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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931240/influenza-like-illness-incidence-is-not-reduced-by-influenza-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-adults-despite-effectively-reducing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-virus-infections
#1
Josine van Beek, Reinier H Veenhoven, Jacob P Bruin, Renée A J van Boxtel, Marit M A de Lange, Adam Meijer, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots, Willem Luytjes
Background: Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Netherlands during 2 winters. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected during influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes and from controls. Viruses and bacteria were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and conventional bacterial culture...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931236/a-molecular-assay-to-quantify-male-and-female-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes-results-from-2-randomized-controlled-trials-using-primaquine-for-gametocyte-clearance
#2
Will Stone, Patrick Sawa, Kjerstin Lanke, Sanna Rijpma, Robin Oriango, Maureen Nyaurah, Paul Osodo, Victor Osoti, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Halimatou Diawara, Rob Woestenenk, Wouter Graumans, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, John Bradley, Ingrid Chen, Joelle Brown, Giulia Siciliano, Pietro Alano, Roly Gosling, Alassane Dicko, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
Background: Single low-dose primaquine (PQ) reduces Plasmodium falciparum infectivity before it impacts gametocyte density. Here, we examined the effect of PQ on gametocyte sex ratio as a possible explanation for this early sterilizing effect. Methods: Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to quantify female gametocytes (targeting Pfs25 messenger RNA [mRNA]) and male gametocytes (targeting Pf3D7_1469900 mRNA) in 2 randomized trials in Kenya and Mali, comparing dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) alone to DP with PQ...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931218/aberrant-humoral-immune-responses-in-neurosyphilis-cxcl13-cxcr5-play-a-pivotal-role-for-b-cell-recruitment-to-the-cerebrospinal-fluid
#3
Qian Yu, Yuanyuan Cheng, Yuanyuan Wang, Cuini Wang, Haikong Lu, Zhifang Guan, Jian Huang, Weiming Gong, Mei Shi, Liyan Ni, Juan Wu, Ruirui Peng, Pingyu Zhou
Background: Previous studies documented that humoral immune responses participated in neurological damage in neurosyphilis patients. However, the mechanisms that trigger and maintain humoral immunity involved in neurosyphilis remain unknown. Methods: Using flow cytometry, expression of B cells was measured in neurosyphilis and non-neurosyphilis. Expression of immunoglobulin indices and chemokine ligand CXCL13 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The migration and inhibition assays were evaluated by modified chamber assays...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931211/mir-337-3p-promotes-chondrocytes-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-regulating-pten-akt-axis-in-osteoarthritis
#4
Zhihui Huang, Naidong Zhang, Wenming Ma, Xiaoyu Dai, Jinbo Liu
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of articular cartilage and its main pathological feature is cartilage destruction, but its specific pathogenesis is still debatable. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miR-337-3p in OA pathogenesis. METHODS: The expression of miR-337-3p and PTEN in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues was detected using quantitative real time PCR and western blot, respectively. The regulation of miR-337-3p on PTEN was examined by luciferase reporter gene assays...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931210/long-noncoding-rna-pcat-1-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-via-the-mir-129-5p-hmgb1-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Deyuan Zhang, Jinyu Cao, Qingling Zhong, Liangtao Zeng, Chang Cai, Lang Lei, Wen Zhang, Fanrong Liu
OBJECTIVE: The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) prostate cancer-associated transcript 1(PCAT-1) has been shown to be dysregulated and exert vital roles in tumorigenesis and progression of various malignancies. However, the precise molecular mechanism in the metastasis and invasion of HCC remain unclear. METHODS: The expression levels of PCAT1 derived from human HCC tissues and cell lines were analyzed through quantitative real-time PCR. QRT-PCR was also applied to detect the expression of HMGB1 and miR-129-5p...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931179/evaluation-of-the-interference-of-hemoglobin-variant-j-bangkok-on-glycated-hemoglobin-hba1c-measurement-by-five-different-methods
#6
Dong-Mei Wen, Sheng-Nan Xu, Wei-Jia Wang, Xiu-Ming Zhang, Ming-Huan Suo, De-Cai Zhang
