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Carrie D Patnode, Michelle L Henninger, Caitlyn A Senger, Leslie A Perdue, Evelyn P Whitlock
Importance: Although 80% of infants in the United States start breastfeeding, only 22% are exclusively breastfed up to around 6 months as recommended by a number of professional organizations. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of breastfeeding interventions to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 2008 recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO for studies published in the English language between January 1, 2008, and September 25, 2015...
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rafael Dal-Ré
-The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has published a draft proposal on de-identified individual clinical trial participant data (IPD) sharing, stating that sharing trial data requires planning to ensure appropriate research ethics committee approval and participants' informed consent. This is why its implementation will be deferred for one year after the publication of the final version of the policy. -When conducting research with anonymous data it is not feasible to obtain the informed consent from research participants...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Maurice Mars, Richard E Scott
: Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction. METHODS: Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct and IEE Expert databases were searched using the search term WhatsApp and Google Scholar using the terms WhatsApp Telemedicine and WhatsApp mHealth...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Tatiana Ermakova, Benjamin Fabian, Rüdiger Zarnekow
BACKGROUND: Cloud computing promises to essentially improve healthcare delivery performance. However, shifting sensitive medical records to third-party cloud providers could create an adoption hurdle because of security and privacy concerns. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the effect of confidentiality assurance in a cloud-computing environment on individuals' willingness to accept the infrastructure for inter-organizational sharing of medical data. METHODS: We empirically investigate our research question by a survey with over 260 full responses...
October 26, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Jane Koziol-McLain, Christine McLean, Maheswaran Rohan, Rose Sisk, Terry Dobbs, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Denise Wilson, Alain C Vandal
BACKGROUND: Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Li Liang, Qing Zhang, Liu-Lin Luo, Jun Yue, Yan-Lin Zhao, Min Han, Li-Rong Liu, He-Ping Xiao
OBJECTIVES: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important lipid mediator of the inflammatory immune response during acute and chronic infections. PGE2 modulates a variety of immune functions via four receptors (EP1-EP4), which mediate distinct PGE2 effects. Mice lacking EP2 are more susceptible to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), have a higher bacterial load, and increase size and number of granulomatous lesions. Our aim was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EP2 increase the risk of tuberculosis...
October 22, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Allison P Anderson, Abigail M Fellows, Kim A Binsted, Mark T Hegel, Jay C Buckey
INTRODUCTION: Living in an isolated, confined environment (ICE) can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICEs because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) III expedition...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jalayne J Arias, Genevieve Pham-Kanter, Rosa Gonzalez, Eric G Campbell
Recent policies and proposed regulations, including the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the Common Rule and the 2014 NIH Genetic Data Sharing Policy, seek to improve research subject protections. Protections for subjects whose genetic data is shared are critical to reduce risks such as loss of confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. In the article 'It depends whose data are being shared: considerations for genomic data sharing policies', Robinson et al. provide a response to our article, 'The Growth and Gaps of Genetic Data Sharing Policies'...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Nicole K Smith, Kelly Cleland, Brandon Wagner, James Trussell
OBJECTIVES: This study describes women's reasons for seeking ulipristal acetate (UPA) for emergency contraception (EC) through the only authorized online retailer for UPA EC in the US. STUDY DESIGN: Women aged 14 to 59 years, living in states that allow prescription medications to be shipped from out-of-state, accessed the KwikMed online pharmacy between January 2011 and December 2015. After completing a medical eligibility screener, women answered optional multiple-choice questions...
