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Acute Childhood Encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#1
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017268/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#2
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853520/-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis-the-israeli-pediatric-multi-center-experience
#3
Keren Politi, Dafna Marom, Shay Ashkenazi, Gilat Livni, Hadassa Goldberg, Avinoam Shuper, Tami Steinberg, Eli Lahat, Eli Haiman, Rachel Shtrausberg
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) encephalitis is a disorder characterized by acute neuro-psychiatric symptoms, appearing mostly after a recent febrile disease, with a gradual progressive course, associated with laboratory or radiologic evidence of active inflammation. Many of the patients will present with a continuous neuro-cognitive disorder which could lead to major morbidity and even mortality. It was recently reported that this disorder can present at childhood as a primary disease or as a secondary complication of herpes simplex infection...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838686/use-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-acute-encephalopathy-encephalitis-during-childhood
#4
Yoshiko Tsubouchi, Shinji Itamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Eijiro Yamashita, Yuki Shinohara, Tetsuya Okazaki, Koyo Ohno, Yoko Nishimura, Masayoshi Oguri, Yoshihiro Maegaki
AIM: To determine the use of high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis and assessment of acute febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis in childhood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 22 children, for whom we examined DWI with b=1000s/mm(2), DWI with b=3000s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with b=1000 during the acute phase of febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis. Clinical diagnoses included acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n=6), clinically mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n=6), and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE; n=3), unclassified acute encephalopathy/acute encephalitis (n=2); acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS; n=1); other encephalopathy (n=1); infarction (n=1); head injury (n=1); or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (n=1)...
August 21, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801087/cause-of-acute-encephalitis-encephalopathy-in-japanese-children-diagnosed-by-a-rapid-and-comprehensive-virological-detection-system-and-differences-in-their-clinical-presentations
#5
Kei Takasawa, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Shigeru Takishima, Kengo Moriyama, Ken Watanabe, Koji Kiyohara, Takeshi Hasegawa, Masahiro Shimohira, Kenichi Kashimada, Norio Shimizu, Tomohiro Morio
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy (AE/E) is a rare and severe complication of common childhood infections; however, a treatment strategy based on clinical and pathological evidence has not been established. METHODS: The clinical data and aetiological results using a rapid and comprehensive virological detection system of 62 Japanese children diagnosed with AE/E from 2010 to 2014 were collected. We assessed clinical differences between causes and effectiveness of our multiplex PCR system to establish a pathogen-based treatment strategy for AE/E...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756061/assessment-of-acute-motor-deficit-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room
#6
REVIEW
Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos, Luciana G A Vasconcelos, Adriana Rocha Brito
OBJECTIVES: This review article aimed to present a clinical approach, emphasizing the diagnostic investigation, to children and adolescents who present in the emergency room with acute-onset muscle weakness. SOURCES: A systematic search was performed in PubMed database during April and May 2017, using the following search terms in various combinations: "acute," "weakness," "motor deficit," "flaccid paralysis," "child," "pediatric," and "emergency". The articles chosen for this review were published over the past ten years, from 1997 through 2017...
July 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753671/self-reported-infections-during-international-travel-and-notifiable-infections-among-returning-international-travellers-sweden-2009-2013
#7
Viktor Dahl, Anders Wallensten
We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654561/influenza-associated-encephalitis-encephalopathy-identified-by-the-australian-childhood-encephalitis-study-2013-2015
#8
Philip N Britton, Russell C Dale, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Richard I Webster, Allen C Cheng, Robert Booy, Cheryl A Jones
BACKGROUND: Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. METHODS: Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia...
November 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637636/epilepsy-after-cerebral-infection-review-of-the-literature-and-the-potential-for-surgery
#9
Georgia Ramantani, Hans Holthausen
The risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of cerebral infection survivors is 7-8% in developed countries, rising to considerably higher rates in resource-poor countries. The main risk factors for epilepsy after cerebral infection, besides acute seizures, are infection-associated brain lesions and status epilepticus during the acute phase. Despite the high prevalence of pharmacoresistant epilepsies after cerebral infections, especially in patients with MRI-identifiable lesions, only a small minority undergoes epilepsy surgery...
June 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545483/encephalitis-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-7-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#10
Mónica Parra, Adoración Alcala, Cristina Amoros, Anna Baeza, Antonio Galiana, David Tarragó, Miguel Ángel García-Quesada, Victoria Sánchez-Hellín
BACKGROUND: Primary Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) infection usually occurs during childhood and causes several clinical manifestations: mainly exanthem subitum (roseola infantum), followed by a lifelong latent state with possible reactivation in case of immunodeficiency. Nevertheless, some considerably different approaches exist regarding the natural history of HHV-7 and the possible consequences of HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults. In particular, little is known about its pathogenic role in central nervous system (CNS) disease in nonimmunosuppressed adults...
May 25, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501474/a-case-of-mumps-related-acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion
#11
Kyoko Hazama, Takashi Shiihara, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Shunji Hasegawa, Yuri Dowa, Mio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a common childhood viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid gland. The prognosis is generally good, although some complications, such as encephalitis (0.1%), exist. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion is the most common type of acute encephalopathy. However, this type of encephalopathy has not been reported in association with mumps infection. PATIENT: A previously healthy 3-year-old Japanese boy had a brief convulsion after fever for 3days, and then had conscious disturbance and parotitis...
