. Its effects on auditory functions are less studied and there are studies done on animals which are less reliable. The present study was undertaken to identify the type of hearing loss and also to quantify the degree of hearing loss in these patients. A prospective, descriptive study was undertaken in histologically proven head and neck cancer patients treated with cobalt 60 teletherapy who received a dose of 60-66 Grays (Gy) over a period of 6-7 weeks with concurrent Cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) once weekly for 6 weeks...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824812/projected-cancer-risks-potentially-related-to-past-current-and-future-practices-in-paediatric-ct-in-the-united-kingdom-1990-2020
#16
Neige M Y Journy, Choonsik Lee, Richard W Harbron, Kieran McHugh, Mark S Pearce, Amy Berrington de González
BACKGROUND: To project risks of developing cancer and the number of cases potentially induced by past, current, and future computed tomography (CT) scans performed in the United Kingdom in individuals aged <20 years. METHODS: Organ doses were estimated from surveys of individual scan parameters and CT protocols used in the United Kingdom. Frequencies of scans were estimated from the NHS Diagnostic Imaging Dataset. Excess lifetime risks (ELRs) of radiation-related cancer were calculated as cumulative lifetime risks, accounting for survival probabilities, using the RadRAT risk assessment tool...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821721/coenzyme-q0-enhances-ultraviolet-b-induced-apoptosis-in-human-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-mcf-7-cancer-cells
#17
Hui-Min Wang, Hsin-Ling Yang, Varadharajan Thiyagarajan, Tzu-Hsiang Huang, Pei-Jane Huang, Ssu-Ching Chen, Jer-Yuh Liu, Li-Sung Hsu, Hsueh-Wei Chang, You-Cheng Hseu
Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0; 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone), a major active constituent of Antrodia camphorata, has been shown to inhibit human triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells through induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Ecological studies have suggested a possible association between ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and reduction in the risk of breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the combination of CoQ0 and UVB in human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (MCF-7) remains unclear...
November 7, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816539/feasibility-study-of-toxicity-outcomes-using-gec-estro-contouring-guidelines-on-ct-based-instead-of-mri-based-planning-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-patients
#18
Vicky Koh, Bok Ai Choo, Khai Mun Lee, Teng Hwee Tan, Jen Hui Jeffrey Low, Soon Yau Joseph Ng, Arunachalam Ilancheran, Liang Shen, Johann Tang
PURPOSE: To report late rectal and bladder toxicity outcomes of a CT-based image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) technique for treatment of cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2008 and 2014, 95 women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB to IVA cervical carcinoma treated with definitive concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions followed by planned prescription dose of 7 Gy × 4 fractions of high-dose-rate IGBT was retrospectively reviewed...
November 2, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812692/radiotherapy-characteristics-and-outcomes-for-head-and-neck-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-vs-t1-base-of-tongue-carcinoma
#19
Ali Hosni, Peter R Dixon, Anupam Rishi, Michael Au, Wei Xu, Yuyao Song, Douglas B Chepeha, David P Goldstein, Shao Hui Huang, John Kim, Brian O'Sullivan, John Waldron, Scott V Bratman, John R de Almeida
Importance: Transoral robotic surgery- or transoral laser microsurgery-assisted lingual tonsillectomy may improve the identification rate of hidden base-of-tongue (BOT) carcinoma presenting as head or neck carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site. Objective: To evaluate the potential impact of lingual tonsillectomy in CUP site by comparing differences in radiotherapy volumes, dosimetry, and clinical outcomes for CUP site and T1-category BOT carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective study of 115 patients treated at a tertiary cancer center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2013, that included patients with BOT carcinoma (category T1N1-3M0) and CUP site (category T0N1-3M0) with known p16 status...
November 3, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797706/men-s-health-supplement-use-and-outcomes-in-men-receiving-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#20
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Thomas M Churilla, Karen Ruth, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Yt Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed cancer patients start taking dietary supplements. Men's health supplements (MHSs), which we define as supplements that are specifically marketed with the terms men's health and prostate health (or similar permutations), are often mislabeled as having potential anticancer benefits. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of MHSs on patient outcomes and toxicities in patients who were undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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