Objective The interference of the hemoglobin variant (Hb J-Bangkok) was evaluated on 4 different glycated hemoglobin assays and compared with a reference immuno assay. Methods An overall test of coincidence of 2 least-squares linear regression lines was performed to determine whether the presence of Hb J-Bangkok caused a statistically significant difference in HbA1c results compared with a reference immuno assay. Statistical analysis was performed on the difference of the estimated average glucose calculated from HbA1c values and fasting plasma glucose in the Hb J-Bangkok variant group using the different detection systems...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931163/influence-of-quercetin-in-the-temporal-regulation-of-redox-homeostasis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Perumal Subramanian, Kanimozhi Kaliyamoorthy, Jaime Jacqueline Jayapalan, Puteri Shafinaz Abdul-Rahman, Onn Haji Hashim
Numerous biological processes are governed by the biological clock. Studies using Drosophila melanogaster (L.) are valuable that could be of importance for their effective applications on rodent studies. In this study, the beneficial role of quercetin (a flavonoid) on H2O2 induced stress in D. melanogaster was investigated. D. melanogaster flies were divided into four groups (group I - control, group II - H2O2 (acute exposure), group III - quercetin, and group IV - quercetin + H2O2 treated). Negative geotaxis assay, oxidative stress indicators (protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS]), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione-S-transferase [GST], glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione [GSH]) were measured at 4 h intervals over 24 h and temporal expression of heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), Upd1 (homolog of IL-6 in Drosophila), and nitric oxide synthase (Nos) was analyzed by Western blotting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931085/hcv-induced-autophagosomes-are-generated-via-homotypic-fusion-of-phagophores-that-mediate-hcv-rna-replication
#8
Linya Wang, Ja Yeon Kim, Helene Minyi Liu, Michael M C Lai, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7)...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931042/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-the-bithionol-paclitaxel-combination-in-a-panel-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Vijayalakshmi N Ayyagari, Paula L Diaz-Sylvester, Tsung-Han Jeff Hsieh, Laurent Brard
Previously, Bithionol (BT) was shown to enhance the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to cisplatin treatment. In the present study, we focused on the anti-tumor potential of the BT-paclitaxel combination when added to a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. This in vitro study aimed to 1) determine the optimum schedule for combination of BT and paclitaxel and 2) assess the nature and mechanism(s) underlying BT-paclitaxel interactions. The cytotoxic effects of both drugs either alone or in combination were assessed by presto-blue cell viability assay using six human ovarian cancer cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931021/zoonotic-infection-of-brazilian-primate-workers-with-new-world-simian-foamy-virus
#10
Cláudia P Muniz, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Hongwei Jia, HaoQiang Zheng, Shaohua Tang, Anderson M Augusto, Alcides Pissinatti, Luiz P Fedullo, André F Santos, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Plasma from these workers was tested using Western blot (WB) assays containing NWP SFV antigens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931018/pyrethroid-resistance-alters-the-blood-feeding-behavior-in-puerto-rican-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-exposed-to-treated-fabric
#11
Natasha M Agramonte, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier
Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control. It decreases the effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has been documented in Puerto Rican populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In this study, topical toxicity of five insecticides (permethrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, DDT, transfluthrin) was determined for susceptible (Orlando-ORL) and resistant (Puerto Rico-PR) strains of Ae...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931009/ndfip-allows-nedd4-nedd4l-induced-aqp2-ubiquitination-and-degradation
#12
Christiane Trimpert, Daniel Wesche, Theun de Groot, Martha M Pimentel Rodriguez, Victoria Wong, Dennis T M van den Berg, Lydie Cheval, Carolina A Ariza, Alain Doucet, Igor Stagljar, Peter M T Deen
