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Guidelines in children's

Maria Celeste Buompadre, Kathleen Andres, Lee-Anne Slater, Hadi Mohseni-Bod, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Helen Branson, Suzanne Laughlin, Derek Armstrong, Mahendranath Moharir, Gabrielle deVeber, Tilman Humpl, Osami Honjo, Shaf Keshavjee, Rebecca Ichord, Vitor Pereira, Nomazulu Dlamini
The updated American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines include recommendation for thrombectomy in certain adult stroke cases. The safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children are unknown. An 8-year-old girl experienced acute stroke symptoms on two occasions while therapeutically anticoagulated on Novalung. Computed tomography scans showed proximal vessel thrombi, which were retrieved using a Trevo device without hemorrhagic complications. Postprocedural assessment found respective decreases in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score from 10 to 4 and 12 to 7...
September 14, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Gabriela Albuquerque, Milton Severo, Andreia Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Koen Huysentruyt, Jean De Schepper, Patrick Bontems, Philippe Alliet, Ellen Peeters, Mathieu Roelants, Stephanie Van Biervliet, Bruno Hauser, Yvan Vandenplas
The prevalence of disease-related undernutrition in hospitalized children has not decreased significantly in the last decades in Europe. A recent large multicentric European study reported a percentage of underweight children ranging across countries from 4.0% to 9.3%. Nutritional screening has been put forward as a strategy to detect and prevent undernutrition in hospitalized children. It allows timely implementation of adequate nutritional support and prevents further nutritional deterioration of hospitalized children...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Daniel T Goon, Constance A Nsibambi, Milton Chebet
BACKGROUND: Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Derek Richards
Data sourcesPubMed Central, CINAHL, Embase and reference lists of identified articles.Study selectionObservational and experimental studies published in English where breastfeeding was the exposure and development of caries was the outcome of interest were considered. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusionData extraction and synthesisStudy quality was assessed independently by two researchers using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Key data items, exposure and outcome definitions and effect estimates (odds ratios (OR), relative risks, prevalence ratios) with 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were abstracted where available for inclusion in a meta-analysis...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Matteo Bonini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease and represents a relevant socioeconomic burden. e-Health has the potential to improve disease control and adherence to treatment in asthmatic patients. Available data are, however, scarce and inconsistent limiting the use of e-health in clinical practice. This article aims to provide a systematic review of the literature published in the last year regarding the real place and impact of e-health in the management of asthma...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Ahmet Özen, Perran Boran, Fatih Torlak, Elif Karakoç-Aydıner, Safa Barış, Melda Karavuş, Işıl Barlan
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases with a potential for anaphylaxis pose a critical public health issue in schools. AIMS: This study was carried out to identify the current status of prevention and management of anaphylaxis in school children with the main goal of establishing such an action plan. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Schools were randomly selected from 11 different regions of Istanbul. A questionnaire was filled out by 2596 teachers/school principals from 232 public schools...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Denis Valle, Justin Millar, Punam Amratia
BACKGROUND: Considerable debate has arisen regarding the appropriateness of the test and treat malaria policy broadly recommended by the World Health Organization. While presumptive treatment has important drawbacks, the effectiveness of the test and treat policy can vary considerably across regions, depending on several factors such as baseline malaria prevalence and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) performance. METHODS: To compare presumptive treatment with test and treat, generalized linear mixed effects models were fitted to data from 6510 children under five years of age from Burkina Faso's 2010 Demographic and Health Survey...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
C Mantegazza, F Angiero, G V Zuccotti
Alterations of the oral cavity are common in children: 22% of children aged less than 4 years and 44% of those aged more than 12 develop dental erosion, 9-95% of children in Europe and in North America develop gingivitis, with adolescents showing a prevalence of more than 60% [Italian Ministry of Health, Guidelines 2013]. Alterations within the oral cavity can be the first sign of systemic diseases and may thus allow for an early diagnosis and treatment. In particular, being the oral cavity a part of the gastrointestinal system, oral alterations can be an expression of a gastrointestinal disease...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Allison Redpath Mahon, Alicia M Neu
Peritonitis is a leading cause of hospitalizations, morbidity, and modality change in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. Despite guidelines published by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis aimed at reducing the risk of peritonitis, registry data have revealed significant variability in peritonitis rates among centers caring for children on CPD, which suggests variability in practice. Improvement science methods have been used to reduce a variety of healthcare-associated infections and are also being applied successfully to decrease rates of peritonitis in children...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Beatrice I Amboko, Philip Ayieko, Morris Ogero, Thomas Julius, Grace Irimu, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Takele Kefyalew, Zelalem Kebede, Dawit Getachew, David Mukanga, Tessema Awano, Agonafer Tekalegne, Esey Batisso, Wasihun Edossa, Emebet Mekonnen, James Tibenderana, Ebenezer Sheshi Baba, Constance Shumba, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prudence Hamade
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Fei Hu, Jiayan Zhang, Shupeng Shi, Zhang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Febrile illness in young children usually indicates an underlying infection and is a cause of concern for parents and carers. It is very important that healthcare professionals know how to recognize fever, assess children with fever, treat children with fever and role of nurses and parents. This paper outlines a best practice implementation project on the management of fever in children in an emergency department. OBJECTIVES: To audit current practice of fever management for children in an emergency department and to implement strategies to standardize pediatric fever management based on evidence-based practice guidelines...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
James Lee Pace
Pediatric and adolescent forearm fractures continue to present treatment challenges. Despite high-level evidence to the contrary, traditional guidelines for nonsurgical treatment have been challenged in favor of surgical intervention, but it is unclear if this results in improved outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that certain open fractures in children may be successfully treated nonsurgically. Good results have been achieved with closed reduction and appropriate casting and clinical follow-up. Further research investigating functional outcomes into adulthood is needed...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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