May 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460008/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#12
P N Britton, C C Blyth, K Macartney, R C Dale, J Li-Kim-Moy, G Khandaker, N Crawford, H Marshall, J Clark, E Elliott, R Booy, A C Cheng, C A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from two studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278415/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-inaugural-annual-report-2014
#13
Yvonne A Zurynski, Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Nicholas J Wood, Kristine K Macartney
INTRODUCTION: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child. METHODS: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991656/the-neuropsychological-profile-of-children-with-basal-ganglia-encephalitis-a-case-series
#14
Chiara Pawela, Ruth K Brunsdon, Tracey A Williams, Melanie Porter, Russell C Dale, Shekeeb S Mohammad
Inflammatory basal ganglia encephalitis (BGE) is a rare but distinct entity of putative autoimmune aetiology, with specific basal ganglia inflammation and acute movement disorders. Unlike most brain injuries, BGE is a radiologically pure basal ganglia syndrome. The current study systematically describes the neuropsychological outcomes of four paediatric cases of BGE, and thus the neuropsychological outcomes of focal basal ganglia insult in childhood. Although all patients made significant motor recoveries, all four cases displayed executive dysfunction, fine motor difficulties, and anxiety...
April 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966268/ophthalmological-findings-in-children-with-encephalitis
#15
Kerstin Hellgren, Åsa Fowler, Agneta Rydberg, Ronny Wickström
PURPOSE: To evaluate ophthalmological abnormalities in children with acute encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty-six children included in a hospital-based prospectively and consecutively collected cohort of children with acute encephalitis were investigated for ophthalmological abnormalities. The investigation included clinical ophthalmological examination, fundus photography, neuro-ophthalmological examinations as well as visual and stereo acuity. Results on laboratory examinations, clinical findings, neuroimaging and electroencephalography registrations were recorded for all children...
February 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810972/immunoglobulin-in-the-treatment-of-encephalitis-ignite-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
M A Iro, M Sadarangani, M Absoud, W K Chong, C A Clark, A Easton, V Gray, R Kneen, M Lim, M Pike, T Solomon, A Vincent, L Willis, L-M Yu, A J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Infectious and immune-mediated encephalitides are important but under-recognised causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood, with a 7% death rate and up to 50% morbidity after prolonged follow-up. There is a theoretical basis for ameliorating the immune response with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which is supported by empirical evidence of a beneficial response following its use in the treatment of viral and autoimmune encephalitis. In immune-mediated encephalitis, IVIG is often used after a delay (by weeks in some cases), while diagnosis is confirmed...
November 3, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780632/-symptomatic-infection-associated-acute-encephalopathy-in-children-with-underlying-neurological-disorders
#17
Yoshimichi Hirayama, Yoshiaki Saito, Yoshihiro Maegaki
BACKGROUND: Development of infection-associated acute encephalopathy (AE) is precipitated by several factors, including viral agents, age, and genetic polymorphisms. In addition, children with prior underlying neurological disorders can also present with AE. METHOD: We reviewed 55 children with AE who were referred to hospitals participating in the Status Epilepticus Study Group from 1988 to 2013. AE was classified into eight subtypes: acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD); hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HH); acute necrotizing encephalopathy; hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES); clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion; acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures; Reye-like syndrome; and unclassified...
March 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538648/cytokine-related-and-sodium-channel-polymorphism-as-candidate-predisposing-factors-for-childhood-encephalopathy-fires-aerrps
#18
M Saitoh, K Kobayashi, I Ohmori, Y Tanaka, K Tanaka, T Inoue, A Horino, K Ohmura, A Kumakura, Y Takei, S Hirabayashi, M Kajimoto, T Uchida, S Yamazaki, T Shiihara, T Kumagai, M Kasai, H Terashima, M Kubota, M Mizuguchi
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), or acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS), is an epileptic encephalopathy beginning with fever-mediated seizures. The etiology remains unclear. To elucidate the genetic background of FIRES/AERRPS (hereafter FIRES), we recruited 19 Japanese patients, genotyped polymorphisms of the IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, IL1RN, SCN1A and SCN2A genes, and compared their frequency between the patients and controls. For IL1RN, the frequency of a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) allele, RN2, was significantly higher in the patients than in controls (p=0...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521622/etiological-associations-and-outcome-predictors-of-acute-electroencephalography-in-childhood-encephalitis
#19
Shekeeb S Mohammad, Samantha M Soe, Sekhar C Pillai, Margherita Nosadini, Elizabeth H Barnes, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale
OBJECTIVES: To examine EEG features in a retrospective 13-year cohort of children with encephalitis. METHODS: 354 EEGs from 119 patients during their admission were rated blind using a proforma with demonstrated inter-rater reliability (mean k=0.78). Patients belonged to 12 etiological groups that could be grouped into infectious and infection-associated (n=47), immune-mediated (n=36) and unknown (n=33). EEG features were analyzed between groups and for risk of abnormal Liverpool Outcome Score and drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) at last follow up...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422743/long-term-outcomes-of-infective-encephalitis-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Gulam Khandaker, Jenny Jung, Philip N Britton, Catherine King, J Kevin Yin, Cheryl A Jones
AIM: The long-term outcomes of childhood infective encephalitis are variable and not well quantified. We aimed to systematically review the literature and undertake meta-analyses on predetermined outcomes to address this knowledge gap and identify areas for future research. METHOD: We searched electronic databases, performed complementary reviews of references of fully extracted articles, and made contact with experts on infective encephalitis. Articles published up until April 2016 were selected for screening...
November 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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