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Cancer risk low dose radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151782/salvage-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer-after-external-beam-radiotherapy-results-from-a-single-institution-with-focus-on-toxicity-and-functional-outcomes
#1
F Barbera, L Triggiani, M Buglione, P Ghirardelli, P Vitali, B Caraffini, P Borghetti, D Greco, L Bardoscia, N Pasinetti, L Costa, M Maddalo, B Ghedi, B La Face, S M Magrini
Background/aim: Low dose rate brachytherapy has been used as salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), along with surgery and cryotherapy. All these techniques, in particular, when applied to the whole gland, involve a relatively high risk of toxicity and may worsen the patient's quality of life. Our aim is to evaluate the results of whole-gland salvage brachytherapy (SBT) after primary EBRT in terms of toxicity, functional outcomes, and efficacy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127482/a-single-low-dose-of-fe-ions-can-cause-long-term-biological-responses-in-nl20-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#2
Qianlin Cao, Wei Liu, Jingdong Wang, Jianping Cao, Hongying Yang
Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation...
November 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124000/human-papillomavirus-associated-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-controversies-and-new-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Nuzhat Husain, Azfar Neyaz
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a causative agent for an increasing subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 accounts for 90% of cases. The chance for malignant transformation due to infection with high-risk HPV is proportional to the expression of the viral oncogene products E6 and E7, which inactivate p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor functions. P16 is a surrogate marker of HPV associated HNSCC and 2+/3+ expression in more than 75% cells is diagnostic. Molecular demonstration of integrated virus by in situ hybridization is specific but has low sensitivity...
September 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121047/dosimetric-comparison-of-ct-guided-iodine-125-seed-stereotactic-brachytherapy-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-nsclc
#4
Ranran Li, Ying Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Qi Lin, Jianjian Dai, Ruicai Xu, Xudong Hu, Mingyong Han
This study aimed to assess the dosimetric differences between iodine-125 seed stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An SBT plan and an SBRT plan were generated for eleven patients with T1-2 NSCLC. Prescription of the dose and fractionation (fr) for SBRT was 48Gy/4fr. The planning aim for SBT was D90 (dose delivered to 90% of the target volume)≥120Gy. Student's paired t test was used to compare the dosimetric parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110732/normal-lung-sparing-tomotherapy-technique-in-stage-iii-lung-cancer
#5
Chae-Seon Hong, Sang Gyu Ju, Yong Chan Ahn, Gyu Sang Yoo, Jae Myoung Noh, Dongryul Oh, Kwangzoo Chung, Hongryull Pyo, Kwanghyun Jo
PURPOSE: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) has been a challenging obstacle in treating stage III lung cancer patients. Beam angle optimization (BAO) technique for Tomotherapy was developed to reduce the normal lung dose for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Comparative analyses on plan quality by 3 different Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) methods with BAO were done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten consecutive stage IIIB NSCLC patients receiving linac-based static IMRT (L-IMRT) with total 66 Gy in 33 fractions to the PTV were selected...
November 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105051/tumour-bed-boost-radiotherapy-for-women-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Isabelle Kindts, Annouschka Laenen, Tom Depuydt, Caroline Weltens
BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving therapy, involving breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation and optionally a boost to the tumour bed, is a standard therapeutic option for women with early-stage breast cancer. A boost to the tumour bed means that an extra dose of radiation is applied that covers the initial tumour site. The rationale for a boost of radiotherapy to the tumour bed is that (i) local recurrence occurs mostly at the site of the primary tumour because remaining microscopic tumour cells are most likely situated there; and (ii) radiation can eliminate these causative microscopic tumour cells...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103466/evaluation-of-cumulative-effective-dose-and-cancer-risk-from-repetitive-full-spine-imaging-using-eos-system-impact-to-adolescent-patients-of-different-populations
#7
Martin Law, Wang-Kei Ma, Eva Chan, Damian Lau, Candy Mui, Kenneth Cheung, Lawrance Yip, Wendy Lam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effective dose and associated cancer risk using EOS system for scoliotic adolescent patients undergoing full spine imaging at different age of exposure; to demonstrate EOS system capable of delivering less radiation dose and hence of reducing cancer risk induction when compared with conventional digital X-ray systems; to obtain cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for both genders scoliotic adolescence of US and Hong Kong population. METHODS: Organ absorbed doses of full spine exposed scoliotic adolescent patients using EOS system have been simulated with the use of patient imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC...
