Read by QxMD icon Read

Pediatric HIV Infection

Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Ahizechukwu C Eke, Nahida Chakhtoura, Angela Kashuba, Brookie M Best, Craig Sykes, Jiajia Wang, Alice M Stek, Elizabeth Smith, Samantha Calabrese, Edmund V Capparelli, Mark Mirochnick
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the genital tract play a key role in pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study aims to describe rilpivirine (Edurant) concentrations in the genital tract in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Protocol P1026s is an ongoing, prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV infected pregnant women that include a cohort receiving rilpivirine combination regimen...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Yolanda Gomba, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant and postpartum women in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviewers collected survey data on demographic, sexual behaviors, and alcohol use among pregnant and post-partum women...
2018: PloS One
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Amanda Willig, Lauri Wright, Theresa A Galvin
Nutrition is an integral component of medical care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports integration of medical nutrition therapy into routine care for this population. Fewer PLWHA experience wasting and undernutrition, while the prevalence of obesity and other chronic diseases has increased significantly. Improved understanding of HIV infection's impact on metabolism and chronic inflammation has only increased the complexity of managing chronic HIV infection...
March 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Rachel C Vreeman, Samuel O Ayaya, Beverly S Musick, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Craig R Cohen, Denis Nash, Deo Wabwire, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Sarah E Wiehe
OBJECTIVE: To describe antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and associated factors for a large HIV-infected pediatric cohort followed by sites of the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. METHODS: This study utilized prospectively collected clinical data from HIV-infected children less than 13 years of age who initiated ART within 4 clinical care programs (with 26 clinical sites) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania and were followed for up to 6 years...
2018: PloS One
Anne Esther Njom Nlend, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Arsene Sandie, Joseph Fokam
BACKGROUND: Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Gloria Aguilar, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, George W Rutherford, Sergio Munoz, Nancy Hills, Tania Samudio, Fernando Galeano, Anibal Kawabata, Carlos Miguel Rios González
We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged < 15 years. We abstracted data from medical records and death certificates. We used the Cox proportional hazards model for the multivariable analysis of mortality predictors. A total of 302 subjects were included in the survey; 216 (71.5%) were younger than 5 years, 148 (51.0%) were male, and 214 (70...
February 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Sara Domínguez-Rodríguez, Patricia Rojas, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Israel Pagán, María Luisa Navarro, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
This pilot study evaluates in pediatric patients the impact of HIV/HCV coinfection in the molecular evolution of the HIV-1 subtype B protease (HIV-1BPR). For this study, HIV-1B/HCV coinfected (15) and HIV-1B monoinfected (56) patients with available HIV-1B pol sequences were enrolled. Both groups of patients had comparable gender frequencies and average age, time of infection, antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposure and time under ART. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), genetic diversity, number of synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) mutations per site and selection pressures (dN - dS) in the HIV-1BPR were estimated and compared between mono- and coinfected patients...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Natalie N Kinloch, Bemuluyigza Baraki, Hope R Lapointe, Kyle D Cobarrubias, Mark A Brockman, Chanson J Brumme, Byron A Foster, Degu Jerene, Eyasu Makonnen, Eleni Aklillu, Zabrina L Brumme
Clinical monitoring of pediatric HIV treatment remains a major challenge in settings where drug resistance genotyping is not routinely available. As a result, our understanding of drug resistance, and its impact on subsequent therapeutic regimens available in these settings, remains limited. We investigate the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1 drug resistance among 94 participants of the Ethiopia Pediatric HIV Cohort failing first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) using dried blood spot-based genotyping...
February 1, 2018: Viruses
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
A Tariro Makadzange, Leanne Dougherty, Rutendo Birri, Gillian Kupakuwana, Janneke van Dijk, Mutsa Bwakura Dangarembizi, Nomvuyo Mothobi, Benjamin Phelps, Bisola Ojikutu, Chiratidzo E Ndhlovu
INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of children are requiring long-term HIV care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in public ART programs in Africa but temporal trends and long-term outcomes in care remain poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of infants (<2 years) and children (2-10 years) enrolling in a public tertiary ART center in Zimbabwe over an eight-year period (2004-2012). RESULTS: The clinic enrolled 1644 infants and children; the median age at enrollment was 39 months (IQR 14-79), with a median CD4% of 17...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Michael Green, Shandie Covington, Sarah Taranto, Marian G Michaels, Cameron Wolfe, Daniel R Kaul
PDDTE are tracked by the OPTN Ad Hoc DTAC. Specific evaluation of potential transmissions from pediatric deceased donors or the impact of donor-derived disease transmissions to pediatric organ recipients has not been previously undertaken. PDDTE reported to the DTAC between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed, characterized as proven, probable, possible, IWDT, unlikely, or excluded for both the whole event and each individual recipient. Pediatric donors and recipients were defined as being 0-17 years of age. Analysis was undertaken to characterize potential disease transmission from pediatric donors to adult or pediatric recipients and also to evaluate potential transmission from all donors to pediatric recipients...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Methuselah Muhindo Kahungu, Julius Kiwanuka, Frank Kaharuza, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Judd L Walson, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Patricia Pavlinac
Despite diagnostic performance limitations, urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) predicts death in HIV-infected adults with TB. Pediatric data are limited. Among 137 hospitalized HIV-infected children, mortality was 4.9-fold higher among LAM-positives (127 vs. 31/100 py, aHR 4.92 [95%CI 1.79-13.49]; p=0.002). LAM identifies HIV-infected children at risk for death potentially missed by respiratory sampling.
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sabrina Fernandez
I recently diagnosed my first adolescent patient with new-onset HIV. As a primary care pediatrician, these cases are rare. I cried with the shock of the initial diagnosis, just as the patient did when I told him. One of my first thoughts was how could I have served him better. He had been inconsistent with condom use, and had several partners. I had encouraged safe sex practices, told him to talk to his partners about pregnancy prevention, and screened for sexually transmitted disease nearly every time he came into my office...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Mary G Fowler, Patricia Flynn, Jim Aizire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical trial, laboratory and observational findings that highlight both the progress that can be achieved in elimination of new pediatric infections in international clinical trial settings among HIV-infected breastfeeding women while also describing recent safety concerns related to currently used antiretroviral regimens. The article will also address the ongoing adherence challenges for HIV-infected mothers in taking their antiretroviral drugs...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"