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Cancer risk low dose radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094212/sparing-of-high-retropharyngeal-nodal-basins-in-patients-with-unilateral-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#1
Jonathan E Leeman, Stanley Gutiontov, Paul Romesser, Sean McBride, Nadeem Riaz, Nancy Lee, C Jillian Tsai
PURPOSE: The introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has facilitated dose painting and sparing of uninvolved/low-risk nodal basins in head and neck cancers. In oropharynx cancer (OPC), the need for elective coverage of uninvolved high contralateral retropharyngeal (RP) nodes and the risk associated with sparing this region remain unclear. We examined outcomes of OPC patients treated with IMRT and omission of contralateral high RP coverage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 102 OPC patients with cN0-N2b disease treated with definitive IMRT with or without concurrent chemotherapy between 2010 and 2013...
November 11, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094211/likelihood-of-unacceptable-normal-tissue-doses-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-regional-nodal-irradiation-in-routine-clinical-practice
#2
Jose Bazan, Dominic DiCostanzo, Karla Kuhn, Lonika Majithia, Allison Quick, Nilendu Gupta, Julia White
PURPOSE: As indications for regional nodal irradiation (RNI) for breast cancer have expanded, so too has scrutiny over potential late toxicity from radiotherapy. This emphasizes the need for careful radiation treatment planning to maximize the therapeutic ratio. We sought to evaluate how often unacceptable doses (UDs) to organs at risk (OARs) occur and the associated factors for patients receiving RNI in daily practice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment records of patients who received RNI from February 2012 to May 2015 were studied...
October 19, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091834/using-twitter-to-assess-the-public-response-to-the-united-states-preventive-services-task-force-guidelines-on-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-chest-ct
#3
Siddharth Khasnavis, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Vinay Prabhu
To use Twitter to assess the immediate public response to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2013 draft guidelines on lung cancer screening with low-dose chest CT (LDCT). The number of tweets including the phrases "lung cancer screening," "lung CT," "chest CT," "low dose computed tomography," "low dose CT," or "LDCT" was recorded for 6 days before and after guidelines release. A systematic sample of 172 tweets from the week following release was coded for user type, tweet opinion, linked article source, and article opinion...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086825/toxicity-and-quality-of-life-report-of-a-phase-ii-study-of-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-sbrt-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#4
Matthew J Boyer, Michael A Papagikos, Rex Kiteley, Zeljko Vujaskovic, Jackie Wu, W Robert Lee
BACKGROUND: Clinical data indicates that delivery of larger daily doses of radiation may improve the therapeutic ratio for prostate cancer compared to conventional fractionation. A phase II study of stereotactic body radiotherapy with real-time motion management and daily plan re-optimization for low to intermediate risk prostate cancer was undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis. This report details the toxicity and quality of life following treatment. METHODS: From 2009 to 2013, 60 patients with T1-T2c prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 and PSA ≤ 15 or Gleason score of 7 and PSA ≤ 10 were enrolled...
January 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077128/treatment-planning-comparison-of-impt-vmat-and-4%C3%AF-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cases
#5
Angelia Tran, Jingjing Zhang, Kaley Woods, Victoria Yu, Dan Nguyen, Gary Gustafson, Lane Rosen, Ke Sheng
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), non-coplanar 4π intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) represent the most advanced treatment methods based on heavy ion and X-rays, respectively. Here we compare their performance for prostate cancer treatment. METHODS: Ten prostate patients were planned using IMPT with robustness optimization, VMAT, and 4π to an initial dose of 54 Gy to a clinical target volume (CTV) that encompassed the prostate and seminal vesicles, then a boost prescription dose of 25...
