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Pediatric HIV Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224079/altered-structural-brain-changes-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-pediatric-hiv
#1
Santosh K Yadav, Rakesh K Gupta, Ravindra K Garg, Vimala Venkatesh, Pradeep K Gupta, Alok K Singh, Sheema Hashem, Asma Al-Sulaiti, Deepak Kaura, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Mohammad Haris
Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#2
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202762/maternal-binding-and-neutralizing-igg-responses-targeting-the-c-terminal-region-of-the-v3-loop-are-predictive-of-reduced-peripartum-hiv-1-transmission-risk
#3
David R Martinez, Nathan Vandergrift, Ayooluwa O Douglas, Erin McGuire, John Bainbridge, Nathan I Nicely, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Genevieve G Fouda, Sallie R Permar
The development of an effective maternal HIV-1 vaccine that could synergize with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infection will require the characterization of maternal immune responses capable of blocking transmission of autologous HIV viruses to the infant. We previously identified that maternal plasma antibody binding to linear epitopes within the variable loop 3 (V3) region of HIV envelope (Env) and neutralizing responses against easy to neutralize tier 1 viruses were associated with reduced risk of peripartum HIV infection in the historic U...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192579/infectious-diseases-and-immunizations-in-international-adoption
#4
Emily Obringer, Linda Walsh
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192577/diagnosing-acute-hiv-infection
#5
Paul Devine Bottone, Allison H Bartlett
Acute HIV infection (AHI) represents the first 6 to 12 weeks of the disease process, when the virus is aggressively replicating in the lymphoid tissues. Accordingly, high viral loads are often present during this phase, with declining lymphocyte levels, as the CD4+ T-cell subset is preferentially commandeered to facilitate viral reproduction. Detection at this stage is imperative-the affected are often unaware, but highly infectious. Unfortunately, correct diagnosis of AHI can be challenging because the more traditional, frequently used tests, which rely on antibody detection, will often produce false-negative results during the "window period" (usually 3 to 4 weeks from infection) due to slow production of HIV antibodies...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187062/risk-factors-for-growth-retardation-in-hiv-infected-senegalese-children-on-antiretroviral-treatment-the-anrs-12279-maggsen-pediatric-cohort-study
#6
Cecile Cames, Lea Pascal, Aminata Diack, Helene Mbodj, Baly Ouattara, Ndeye Rama Diagne, Ndeye Fatou Diallo, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Haby Sy Signate
OBJECTIVES: We described prevalence and risk factors for wasting and stunting among HIV-infected children with a median duration of 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of their enrollment in the cohort study. METHODS: Wasting and stunting at ART initiation and at enrollment were defined as weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age z-scores < -2 and height-for-age z-scores < -2, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for wasting and stunting...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168828/relative-bioavailability-of-a-dolutegravir-dispersible-tablet-and-the-effects-of-low-and-high-mineral-content-water-on-the-tablet-in-healthy-adults
#7
Ann M Buchanan, Michael Holton, Ian Conn, Mark Davies, Mike Choukour, Brian R Wynne
Dolutegravir (DTG) is approved in the United States to treat HIV-1-infected patients weighing ≥30 kg. A dispersible DTG tablet formulation was recently developed for pediatric patients. This study compares the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the dispersible tablet with that of a previously evaluated granule formulation. In this randomized, open-label, crossover study, 15 healthy adults received single oral doses of DTG 20 mg every 7 days across 5 treatment arms: granules consumed immediately after mixture with purified water, dispersible DTG consumed immediately after reconstitution in low-mineral-content (LMC) or high-mineral-content (HMC) water, and dispersible DTG consumed 30 minutes after dispersal in LMC or HMC water...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164028/the-clinical-spectrum-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-in-cameroon-a-hospital-based-study-in-yaounde-cameroon
#8
Andreas Chiabi, Berthe Malangue, Seraphin Nguefack, Félicitée Nguefack Dongmo, Florence Fru, Virginie Takou, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1.9% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical aspects and outcome of SAM at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH)...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160044/clinical-characteristics-of-pediatric-hiv-1-patients-treated-with-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-vietnam-a-nested-case-control-study
#9
Minh Diem Dang, Duc Minh Nguyen, Huu Bich Tran, Viet Hung Pham, Daryl Spak, Linh Chi Pham, Thi Quynh Phan, Thi Thanh Dinh, Thi Kim Anh Le, Van Lam Nguyen, Thanh Hai Le, Son Ngoc Hoang, Vu Phuong Linh Dang
OBJECTIVES: Over the past decades, Vietnam has made great strides in reducing the rate of mortality in HIV-related deaths, due to increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, given the significantly high level of treatment failure (TF), it is essential to identify markers that describe the failure of ART in HIV-1 infected children. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with clinical data collected from 101 HIV-infected children [26 TF and 75 treatment success (TS)] at National Hospital of Pediatrics, Vietnam (2008-2012)...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157463/use-of-antiretrovirals-in-hiv-infected-children-in-a-tuberculosis-prevention-trial-impaact-p1041
#10
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146189/-young-women-with-hiv-infection-acquired-by-vertical-transmission-expectations-of-having-uninfected-children
#11
Julia Villarroel, Ana M Álvarez, Francisco Salvador, Ana Chávez, Elba Wu, Verónica Contardo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), changed the prognosis of the disease, allowing young women infected by vertical transmission (TV) to be pregnant without risk for their fetus of acquiring this infection. AIM: To describe the clinical-immune status in pregnant women that acquired HV by vertical transmission, treatments received, monitoring of pregnancy and newborn characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A protocol was performed, evaluating clinical and immunological parameters during pregnancy, ART used, protocol preventing vertical transmission (PPTV), and follow up of children to 18 months of age...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130496/induction-of-il21-in-peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-is-an-indicator-of-influenza-vaccine-response-in-a-previously-vaccinated-hiv-infected-pediatric-cohort
#12
Lesley R de Armas, Nicola Cotugno, Suresh Pallikkuth, Li Pan, Stefano Rinaldi, M Celeste Sanchez, Louis Gonzalez, Alberto Cagigi, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123240/emotional-and-behavioral-disturbances-in-school-going-hiv-positive-children-attending-hiv-clinic
#13
Deepak Joshi, Mithilesh K Tiwari, Venkatnarayan Kannan, S S Dalal, S S Mathai
BACKGROUND: To study the emotional and behavioral disturbances (EBD) in school going HIV positive children attending HIV center in a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 258 HIV infected children between 6 and 16 years of age, 200 were on Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and 58 were not on ART. They were evaluated for EBD by using Pictorial Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PPSC) screening tool. A cut-off score of 28 was taken as significant for detecting early EBD...
