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Xiang-Yu Zou, Yongjiang Yu, Sihao Lin, Liang Zhong, Jie Sun, Guangyuan Zhang, Yingjian Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in the tissue-specific repair of many different organs, especially the kidney. Their effects are primarily mediated by the paracrine release of factors including extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are composed of micro-vesicles and exosomes. The corresponding microRNAs (miRNAs) of EVs are considered important for their biological functions. METHODS: MSCs were cultured from the human umbilical cord, and EVs were isolated from the medium...
February 8, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Xia-Bing Lang, Yi Yang, Ju-Rong Yang, Jian-Xin Wan, Sheng-Qiang Yu, Jiong Cui, Xiao-Jing Tang, Jianghua Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A lack of baseline serum creatinine (SCr) data leads to underestimation of the burden caused by acute kidney injury (AKI) in developing countries. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of various baseline SCr analysis methods on the current diagnosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Patients with at least one SCr value during their hospital stay between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively included in the study...
February 8, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Veronica D Gonzalez, Nikolay Samusik, Tiffany J Chen, Erica S Savig, Nima Aghaeepour, David A Quigley, Ying-Wen Huang, Valeria Giangarrà, Alexander D Borowsky, Neil E Hubbard, Shih-Yu Chen, Guojun Han, Alan Ashworth, Thomas J Kipps, Jonathan S Berek, Garry P Nolan, Wendy J Fantl
We have performed an in-depth single-cell phenotypic characterization of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by multiparametric mass cytometry (CyTOF). Using a CyTOF antibody panel to interrogate features of HGSOC biology, combined with unsupervised computational analysis, we identified noteworthy cell types co-occurring across the tumors. In addition to a dominant cell subset, each tumor harbored rarer cell phenotypes. One such group co-expressed E-cadherin and vimentin (EV), suggesting their potential role in epithelial mesenchymal transition, which was substantiated by pairwise correlation analyses...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Young D Kwon, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Baoshan Zhang, Robert T Bailer, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Tatyana S Gindin, Bob Lin, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Amarendra Pegu, Stephen D Schmidt, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Xuejun Chen, Misook Choe, Ivelin S Georgiev, Vivian Jin, Marie Pancera, Reda Rawi, Keyun Wang, Rajoshi Chaudhuri, Lisa A Kueltzo, Slobodanka D Manceva, John-Paul Todd, Diana G Scorpio, Mikyung Kim, Ellis L Reinherz, Kshitij Wagh, Bette M Korber, Mark Connors, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Highly effective HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies could have utility in the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection. To improve the potency of 10E8, an antibody capable of near pan-HIV-1 neutralization, we engineered 10E8-surface mutants and screened for improved neutralization. Variants with the largest functional enhancements involved the addition of hydrophobic or positively charged residues, which were positioned to interact with viral membrane lipids or viral glycan-sialic acids, respectively. In both cases, the site of improvement was spatially separated from the region of antibody mediating molecular contact with the protein component of the antigen, thereby improving peripheral semi-specific interactions while maintaining unmodified dominant contacts responsible for broad recognition...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Ankit X Sharma, Ezekiel B Quittner-Strom, Young Lee, Joshua A Johnson, Sarah A Martin, Xinxin Yu, Jianping Li, John Lu, Zheqing Cai, Shiuhwei Chen, May-Yun Wang, Yiyi Zhang, Mackenzie J Pearson, Andie C Dorn, Jeffrey G McDonald, Ruth Gordillo, Hai Yan, Dung Thai, Zhao V Wang, Roger H Unger, William L Holland
The antidiabetic potential of glucagon receptor antagonism presents an opportunity for use in an insulin-centric clinical environment. To investigate the metabolic effects of glucagon receptor antagonism in type 2 diabetes, we treated Leprdb/dband Lepob/obmice with REMD 2.59, a human monoclonal antibody and competitive antagonist of the glucagon receptor. As expected, REMD 2.59 suppresses hepatic glucose production and improves glycemia. Surprisingly, it also enhances insulin action in both liver and skeletal muscle, coinciding with an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated lipid oxidation...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Xiaobin Lin, Yu Tang, Wei Yang, Fei Tan, Lili Lin, Xiaohua Liu, Xiaoming Feng
Although high enantioselectivity of [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfonium ylides (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) has proven surprisingly elusive using classic chiral Rh(II) and Cu(I) catalysts, in principle it is due to the difficulty in fine discrimination of the heterotopic lone pairs of sulfur and chirality inversion at sulfur of sulfonium ylides. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of new α-diazo pyrazoleamides and chiral N,N'-dioxide-nickel(II) complex catalyst enables a highly enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xue Feng, Chen Weng, Tianying Wei, JunhuiSun, Feijin Huang, Ping Yu, Ming Qi
Hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is an inherited disorder and generally characterized by the diminution or absence of eccrine sweat glands, oligodontia, peg shaped teeth, and sparse hair.1X-linked Hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most frequent inheritance patterns, though in some cases autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns were also reported.2,34 genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD and WNT10A) account for more than 90% of HED cases and the mutations in Ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene are the most prevalent (58%)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Bing Tang, Yunhu Song, Hao Cui, Keshan Ji, Qinjun Yu, Changsheng Zhu, Shihua Zhao, Shuiyun Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the impact of morphological type on the prognosis of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients who underwent myectomy. METHODS: We recruited 469 obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients refractory to medicinal treatment who have undergone surgical myectomy at a nationwide referral centre. All patients were divided into 3 groups based on the morphological classification of left ventricular hypertrophy and were followed up by telephone every year...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne
Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset. Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Usman Iqbal, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Etai Sapoznik, Guoguang Niu, Yu Zhou, Peter M Prim, Tracy L Criswell, Shay Soker
Real-time, quantitative measurement of muscle progenitor cell (myoblast) differentiation is an important tool for skeletal muscle research and identification of drugs that support skeletal muscle regeneration. While most quantitative tools rely on sacrificial approach, we developed a double fluorescent tagging approach, which allows for dynamic monitoring of myoblast differentiation through assessment of fusion index and nuclei count. Fluorescent tagging of both the cell cytoplasm and nucleus enables monitoring of cell fusion and the formation of new myotube fibers, similar to immunostaining results...