January 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068244/-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-predicts-patterns-of-failure-after-definitive-chemoradiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Nitin Ohri, William R Bodner, Balazs Halmos, Haiying Cheng, Roman Perez-Soler, Steven M Keller, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur Garg
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET) identifies lesions at high risk for progression after concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we validate those findings and generate tumor control probability (TCP) models. METHODS: We identified patients treated with definitive, concurrent CRT for locally advanced NSCLC who underwent staging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose/PET/computed tomography...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048914/su-g-brc-02-a-novel-multi-criteria-optimization-approach-to-generate-deliverable-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-treatment-plans
#7
G Kirlik, W D'Souza, H Zhang
PURPOSE: To present a novel multi-criteria optimization (MCO) solution approach that generates treatment plans with deliverable apertures using column generation. METHODS: We demonstrate our method with 10 locally advanced head-and-neck cancer cases retrospectively. In our MCO formulation, we defined an objective function for each structure in the treatment volume. This resulted in 9 objective functions, including 3 distinct objectives for primary target volume, high-risk and low-risk target volumes, 5 objectives for each of the organs-at-risk (OARs) (two parotid glands, spinal cord, brain stem and oral cavity), and one for the non-target non-OAR normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048838/su-f-i-36-in-utero-dose-measurements-within-postmortem-subjects-for-estimating-fetal-doses-in-pregnant-patients-examined-with-pulmonary-embolism-trauma-and-appendicitis-ct
#8
I Lipnharski, N Quails, C Carranza, N Correa, S Bidari, M Bickelhaup, L Rill, M Arreola
PURPOSE: The imaging of pregnant patients is medically necessary in certain clinical situations. The purpose of this work was to directly measure uterine doses in a cadaver scanned with CT protocols commonly performed on pregnant patients in order to estimate fetal dose and assess potential risk. METHOD: One postmortem subject was scanned on a 320-slice CT scanner with standard pulmonary embolism, trauma, and appendicitis protocols. All protocols were performed with the scan parameters and ranges currently used in clinical practice...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046819/su-f-j-11-radiobiologically-optimized-patient-localization-during-prostate-external-beam-localization
#9
Y Huang, S Gardner, C Liu, B Zhao, N Wen, S Brown, I Chetty
PURPOSE: To present a novel positioning strategy which optimizes radiation delivery with radiobiological response knowledge, and to evaluate its application during prostate external beam radiotherapy. METHODS: Ten patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively in this IRB-approved study. For each patient, a VMAT plan was generated on the planning CT (PCT) to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions with PTV = prostate + 7 mm margin, except for 5mm in the posterior direction...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046499/we-ab-202-04-statistical-evaluation-of-lung-function-using-4dct-ventilation-imaging-proton-therapy-vs-imrt
#10
Q Huang, M Zhang, T Chen, N Yue, J Zou
PURPOSE: Variation in function of different lung regions has been ignored so far for conventional lung cancer treatment planning, which may lead to higher risk of radiation induced lung disease. 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging provides a novel yet convenient approach for lung functional imaging as 4DCT is taken as routine for lung cancer treatment. Our work aims to evaluate the impact of accounting for spatial heterogeneity in lung function using 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging for proton and IMRT plans...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001909/neudose-a-cubesat-mission-for-dosimetry-of-charged-particles-and-neutrons-in-low-earth-orbit
#11
A R Hanu, J Barberiz, D Bonneville, S H Byun, L Chen, C Ciambella, E Dao, V Deshpande, R Garnett, S D Hunter, A Jhirad, E M Johnston, M Kordic, M Kurnell, L Lopera, M McFadden, A Melnichuk, J Nguyen, A Otto, R Scott, D L Wagner, M Wiendels
During space missions, astronauts are exposed to a stream of energetic and highly ionizing radiation particles that can suppress immune system function, increase cancer risks and even induce acute radiation syndrome if the exposure is large enough. As human exploration goals shift from missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to long-duration interplanetary missions, radiation protection remains one of the key technological issues that must be resolved. In this work, we introduce the NEUtron DOSimetry & Exploration (NEUDOSE) CubeSat mission, which will provide new measurements of dose and space radiation quality factors to improve the accuracy of cancer risk projections for current and future space missions...
December 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995093/new-perspectives-in-the-treatment-of-colorectal-metastases
#12
REVIEW
Dominique Elias, Luca Viganò, Franco Orsi, Marta Scorsetti, Tiziana Comito, Jan Lerut, Davide Cosola, Guido Torzilli
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the management of metastatic colorectal cancer has become more aggressive and more multidisciplinary. New treatment options have been proposed in addition to the standard approach of resection of liver metastases and chemotherapy. SUMMARY: Selected patients with synchronous limited peritoneal and liver disease (peritoneal cancer index <12 and <3 liver metastases) can be scheduled for aggressive treatment, including cytoreductive surgery, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and liver resection...
