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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243406/the-national-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-zambia-2011-2014
#1
Andros Theo, Stefano Tempia, Adam L Cohen, Paul Simusika, Edward Chentulo, Chikama Mukwangole Chikamukwa, Mwaka Monze
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted active prospective hospital-based surveillance for SARI at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) situated in Lusaka Province during 2011-2014. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested for influenza virus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241618/appropriateness-of-clinical-severity-classification-of-new-who-childhood-pneumonia-guidance-a-multi-hospital-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Ambrose Agweyu, Richard J Lilford, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Management of pneumonia in many low-income and middle-income countries is based on WHO guidelines that classify children according to clinical signs that define thresholds of risk. We aimed to establish whether some children categorised as eligible for outpatient treatment might have a risk of death warranting their treatment in hospital. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2-59 months admitted to one of 14 hospitals in Kenya with pneumonia between March 1, 2014, and Feb 29, 2016, before revised WHO pneumonia guidelines were adopted in the country...
January 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238454/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-first-biofilm-forming-nasopharyngeal-colonized-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#3
Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Bahman Mirzaei, Bahareh Shaghaghi, Pantea Jalali, Tahereh Setayesh, Seyed Hamid Moosavi
Background and Objectives: Designing control and therapeutic policies for antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an important causative agent of several invasive and noninvasive infectious diseases and its carriage rates, has been described as the main target in World Health Organization (WHO). The present study was conducted to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, evaluate biofilm forming ability in S. pneumoniae isolates, and find the genetic relationship between cultured strains...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238098/mesh-hiatal-reinforcement-in-laparoscopic-nissen-fundoplication-for-neurologically-impaired-children-is-safe-and-feasible
#4
Hizuru Amano, Yujiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawashima, Kyoichi Deie, Keisuke Suzuki, Michimasa Fujiogi, Kaori Morita, Tadashi Iwanaka, Hiroo Uchida
Fundoplication is a standard treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in neurologically impaired children. However, it has a high recurrence rate due to wrap herniation and disruption resulting from the failure or enlargement of the esophageal hiatus suture site. In adult patients with GERD, reinforcement of the sutured esophageal hiatus with a mesh significantly reduces the recurrence rate after surgery for esophageal hiatus hernia. In children, there are no big series of fundoplication with mesh reinforcement...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237789/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-the-challenges-of-microbiological-diagnosis
#5
C M C Rodrigues, H Groves
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality in children under five years of age, globally. To improve the management of CAP, we must distinguish CAP from other common paediatric conditions and develop better diagnostic methods to detect the causative organism, so to best direct appropriate resources in both industrialised and developing countries. Here, we review the diagnostic modalities available for identifying viruses and bacteria in the upper and lower respiratory tract of children, with a discussion of their utility and limitations in diagnosing CAP in children...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237494/adherence-to-the-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-guidelines-in-namibia-kenya-tanzania-and-uganda-evidence-from-the-national-service-provision-assessment-surveys
#6
Carsten Krüger, Monika Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Mohammed Ali
BACKGROUND: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is regarded as a standard public health approach to lowering child mortality in developing countries. However, little is known about how health workers adhere to the guidelines at the national level in sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Data from the Service Provision Assessment surveys of Namibia (NA) (survey year: 2009), Kenya (KE) (2010), Tanzania (TZ) (2006) and Uganda (UG) (2007) were analysed for adherence to the IMCI guidelines by health workers...
December 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237402/prevalence-and-serotype-distribution-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-china-a-meta-analysis
#7
Lin Wang, Jinjian Fu, Zhuoxin Liang, Jichang Chen
BACKGROUND: To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. METHODS: A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region...
December 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237206/-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-central-restriction-and-alternative-recommendations-as-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-at-a-maximal-care-hospital
#8
Johanna Kessel, Barbara Dolff, Thomas Wichelhaus, Nils Keiner, Michael Hogardt, Claudia Reinheimer, Imke Wieters, Sebastian Harder, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christoph Stephan
Background Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement management was evaluated at the University Hospital Frankfurt (UHF). Methods The Antibiotic-Stewardship (ABS)-Team at UHF decreed a restriction of PIP/TAZ and provided alternative antibiotic therapy recommendations during the shortage period. Consequences of this intervention on antibiotic consumption and overall costs were investigated...
December 13, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234355/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-all-countries-treating-children-in-the-same-way-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233576/changing-epidemiology-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-children
#12
REVIEW
David F Butler, Angela L Myers
Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. The epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease is shifting. It is imperative that clinicians recognize the changing epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns for H influenzae to optimize care in hospital and ambulatory settings...
December 9, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233111/effectiveness-of-two-community-based-strategies-on-disease-knowledge-and-health-behaviour-regarding-malaria-diarrhoea-and-pneumonia-in-ghana
#13
Blanca Escribano-Ferrer, Margaret Gyapong, Jane Bruce, Solomon A Narh Bana, Clement T Narh, Naa-Korkor Allotey, Roland Glover, Charity Azantilow, Constance Bart-Plange, Isabella Sagoe-Moses, Jayne Webster
BACKGROUND: Ghana has developed two community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia, and to improve household and family practices: integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of iCCM and CHPS on disease knowledge and health behaviour regarding malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. METHODS: A household survey was conducted two and eight years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana respectively, and more than ten years of CHPS implementation in both regions...
December 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233110/accounting-for-misclassification-bias-of-binary-outcomes-due-to-underscreening-a-sensitivity-analysis
#14
Nanhua Zhang, Si Cheng, Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Maurizio Macaluso
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests are performed in a subset of the population who are at higher risk, resulting in undiagnosed cases among those who do not receive the test. This poses a challenge for estimating the prevalence of the disease in the study population, and also for studying the risk factors for the disease. METHODS: We formulate this problem as a missing data problem because the disease status is unknown for those who do not receive the test. We propose a Bayesian selection model which models the joint distribution of the disease outcome and whether testing was received...
December 12, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#15
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232879/the-alteration-of-nasopharyngeal-and-oropharyngeal-microbiota-in-children-with-mpp-and-non-mpp
#16
Zhiwei Lu, Wenkui Dai, Yanhong Liu, Qian Zhou, Heping Wang, Dongfang Li, Zhenyu Yang, Yinhu Li, Gan Xie, Shuaicheng Li, Yuejie Zheng
Background: In recent years, the morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has increased significantly in China. A growing number of studies indicate that imbalanced respiratory microbiota is associated with various respiratory diseases. Methods: We enrolled 119 children, including 60 pneumonia patients and 59 healthy children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) sampling was performed for 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene analysis of all children. Sputum and OP swabs were obtained from patients for pathogen detection...
December 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#17
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228533/denosumab-treatment-of-severe-disuse-osteoporosis-in-a-boy-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#19
Stepan Kutilek
Denosumab is a fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Denosumab is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. There are only very scarce data on denosumab treatment in children. 14-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and severe disuse osteoporosis (spinal bone mineral density L1-L4 BMD-6.2SD Z-score) and two prevalent fragility fractures was treated with denosumab. He received 60 mg  subcutaneous injection at the baseline and seven months later...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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