January 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114376/professional-s-perspectives-on-care-management-of-young-people-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-during-transition-a-qualitative-study-in-adult-care-setting
#14
Enora Le Roux, Serge Gottot, Camille Aupiais, Thomas Girard, Maria Teixeira, Corinne Alberti
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of young people with perinatally acquired HIV are surviving to adulthood. When they come of age, they leave pediatric services in which they were followed and have to be transferred to the adult health care system. Difficulties in adaptation to adult care and the numbers of young people lost to follow up after transfer to adult care have been reported. This transition phase and their retention in adult care are crucial in maintaining the clinical status of these young with HIV in adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114186/pediatric-hiv-disclosure-intervention-improves-knowledge-and-clinical-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-children-in-namibia
#15
Kristin M Beima-Sofie, Laura Brandt, Ndapewa Hamunime, Mark Shepard, James Uusiku, Grace C John-Stewart, Gabrielle O'malley
OBJECTIVES: Using routinely collected data, we evaluated a nationally implemented intervention to assist healthcare workers and caregivers with HIV disclosure to children. We assessed impact of the intervention on child's knowledge and health outcomes. METHODS: Data was abstracted from national databases and patient charts for HIV-infected children aged 7-15 years attending 4 high volume HIV clinics in Namibia. Disclosure rates, time to disclosure, and HIV knowledge in 314 children participating in the intervention were analyzed...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#16
C Paula Lewis-de Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
January 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081230/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-children-at-enrollment-into-care-and-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-central-africa
#17
Adebola Adedimeji, Andrew Edmonds, Donald Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jean d'Amour Sinayobye, Martin Nduwimana, Patricia Lelo, Denis Nash, Kathryn Anastos, Marcel Yotebieng
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066999/transplant-infectious-diseases-a-review-of-the-scientific-registry-of-transplant-recipients-published-data
#18
REVIEW
C N Kotton, S Huprikar, D Kumar
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) serves to collect data on organ transplants performed in the United States. Although the infectious diseases data are limited and include mostly pretransplant serologies and other nonspecific infection-related outcomes, this multicenter data collection allows for insightful national data and the ability to monitor trends over time. We reviewed the published concise reports for each organ type in SRTR reports containing data from 2005 to 2014, and summarized our findings with respect to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, general infection, and prophylaxis...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066962/outcomes-among-hiv-infected-children-initiating-hiv-care-and-antiretroviral-treatment-in-ethiopia
#19
Zenebe Melaku, Sileshi Lulseged, Chunhui Wang, Matthew Lamb, Yoseph Gutema, Chloe Teasdale, Solomon Ahmed, Tsigereda Gadisa, Zelalem Habtamu, Abubaker Bedri, Ruby Fayorsey, Elaine J Abrams
Globally, the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment represents one of the greatest successes in the history of global health. By the end of 2014 an estimated 15 million individuals, including more than 800,000 children younger than 15 years, initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART).(1) While pediatric treatment still lags behind adult successes, many countries, particularly in Southern Africa, have reported high rates of ART initiation, diminishing mortality and markedly improved health outcomes among children with HIV...
January 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053917/mortality-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv-1-co-infected-nigerian-children-being-treated-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Augustine O Ebonyi, Stephen Oguche, Oche O Agbaji, Atiene S Sagay, Prosper I Okonkwo, John A Idoko, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: Mortality data, including the risk factors for mortality in HIV-infected children with pulmonary TB (PTB) being treated for PTB and who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), are scarce in Nigeria. We determined the mortality rate and risk factors for mortality among such children, at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Jos, Nigeria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 260 PTB-HIV-1 co-infected children, aged 2 months to 13 years, being treated for PTB and on ART from July 2005 to March 2013...
2016: Germs
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