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Pediatric HIV Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923290/use-of-adult-sensory-panel-to-study-individual-differences-in-the-palatability-of-a-pediatric-hiv-treatment-drug
#1
Julie A Mennella, Phoebe S Mathew, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
PURPOSE: The recommended first-line treatment for young children infected with HIV includes the liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra(®) [Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois]). Clinical reports indicate that some children readily accept the taste of Kaletra, whereas others strongly reject it, which can deter therapeutic adherence and outcomes. METHODS: As a proof-of-concept approach, a sensory panel of genotyped adults was used to document the range of individual differences in the taste and palatability (hedonics) of the liquid formulation of Kaletra and other taste stimuli, including common excipients...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913332/the-impact-of-disclosure-on-health-and-related-outcomes-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Angela Odiachi
This review explores the association between pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure and health and related outcomes among children living with HIV. A multi-stage process was used to search for relevant articles on the ISI Web of Knowledge database. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Five major outcomes emerged from children's knowledge of their HIV-seropositive status: physical/physiological outcomes; adherence to antiretroviral therapy; psychosocial outcomes; sexual and reproductive health, including HIV prevention outcomes; and disclosure of status by the children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895487/-%C3%A2-like-because-you-are-a-grownup-you-do-not-need-help-experiences-of-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-their-caregivers-and-health-care-providers-in-the-dominican-republic
#4
María C Pinzón-Iregui, Gladys Ibanez, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Mina Halpern, Rosa M Mendoza
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide, youth with perinatal HIV infection are increasingly surviving childhood and transitioning to adult care. Although a normal life span is anticipated posttransition, successful transition to adult HIV care has proven difficult, with worse outcomes posttransition than in pediatric and adult care. This study is a qualitative analysis of data from 4 focus groups of pre- and posttransition patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers in the Dominican Republic at an institution that provides comprehensive treatment including ART for HIV-infected persons of all ages...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886044/genetic-variants-in-cyp2b6-and-cyp2a6-explain-interindividual-variation-in-efavirenz-plasma-concentrations-of-hiv-infected-children-with-diverse-ethnic-origin
#5
Sandra Soeria-Atmadja, Emma Österberg, Lars L Gustafsson, Marja-Liisa Dahl, Jaran Eriksen, Johanna Rubin, Lars Navér
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.6 million children live with HIV globally, and efavirenz (EFV) is one of the most widely used antiretroviral agents for HIV treatment in children and adults. There are concerns about the appropriateness of current EFV dosing and it has been discussed whether EFV dosing should be adapted according to genotype in children as suggested for adults. AIM: To investigate if pediatric EFV dosing should be guided by genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes rather than by body weight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#6
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#7
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868299/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-the-absence-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-hiv-infection-a-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#8
Ayah Elmaghrabi, Elizabeth Brown, Ei Khin, Jared Hassler, Allen R Hendricks
Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are subcellular structures located within the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Formation of TRIs has been linked to the exposure of excess interferon (IFN), either from endogenous or exogenous sources. In renal disease, TRIs have been most commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Case reports of patients with renal biopsies showing TRIs without underlying SLE or HIV are infrequent in adults, and to our knowledge none have been reported in children...