November 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100768/computed-tomography-scans-in-patients-with-young-adult-hip-pain-carry-a-lifetime-risk-of-malignancy
#8
James D Wylie, Peter A Jenkins, James T Beckmann, Christopher L Peters, Stephen K Aoki, Travis G Maak
PURPOSE: To calculate the lifetime risk of malignancy in young adult patients with hip pain using 5 different imaging and radiation dose protocols with or without pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Radiographic and CT patient radiation doses were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging protocols for hip pain composed of radiographs with or without pre- and postoperative CT scans were modeled and radiation doses were estimated using the PCXMC computer code...
October 31, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098506/apoptosis-and-expression-of-apoptosis-related-genes-in-mouse-intestinal-tissue-after-whole-body-proton-exposure
#9
Ashley Purgason, Ye Zhang, Stanley R Hamilton, Daila S Gridley, Ayodotun Sodipe, Olufisayo Jejelowo, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Honglu Wu
Energetic protons are the most abundant particle type in space and can pose serious health risks to astronauts during long-duration missions. The health effects of proton exposure are also a concern for cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment with accelerated protons. To investigate the damage induced by energetic protons in vivo to radiosensitive organs, 6-week-old BALB/c male mice were subjected to 250 MeV proton radiation at whole-body doses of 0.1, 1, and 2 Gy. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each exposed animal was dissected 4 h post-irradiation, and the isolated small intestinal tissue was analyzed for histopathological and gene expression changes...
November 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097111/reduction-of-radiation-exposure-in-transcatheter-atrial-septal-defect-closure-how-low-must-we-go
#10
Fidelio Sitefane, Sophie Malekzadeh-Milani, Olivier Villemain, Magalie Ladouceur, Younes Boudjemline
BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization relies on X-ray imaging. Most procedures are now standardized. Interventionists must strive to minimize radiation exposure to reduce the risk of induced cancers. AIMS: To describe the radiation level in our institution, and evaluate the components contributing to radiation exposure, during transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. METHODS: Radiation doses for ASD closure performed between January 2009 and November 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 30, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096667/temporal-and-spatial-dose-distribution-of-radiation-pneumonitis-after-concurrent-radiochemotherapy-in-stage-iii-non-small-cell-cancer-patients
#11
Mohammed Alharbi, Stefan Janssen, Heiko Golpon, Michael Bremer, Christoph Henkenberens
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most common subacute side effect after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Several clinical and dose-volume (DV) parameters are associated with a distinct risk of symptomatic RP. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial dose distribution of the RP volume from first occurence to maximum volume expansion of RP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, 732 patients with lung cancer were treated in an institution...
November 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069397/radiation-related-thyroid-autoimmunity-and-dysfunction
#12
Yuji Nagayama
The thyroid gland is vulnerable not only to external radiation but also to internal radiation, because the thyroid cells can incorporate radioactive iodine when synthesizing thyroid hormones. Since radiation-induction of thyroid neoplasia, including thyroid cancer, is well recognized, the data on radiation-related thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction are summarized and reviewed. High-dose irradiation, irrespective of being external or internal, is strongly associated with a risk of hypothyroidism (with the prevalence ranging from 2...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054934/radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-operators-performing-endovascular-aortic-repair
#13
Tamer El-Sayed, Ashish S Patel, Jun S Cho, James A Kelly, Francesca E Ludwinski, Prakash Saha, Oliver T Lyons, Alberto Smith, Bijan Modarai
Background -Radiation exposure during fluoroscopically-guided interventions such as endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is a growing concern for operators. This study aimed to measure DNA damage/repair markers in operators perfoming EVAR. Methods -Expression of the DNA damage/repair marker, gamma-H2AX (γ-H2AX) and DNA damage response (DDR) marker, phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pATM), were quantified in circulating lymphocytes in operators during the peri-operative period of endovascular (infra-renal [IEVAR], branched [BEVAR] and fenestrated [FEVAR]) and open aortic repair using flow cytometry...
