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Pediatric HIV Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#1
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797019/associations-of-low-vitamin-d-and-elevated-parathyroid-hormone-concentrations-with-bone-mineral-density-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#2
Denise L Jacobson, Charles B Stephensen, Tracie L Miller, Kunjal Patel, Janet S Chen, Russell B Van Dyke, Ayesha Mirza, Gertrud U Schuster, Rohan Hazra, Angela Ellis, Sean S Brummel, Mitchell E Geffner, Margarita Silio, Stephen A Spector, Linda A DiMeglio
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. METHODS: PHIV and PHEU children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study had total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BMD z-scores (BMDz) were calculated for age and sex...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796679/delivery-after-40-weeks-of-gestation-in-pregnant-women-with-well-controlled-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#3
Rachel K Scott, Nahida Chakhtoura, Margaret M Burke, Rachel A Cohen, Regis Kreitchmann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated with deliveries at 40 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) or greater in pregnant women with HIV-1 viral loads of 1,000 copies/mL or less. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1025 cohorts...
August 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782457/prospective-memory-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#4
Lynnette L Harris, Miriam C Chernoff, Sharon L Nichols, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Cenk Yildirim, Stephen R McCauley, Steven Paul Woods
Youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Prospective memory (PM) is a complex neurocognitive function that has been shown to be impaired in adults with HIV disease and independently associated with poorer daily living skills, including medication nonadherence. The current study sought to determine the presence and extent of PM deficits in youth with PHIV. Participants included 173 youth with PHIV and 85 youth perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU), mean age 14...
August 7, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746263/treatment-outcomes-of-children-with-hiv-infection-and-drug-resistant-tb-in-three-provinces-in-south-africa-2005-2008
#5
Eric W Hall, Sapna B Morris, Brittany K Moore, Linda Erasmus, Ronel Odendaal, Heather Menzies, Martie van der Walt, Sarah E Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of HIV-infected pediatric patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from pediatric patient charts treated for DR TB during 2005-2008 were collected retrospectively from five MDR TB hospitals in South Africa. Data were summarized and Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to assess differences in variables of interest by HIV status. A time-to-event analysis was conducted using days from start of treatment to death...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738768/current-status-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-hiv-1-entry-inhibitors-and-hiv-therapy
#6
Fengyan Xu, Edward P Acosta, Liyu Liang, Yingchun He, Juan Yang, Corenna Kerstner-Wood, Qingshang Zheng, Jihan Huang, Kun Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry inhibitors target the first step of the HIV life cycle and efficiently inhibit HIV from infecting the immune cells which is a key prerequisite for viral spread. Because of their unique mechanism of action on cell-cell transmission they may provide a promising perspective for the treatment of AIDS. Maraviroc (MVC) and Enfuvirtide (ENF) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Attachment inhibitors (BMS-663068 and TNX-355) and co-receptor inhibitors (PRO-140 and Cenicriviroc (CVC)) have reached phase II or III clinical trials...
July 24, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736199/decreased-hepatitis-b-vaccine-response-in-pediatric-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-psoriasis-and-morphea
#7
Deepa P Patel, James R Treat, Leslie Castelo-Socio
Multiple groups of patients have been recognized for having high rates of non-responders to the Hepatitis B vaccine including those with HIV, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic kidney disease. These patients are at increased risk for infection due to both the nature of their underlying diseases and the immunosuppressive drugs they are commonly prescribed. Identification of groups with high non-response rates is essential in order to establish vaccination guidelines and prevent serious infections in already susceptible patients...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736100/consensus-document-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-adults-children-and-adolescents
#8
National Aids Plan
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are one of the most common and universal problems of public health. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and STD infections are clearly interrelated, and share risks, incidence and transmission mechanisms. The aim of this document is to inform health professionals about the current situation and management of STDs, which, because of their relevance, need greater care, both in the general population and in the population with HIV. These guidelines for STD treatment, although clinically oriented and focused especially on treatment, contain other aspects related to assessing and evaluating patients, as well as recommendations for diagnosis...
July 20, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721963/pediatric-hiv-in-india-current-scenario-and-the-way-forward
#9
REVIEW
Anita Nath
In India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances, a large number of HIV-infected children are born in every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2000 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF, and World Health Organization...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#10
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. While primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) METHODS: Genotyping was performed on CYP2B6 516G→T, -1459C→T, and -983T→C, ABCB1 3435C→T, and SLCO1B1 521T→C in 229 HIV-infected Chinese pediatric patients with an age range from 4...