Regulation of our water homeostasis is fine-tuned by dynamic translocation of Aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-bearing vesicles to and from the plasma membrane of renal principal cells. Whereas binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor initiates a cAMP-protein kinase A cascade and AQP2 translocation to the apical membrane, this is counteracted by protein kinase C-activating hormones, resulting in ubiquitination-dependent internalization of AQP2. The proteins targeting AQP2 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931001/an-automated-rapid-iterative-negative-geotaxis-assay-for-analyzing-adult-climbing-behavior-in-a-drosophila-model-of-neurodegeneration
#13
Wenze Cao, Li Song, Jingjing Cheng, Na Yi, Luyi Cai, Fu-de Huang, Margaret Ho
Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with a progressive loss of movement ability, reduced life span, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. To understand the mechanism of these cellular events, and their causal relationships with each other, Drosophila melanogaster, with its sophisticated genetic tools and diverse behavioral features, are used as disease models for assessing neurodegenerative phenotypes. Here we describe a high-throughput method to analyze Drosophila adult negative geotaxis behavior, as an indication for possible motor defects associated with neurodegeneration...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930996/assessment-of-the-anticoagulant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-endothelial-cells-using-3d-cell-culture-and-non-anticoagulated-whole-blood
#14
Riccardo Sfriso, Anjan Bongoni, Yara Banz, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, Robert Rieben
In vivo, endothelial cells are crucial for the natural anticoagulation of circulating blood. Consequently, endothelial cell activation leads to blood coagulation. This phenomenon is observed in many clinical situations, like organ transplantation in the presence of pre-formed anti-donor antibodies, including xenotransplantation, as well as in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In order to reduce animal experimentation according to the 3R standards (reduction, replacement and refinement), in vitro models to study the effect of endothelial cell activation on blood coagulation would be highly desirable...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930994/measuring-in-vivo-changes-in-extracellular-neurotransmitters-during-naturally-rewarding-behaviors-in-female-syrian-hamsters
#15
Kelsey M Moore, Brett T Himmler, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Matthew D Johnson, Robert L Meisel
The ability to measure neurotransmitter release on a rapid time scale allows patterns of neurotransmission to be linked to specific behaviors or manipulations; a powerful tool in elucidating underlying mechanisms and circuitry. While the technique of microdialysis has been used for decades to measure nearly any analyte of interest in the brain, this technique is limited in temporal resolution. Alternatively, fast scan cyclic voltammetry is both temporally precise and extremely sensitive; however, because this technically difficult method relies on the electroactivity of the analyte of interest, the possibility to detect nonelectroactive substances (e...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#16
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930983/personalized-peptide-arrays-for-detection-of-hla-alloantibodies-in-organ-transplantation
#18
Pan Liu, Tomokazu Souma, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Xueying Xie, Xunrong Luo, Jing Jin
In organ transplantation, the function and longevity of the graft critically rely on the success of controlling immunological rejection reactivity against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Histocompatibility guidelines are based on laboratory tests of anti-HLA immunity, which presents either as pre-existing or de novo generated HLA antibodies that constitute a major transplantation barrier. Current tests are built on a single-antigen beads (SAB) platform using a fixed set of ~100 preselected recombinant HLA antigens to probe transplant sera...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930978/influenza-a-virus-studies-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#19
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930974/procedure-and-key-optimization-strategies-for-an-automated-capillary-electrophoretic-based-immunoassay-method
#20
Gail M Nelson, Jenna M Guynn, Brian N Chorley
New technologies that utilize capillary-based immunoassays promise faster and more quantitative protein assessment compared to traditional immunoassays. However, similar to other antibody-based protein assays, optimization of capillary-based immunoassay parameters, such as protein concentration, antibody dilution, and exposure time is an important prerequisite to the generation of meaningful and reliable data. Measurements must fall within the linear range of the assay where changes in signal are directly proportional to changes in lysate concentration...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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