2018: PloS One
Ka-Won Kang, Se Ryeon Lee, Dae Sik Kim, Eun Sang Yu, Hwa Jung Sung, Seok Jin Kim, Chul Won Choi, Yong Park, Byung Soo Kim
Surveillance computed tomography (CT) is usual practice for patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL) in complete remission (CR). However, evidence to support this strategy is lacking. We retrospectively analyzed our institutional lymphoma registry, including patients with lymphoma consecutively enrolled from June 1995 to October 2016. Of 1,385 patients with aNHL, 664 achieved CR and were followed up with or without surveillance CT. Surveillance CT was performed for 609 patients every 3 or 6 months for the first 2 years, then every 6 or 12 months thereafter...
2018: PloS One
Dong-Yu Liang, Wei Huang, Qing Chang, Yan-Qiang Hou
Evidence has shown that most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TRAIL-mediated apoptosis resistance are not well understood. In this study, we reported that downregulation of Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression by lentiviral vectors carrying shRNA against DcR3 (LV-ShDcR3, shDcR3) in Huh7 both greatly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation capability...
2018: PloS One
Lin Li, Katherine Petsch, Rena Shimizu, Sanzhen Liu, Wayne Wenzhong Xu, Kai Ying, Jianming Yu, Michael J Scanlon, Patrick S Schnable, Marja C P Timmermans, Nathan M Springer, Gary J Muehlbauer
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003202.].
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
Md Imran Khan, Yu-Kai Su, Jinhao Zou, Lee-Wei Yang, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Chin Yu
Ca2+-binding human S100A1 protein is a type of S100 protein. S100A1 is a significant mediator during inflammation when Ca2+ binds to its EF-hand motifs. Receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) correspond to 5 domains: the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, C2, C1, and V domains. The V domain of RAGE is one of the most important target proteins for S100A1. It binds to the hydrophobic surface and triggers signaling transduction cascades that induce cell growth, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the interaction between S100A1 and the RAGE V domain...
2018: PloS One
Xuebing Zhang, Yu Liu, Zizheng Cao, Fan Li, Zhaohui Li, R Ismaeel, G Brambilla, Y Chen, A M J Koonen
Indoor optical wireless communication with optical beamsteering capability is currently attracting a lot of attention. One major two-dimensional (2D) optical beamsteering scheme is realized by 2D grating or its active counterpart, which is usually based on a spatial light modulator (SLM). However, there is a fundamental trade-off between the field of view (FoV) and power efficiency due to the inherent feature of gratings. In this Letter, we propose a new class of 2D beamsteering, named cyclically arranged optical beamsteering (CAO-BS), which can break that trade-off...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Lac Nguyen, Patrick Rehain, Yong Meng Sua, Yu-Ping Huang
We demonstrate a viable source of unbiased quantum random numbers whose statistical properties can be arbitrarily programmed without the need for any postprocessing such as randomness distillation or distribution transformation. It is based on measuring the arrival time of single photons in shaped temporal modes that are tailored with an electro-optical modulator. We show that quantum random numbers can be created directly in customized probability distributions and pass all randomness tests of the NIST and Dieharder test suites without any randomness extraction...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Dagmawi A Bekele, Yi Yu, Hao Hu, Pengyu Guan, Luisa Ottaviano, Michael Galili, Leif Katsuo Oxenløwe, Kresten Yvind, Jesper Mork
We experimentally demonstrate the use of a photonic crystal Fano resonance for carving-out short pulses from long-duration input pulses. This is achieved by exploiting an asymmetric Fano resonance combined with carrier-induced nonlinear effects in a photonic crystal membrane structure. The use of a nanocavity concentrates the input field to a very small volume leading to an efficient nonlinear resonance shift that carves a short pulse out of the input pulse. Here, we demonstrate shortening of ∼500  ps and ∼100  ps long pulses to ∼30  ps and ∼20  ps pulses, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
S S Fedotov, A G Okhrimchuk, A S Lipatiev, A A Stepko, K I Piyanzina, G Yu Shakhgildyan, M Yu Presniakov, I S Glebov, S V Lotarev, V N Sigaev
We have found that a single sub-microsecond burst of femtosecond laser pulses produces a sub-micrometer cavity possessing the homogeneous birefringence with slow-axis orientation perpendicular to polarization of the laser beam in high-silicate nanoporous glass. Retardance and the root mean square of slow-axis orientation are investigated in dependence on the energy and the number of pulses in the burst. A burst of just three pulses with 98 ns inter-pulse intervals has been shown to induce homogeneous birefringence, and a burst of four pulses has provided birefringence with retardance of 35 nm, which is sufficient for reliable readout of the information recorded with multilevel encoding in slow-axis orientation...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Wei-Lun Tsai, Melissa R McHale, Viniece Jennings, Oriol Marquet, J Aaron Hipp, Yu-Fai Leung, Myron F Floyd
Urbanization increases risk for depression and other mental disorders. A growing body of research indicates the natural environment confers numerous psychological benefits including alleviation of mental distress. This study examined land cover types and landscape metrics in relation to mental health for 276 U.S. counties within metropolitan areas having a population of 1 million or more. County Health Rankings and Behavioral Risk and Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided a measure of mental health. The 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provided data on green land cover types, from which seven landscape metrics were generated to characterize landscape patterns...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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