November 2016: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986210/emerging-technologies-and-techniques-in-radiation-therapy
#13
REVIEW
William J Magnuson, Amandeep Mahal, James B Yu
The past decade has brought an improved ability to precisely target and deliver radiation as well as other focal prostate-directed therapy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), proton beam radiation, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, as well as nonradiotherapy treatments such as cryoablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound are several therapeutic modalities that have been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer in an attempt to reduce toxicity while improving cancer control. However, high-risk prostate cancer requires a comprehensive treatment of the prostate as well as areas at risk for cancer spread...
January 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966803/yield-of-screening-echocardiograms-during-pediatric-follow-up-in-survivors-treated-with-anthracyclines-and-cardiotoxic-radiation
#14
Michael B Spewak, Rebecca S Williamson, Ann C Mertens, William L Border, Lillian R Meacham, Karen J Wasilewski-Masker
BACKGROUND: Guidelines published by the Children's Oncology Group recommend screening echocardiograms for childhood cancer survivors exposed to anthracyclines and/or cardiotoxic radiation. This study aims to assess risk factors for cardiac late effects while evaluating the overall yield of screening echocardiograms. PROCEDURE: Demographics, exposures, and echocardiogram results were abstracted from the medical records of survivors diagnosed at ≤ 21 years old and ≥ 2 years off therapy who were exposed to anthracyclines and/or potentially cardiotoxic radiotherapy...
December 14, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965826/the-sabrtooth-feasibility-trial-protocol-a-study-to-determine-the-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-a-phase-iii-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-sabr-with-surgery-in-patients-with-peripheral-stage-i-non-small
#15
M P Snee, L McParland, F Collinson, C M Lowe, A Striha, D R Baldwin, B Naidu, D Sebag-Montefiore, W M Gregory, J Bestall, J Hewison, S Hinsley, K Franks
BACKGROUND: Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is potentially curable, and surgery is considered to be the standard of care for patients with good performance status and minimal co-morbidity. However, a significant proportion of patients with stage I NSCLC have a poorer performance status and significant medical co-morbidity that make them at higher risk of morbidity and mortality from surgery. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), which uses modern radiotherapeutic techniques to deliver large doses of radiation, has shown superiority over conventional radiotherapy in terms of local control and toxicity and is a standard of care for patients with stage I NSCLC who are at too high risk for surgery...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932562/intraoperative-assessment-of-tumor-resection-margins-in-breast-conserving-surgery-using-18f-fdg-cerenkov-luminescence-imaging-a-first-in-human-feasibility-study
#16
Maarten Ruben Grootendorst, Massimiliano Cariati, Sarah Pinder, Ashutosh Kothari, Michael Douek, Tibor Kovacs, Hisham Hamed, Amit Pawa, Fiona Nimmo, Julie Owen, Vernie Ramalingam, Sweta Sethi, Sanjay Mistry, Kunal Vyas, David Tuch, Alan Britten, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Gary Cook, Chris Sibley-Allen, Sarah Allen, Arnie Purushotham
RATIONALE: In early-stage breast cancer, the primary treatment option for the majority of women is breast-conserving surgery (BCS). There is a clear need for more accurate techniques to assess resection margins intraoperatively, as on average 20% of patients require further surgery to achieve clear margins. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) combines optical and molecular imaging by detecting light emitted by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). Its high-resolution and small size imaging equipment makes CLI a promising technology for intraoperative margin assessment...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925861/modeling-heavy-ion-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-after-acute-and-fractionated-irradiation
#17
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to heavy ion irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917595/societal-preferences-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-balancing-risk-of-death-and-quality-of-life
#18
Amir Khakban, Tima Mohammadi, Larry D Lynd, Don Mabbott, Eric Bouffet, Louise Gastonguay, Zafar Zafari, David Malkin, Michael Taylor, Carlo A Marra
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914779/what-do-radiation-oncologists-require-for-future-advancements-in-lung-sbrt
#19
REVIEW
Umberto Ricardi, Serena Badellino, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well established therapeutic option for patients affected with peripheral early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), given the positive clinical evidence accumulated so far on its efficacy and safety. SBRT is regarded as the best choice for inoperable patients, and could also be offered as an alternative to surgery to selected operable patients. More recently, its use for lung metastases progressively increased, and SBRT is now regarded as a low toxic and highly effective local therapy for lung oligometastases from different primary tumors, especially colorectal cancer...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#20
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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