October 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#14
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051037/serum-microrna-signature-predicts-response-to-high-dose-radiation-therapy-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Yilun Sun, Peter G Hawkins, Nan Bi, Robert T Dess, Muneesh Tewari, Jason W D Hearn, James A Hayman, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Theodore S Lawrence, Randall K Ten Haken, Martha M Matuszak, Feng-Ming Kong, Shruti Jolly, Matthew J Schipper
PURPOSE: To assess the utility of circulating serum microRNAs (c-miRNAs) to predict response to high-dose radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from 80 patients treated from 2004 to 2013 with definitive standard- or high-dose radiation therapy for stages II-III NSCLC as part of 4 prospective institutional clinical trials were evaluated. Pretreatment serum levels of 62 miRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036510/cancer-mortality-in-residents-of-the-terrain-shielded-area-exposed-to-fallout-from-the-nagasaki-atomic-bombing
#16
Kenichi Yokota, Mariko Mine, Hisayoshi Kondo, Naoki Matsuda, Yoshisada Shibata, Noboru Takamura
The health effects of radiation exposure from the atomic bomb fallout remain unclear. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the association between low-dose radiation exposure from the atomic bomb fallout and cancer mortality among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Of 77 884 members in the Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivors Cohort, 610 residents in the terrain-shielded area with fallout were selected for this analysis; 1443 residents in the terrain-shielded area without fallout were selected as a control group; and 3194 residents in the direct exposure area were also selected for study...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032014/high-intermediate-prostate-cancer-treated-with-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-with-or-without-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#17
Tom Pickles, W James Morris, Mira Keyes
PURPOSE: To describe outcomes of men with unfavorable (high-tier) intermediate risk prostate cancer (H-IR) treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy, with or without 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with H-IR prostate cancer, treated before 2012 with LDR brachytherapy without external radiation are included. Baseline tumor characteristics are described. Outcomes between groups receiving ADT are measured by Phoenix (nadir +2 ng/mL), and threshold 0...
November 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031611/dose-to-mass-for-evaluation-and-optimization-of-lung-cancer-radiation-therapy
#18
William Tyler Watkins, Joseph A Moore, Geoffrey D Hugo, Jeffrey V Siebers
PURPOSE: To evaluate potential organ at risk dose-sparing by using dose-mass-histogram (DMH) objective functions compared with dose-volume-histogram (DVH) objective functions. METHODS: Treatment plans were retrospectively optimized for 10 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients based on DVH and DMH objectives. DMH-objectives were the same as DVH objectives, but with mass replacing volume. Plans were normalized to dose to 95% of the PTV volume (PTV-D95v) or mass (PTV-D95m)...
October 11, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030906/effects-of-interruptions-of-external-beam-radiation-therapy-on-outcomes-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#19
Yanqun Dong, Nicholas G Zaorsky, Tianyu Li, Thomas M Churilla, Rosalia Viterbo, Mark L Sobczak, Marc C Smaldone, David Yt Chen, Robert G Uzzo, Mark A Hallman, Eric M Horwitz
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate if interruptions of external beam radiation therapy impact outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: We included men with localized PCa treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of escalated dose (≥74 Gy in 1.8 or 2 Gy fractions) between 1992 and 2013 at an NCI-designated cancer centre. Men receiving androgen deprivation therapy were excluded. The non-treatment day ratio (NTDR) was defined as the number of non-treatment days divided by the total elapsed days of therapy...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027617/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-neuroblastoma-development
#20
REVIEW
Mattie J Casey, Rodney A Stewart
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor arising from embryonic neural crest progenitor cells that normally generate the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. As such, the location of neuroblastoma tumors is correlated with the distribution of major post-ganglionic clusters throughout the sympathetic chain, with the highest incidence in the adrenal medulla or lumbar sympathetic ganglia (~65%). Neuroblastoma is an enigmatic tumor that can spontaneously regress with minimal treatment or become highly metastatic and develop resistance to aggressive treatments, including radiation and high-dose chemotherapy...
October 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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