July 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715460/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-1-infection-in-luanda-angola-using-a-new-dna-pcr-assay-and-dried-blood-spots
#11
Francisco Martin, Claudia Palladino, Rita Mateus, Anna Bolzan, Perpétua Gomes, José Brito, Ana Patrícia Carvalho, Yolanda Cardoso, Cristovão Domingos, Vanda Sofia Lôa Clemente, Nuno Taveira
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment reduces HIV-1-related mortality, morbidity and size of viral reservoirs in infants infected perinatally. Commercial molecular tests enable the early diagnosis of infection in infants but the high cost and low sensitivity with dried blood spots (DBS) limit their use in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a sensitive and cheap qualitative proviral DNA PCR-based assay for early infant diagnosis (EID) in HIV-1-exposed infants using DBS samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707345/the-cascade-of-care-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-1996-2013-improving-but-still-some-way-to-go
#12
Cristina Barroso Hofer, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita Fernandes Abreu, Lúcia Evangelista Araújo, Bernardo Bastos Witthlin, Alice Weber Carvalho, Janaína Rivas Cordeiro, Giulia Pasqualini Lima, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cascade of care to HIV mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) in a Rio de Janeiro reference pediatric clinic, and evaluate the main factors possibly associated with HIV transmission. METHODS: Data on antenatal care, perinatal and neonatal assistance to HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children assisted in the clinic from 1996-2013 were collected. The cascade of care was graphically demonstrated, and possible factors associated with HIV infection were described using regression models for bivariate and multivariate analysis...
July 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694707/did-the-2011-aap-recommendations-on-youth-hiv-testing-change-practice-trends-from-a-large-urban-adolescent-program
#13
Sujatha Seetharaman, Cathryn L Samples, Maria Trent
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is adherence to the October 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for HIV screening in a large urban adolescent program with availability of a publicly funded program providing free, confidential, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV counseling and testing (then rapid or third generation HIV testing), nested in the same adolescent clinic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV screening trends among 13- to 24-year-old patients tested for HIV during periods of January 2010 to June 2011 (18 months pre-AAP recommendations period) and July 2011 to December 2012 (18-month period, which included 15 months after the AAP recommendations)...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689877/a-10-year-follow-up-of-bone-mineral-density-in-hiv-infected-youths-receiving-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#14
Vania Giacomet, Katia Maruca, Alessandro Ambrosi, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Stefano Mora
BACKGROUND: The use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has simplified the antiretroviral regimen for HIV-infected patients and improved their compliance with treatment, but it has been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in adult patients, and data in pediatric patients are debated. The aim of the current study was to assess the long-term effect of TDF on BMD in young patients. METHODS: BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and in the whole skeleton in 26 HIV-infected youths (13 female and 13 male, aged 5 to 17 years at baseline)...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675900/hiv-1-subtype-diversity-and-prevalence-of-primary-drug-resistance-in-a-single-center-pediatric-cohort-in-germany
#15
Jennifer Neubert, Nadja Michalsky, Hans-Jürgen Laws, Arndt Borkhardt, Björn Jensen, Nadine Lübke
OBJECTIVES: Data on drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1-infected therapy-naïve children are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the HIV-1 subtype distribution and the prevalence of DRMs in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected children who received routine care at the University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. METHODS: Records of all HIV-1-infected children who received routine care between January 2005 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664942/darunavir-stands-up-as-preferred-hiv-protease-inhibitor
#16
Josep Mallolas
Current antiretroviral therapy reaches and maintains viral suppression over the years in more than 90% of treated HIV-infected individuals. Although integrase inhibitors are the preferred third agent in antiretroviral therapy in the current guidelines, rilpivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcrip- tase inhibitor, and darunavir (DRV), a second-generation protease inhibitor, are the preferred third companion to be used along with a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first-line triple HIV combination treatment...
April 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660181/psychosocial-challenges-associated-with-caregiving-in-the-context-of-pediatric-hiv-in-rural-eastern-cape
#17
Antonio G Lentoor
BACKGROUND: While survival among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has increased due to combination antiretroviral therapy, many children remain vulnerable to the adverse effects of poverty and family disruptions as a result of the loss of one or both biological parents to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of the psychosocial challenges experienced by caregivers caring for a child with perinatally acquired HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#18
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine N'diaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children <15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12/2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639838/provider-perceptions-of-stigma-and-discrimination-experienced-by-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-phiv-while-accessing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-care
#19
Cynthia D Fair, Meredith Berk
Historically, children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) were viewed as the "innocent victims" as their HIV infection was not acquired through sexual/drug related means. Today, adolescents with PHIV are surviving into young adulthood and are engaging in developmentally expected behaviors such as establishing intimate, sexual relationships. Like other youth, those living with PHIV often need to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Previous research has documented stigma and discrimination experienced by adult women living with HIV as they try to access SRH care...
June 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596843/magnitude-and-predictors-of-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-children-in-fiche-and-kuyu-hospitals-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Seid Yassin, Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle
The objective of the study was to assess the magnitude and predictors of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among HIV-infected children. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2015. All pediatric patients of <15 years old and who took at least 6 months of ART in Fiche and Kuyu hospitals of Oromia region, Ethiopia were included in the study. Collected data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of treatment failure...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
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