October 18, 2016: Contraception
Gregory A Schmidt, Timothy D Girard, John P Kress, Peter E Morris, Daniel R Ouellette, Waleed Alhazzani, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Jonathon D Truwit
BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rowan Forbes Shepherd, Tamara Kayali Browne, Linda Warwick
Ethical issues arise for genetic counselors when a client fails to disclose a genetic diagnosis of hereditary disease to family: they must consider the rights of the individual client to privacy and confidentiality as well as the rights of the family to know their genetic risk. Although considerable work has addressed issues of non-disclosure from the client's perspective, there is a lack of qualitative research into how genetic counselors address this issue in practice. In this study, a qualitative approach was taken to investigate whether genetic counselors in Australia use a relational approach to encourage the disclosure of genetic information from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) clients among family members; and if so, how they use it...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Harriet Mortimer, Haytham Kubba
The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death recently conducted a large, robust study investigating tracheostomy care for patients in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. They found up to 31% of tracheostomy patients experience a complication at some stage in their care, many of which were serious. This study aims to explore the nature of adverse events and complications affecting tracheostomy patients across the diverse hospitals of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) including both adult and paediatric populations over a 6-year period between 2008 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Haera Han, Hochang B Lee, Joseph J Gallo, Jin Hui Joo
OBJECTIVE: Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. METHODS: As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Qingyan Ma, Lai Sze Tso, Zachary C Rich, Brian J Hall, Rachel Beanland, Haochu Li, Mellanye Lackey, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. METHODS: We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Judi Kidger, Rhiannon Evans, Kate Tilling, William Hollingworth, Rona Campbell, Tamsin Ford, Simon Murphy, Ricardo Araya, Richard Morris, Bryar Kadir, Aida Moure Fernandez, Sarah Bell, Sarah Harding, Rowan Brockman, Jill Grey, David Gunnell
BACKGROUND: Teachers are reported to be at increased risk of common mental health disorders compared to other occupations. Failure to support teachers adequately may lead to serious long-term mental disorders, poor performance at work (presenteeism), sickness absence and health-related exit from the profession. It also jeopardises student mental health, as distressed staff struggle to develop supportive relationships with students, and such relationships are protective against student depression...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Jason Reich, Ling Guo, Julia Hall, Ashley Tran, Janice Weinberg, Jacob Groshek, Tanya E Rowell, Jack A DiPalma, Francis A Farraye
BACKGROUND: With the recent increase in the use of social media, patients with chronic illnesses are using the Internet as a resource for disease management. As the peak incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occurs in patients between the ages of 15 and 30, IBD is a suitable condition to study social media use. The aim of this study was to assess social media usage and preferences in patients with IBD. METHODS: We administered a survey to 118 patients with IBD at our outpatient practice at the Boston Medical Center (BMC), Center for Digestive Disorders, and the University of Southern Alabama (USA) between November 1, 2015, and March 9, 2016...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jong Hyun Jhee, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Su-Young Jung, Youn Kyung Kee, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang
OBJECTIVE: The object of this study is to investigate optimal BP target and adequate management of BP in prevalent dialysis patients group. DESIGN AND METHOD: The data were retrieved from End-stage Renal Disease-Clinical Research Center (ESRD-CRC) which dialysis patients were prospectively enrolled from 2009 to 2014. Total 2,299 prevalent dialysis patients were analyzed. Eligible patients were assigned to four groups according to distribution of systolic BP (SBP, group as SBP <120, 120-140, 140-160, and >160 mmHg, respectively)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jung Yoon, Seung Gyu Yun, Jeeyong Kim, Yoo Na Jung, Young Eun Koh, Jeong Hun Nam, Eun Taek Han, Chae Seung Lim
We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of the LH780 Coulter blood cell counter for detection and therapeutic monitoring of malaria including cross-reactivity with nucleated RBC (NRBC) samples. A total of 405 patients (43 patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria and the control group of 120 healthy subjects, 111 patients with fever, and 131 patients with NRBCs) were analyzed with routine CBC using the LH780. We analyzed the CBC results according to three selected parameters: an abnormal peak in the WBC histogram before 35fL, the presence of red dots in the nonwhite cell zone of 2D WBC Diff Dataplot, and platelet-related flags suggesting platelet clumps or giant platelets...
October 14, 2016: Acta Tropica
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