May 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831276/hematologic-abnormalities-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-children-pre-and-post-antiretroviral-treatment-north-west-ethiopia
#9
Teshome Geletaw, Meseret Zelalem Tadesse, Abayneh Girma Demisse
INTRODUCTION: There are few studies on the hematologic parameters of HIV-infected individuals in Ethiopia; of these, almost all studies researched adults. Our current study is unique in that it mainly focused on the pediatric population and compared both pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) children. Inference from this study can be used for other developing countries where the burden of HIV disease is high. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify hematologic abnormalities in HIV-infected children before and after initiation of ART...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827836/sub-therapeutic-nevirapine-concentration-during-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-among-children-living-with-hiv-implications-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#10
Bindu Parachalil Gopalan, Kayur Mehta, Reena R D'souza, Niharika Rajnala, Hemanth Kumar A K, Geetha Ramachandran, Anita Shet
Nevirapine, a component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, known for auto-induction of metabolism, is initiated at half therapeutic dose until day 14 ('lead-in period'), and subsequently escalated to full dose. However, studies have shown that this dosing strategy based on adult studies may not be appropriate in children, given that younger children have higher drug clearance rates. In this prospective cohort study, we studied trough plasma nevirapine levels by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at days 7, 14 (lead-in period) and 28 (full dose period) after ART initiation amongst HIV-1 infected children initiating nevirapine-based ART in southern India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825944/brief-report-lopinavir-hair-concentrations-are-the-strongest-predictor-of-viremia-in-hiv-infected-asian-children-and-adolescents-on-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Jillian Pintye, Peter Bacchetti, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen Kerr, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thida Singtoroj, Karen Kuncze, Alexander Louie, Catherine A Koss, Chengshi Jin, Nhi Phung, Howard Horng, Annette H Sohn, Monica Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Children/adolescents display suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes versus adults. Hair ART concentrations are objective adherence measures that predict viremia in adults but longitudinal data on hair levels in pediatric populations is limited. We assessed the predictive utility of hair lopinavir levels on viremia among youth on second-line ART. METHODS: We examined predictors of viremia (HIV-1 RNA >400 and >1000 copies/ml) at least 24 weeks after switch to lopinavir-based second-line ART in a cohort of HIV-infected Asian children followed between 2011 and 2014...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819511/male-partner-involvement-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-in-mwanza-region-tanzania
#12
Munda Elias, Elia John Mmbaga, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#13
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816644/cyp2b6-haplotype-predicts-efavirenz-plasma-concentration-in-black-south-african-hiv-1-infected-children-a-longitudinal-pediatric-pharmacogenomic-study
#14
Riaan Reay, Collet Dandara, Michelle Viljoen, Malie Rheeders
South Africa has the highest burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection globally. Efavirenz (EFV), a frequently used drug against HIV infection, displays a relationship between drug concentration and pharmacodynamics effects clinically. However, haplotype-based genetic variation in drug metabolism in a pediatric sample has been little considered in a longitudinal long-term context. CYP2B6 plays a key role in variation of EFV plasma concentration through altered drug metabolism. We report here on a prospective clinical pharmacogenomics/pharmacokinetic study of Bantu-speaking children, importantly, over a period of 24 months post-initiation of EFV-based treatment in South Africa...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/the-impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-co-administration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#15
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#16
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797019/associations-of-low-vitamin-d-and-elevated-parathyroid-hormone-concentrations-with-bone-mineral-density-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#17
Denise L Jacobson, Charles B Stephensen, Tracie L Miller, Kunjal Patel, Janet S Chen, Russell B Van Dyke, Ayesha Mirza, Gertrud U Schuster, Rohan Hazra, Angela Ellis, Sean S Brummel, Mitchell E Geffner, Margarita Silio, Stephen A Spector, Linda A DiMeglio
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. METHODS: PHIV and PHEU children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study had total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BMD z-scores (BMDz) were calculated for age and sex...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796679/delivery-after-40-weeks-of-gestation-in-pregnant-women-with-well-controlled-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#18
Rachel K Scott, Nahida Chakhtoura, Margaret M Burke, Rachel A Cohen, Regis Kreitchmann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated with deliveries at 40 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) or greater in pregnant women with HIV-1 viral loads of 1,000 copies/mL or less. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1025 cohorts...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782457/prospective-memory-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#19
Lynnette L Harris, Miriam C Chernoff, Sharon L Nichols, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Cenk Yildirim, Stephen R McCauley, Steven Paul Woods
Youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Prospective memory (PM) is a complex neurocognitive function that has been shown to be impaired in adults with HIV disease and independently associated with poorer daily living skills, including medication nonadherence. The current study sought to determine the presence and extent of PM deficits in youth with PHIV. Participants included 173 youth with PHIV and 85 youth perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU), mean age 14...
August 7, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746263/treatment-outcomes-of-children-with-hiv-infection-and-drug-resistant-tb-in-three-provinces-in-south-africa-2005-2008
#20
Eric W Hall, Sapna B Morris, Brittany K Moore, Linda Erasmus, Ronel Odendaal, Heather Menzies, Martie van der Walt, Sarah E Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of HIV-infected pediatric patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from pediatric patient charts treated for DR TB during 2005-2008 were collected retrospectively from five MDR TB hospitals in South Africa. Data were summarized and Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to assess differences in variables of interest by HIV status. A time-to-event analysis was conducted using days from start of treatment to death...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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