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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235431/using-targeted-solution-tools-as-an-initiative-to-improve-hand-hygiene-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#1
J A Al-Tawfiq, M Treble, R Abdrabalnabi, C Okeahialam, S Khazindar, S Myers
The Joint Commission Centre for Transforming Healthcare's Web-based Targeted Solutions Tool (TST) for improving hand hygiene was implemented to elucidate contributing factors to low compliance rates of hand hygiene. Monitoring of compliance was done by trained unknown and known observers and rates of hospital-acquired infections were tracked and correlated against the changes in hand hygiene compliance. In total, 5669 of hand hygiene observations were recorded by the secret observers. The compliance rate increased from 75·4% at baseline (May-August 2014) to 88·6% during the intervention (13 months) and the control periods (P < 0·0001)...
December 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235129/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-signalling-pathway-with-the-risk-and-severity-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-in-chinese-han-population
#2
Ya-Ping Li, Mei Li, Xiao-Li Jia, Hui-Ling Deng, Wen-Jun Wang, Feng-Ping Wu, Jun Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Host immune response is a factor that influences disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated the potential association of gene polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway with the risk and severity of EV71 infection. A total of 180 EV71 HFMD cases (108 severe case; 72 mild cases) were enrolled. A group of 201 sex- and age-matched children was included as a control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234001/revisiting-unexploited-antibiotics-in-search-of-new-antibacterial-drug-candidates-the-case-of-%C3%AE-actinorhodin
#3
Nada M Nass, Sannia Farooque, Charlotte Hind, Matthew E Wand, Christopher P Randall, J Mark Sutton, Ryan F Seipke, Christopher M Rayner, Alex J O'Neill
Of the thousands of natural product antibiotics discovered to date, only a handful have been developed for the treatment of bacterial infection. The clinically unexploited majority likely include compounds with untapped potential as antibacterial drugs, and in view of the ever-growing unmet medical need for such agents, warrant systematic re-evaluation. Here we revisit the actinorhodins, a class that was first reported 70 years ago, but which remains poorly characterized. We show that γ-actinorhodin possesses many of the requisite properties of an antibacterial drug, displaying potent and selective bactericidal activity against key Gram-positive pathogens (including Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci), a mode of action distinct from that of other agents in clinical use, an extremely low potential for the development of resistance, and a degree of in vivo efficacy in an invertebrate model of infection...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233744/a-flavonoid-compound-library-screen-revealed-potent-antiviral-activity-of-plant-derived-flavonoids-on-human-enterovirus-a71-replication
#4
Nyo Min, Leong Pok Thim, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Jeffery Seng Eng Khuan, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), resulting from human enterovirus A71 (HEVA71) infection can cause severe neurological complications leading to fatality in young children. Currently, there is no approved antiviral for therapeutic treatment against HEVA71 infection. In this study, a 500-compound flavonoid library was screened to identify potential inhibitors of HEVA71 using high-throughput immunofluorescence-based phenotypic screening method. Two lead flavonoid compounds, ST077124 and ST024734 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 50 μM were found to be effective antivirals that inhibited replication of HEVA71, reducing infectious viral titers by 3...
December 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233507/bleeding-on-the-cutting-edge-a-systematic-review-of-anticoagulant-and-antiplatelet-continuation-in-minor-cutaneous-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Isted, Lilli Cooper, R James Colville
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant and antiplatelet (AC/AP) use is common and practice surrounding AC/AP continuation or cessation peri-operatively for minor cutaneous surgery lacks evidence-based consensus. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risks of haemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications associated with the continuation or cessation of AC/AP therapy in minor cutaneous surgery. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL, to identify all articles involving the use of AC/AP in patients undergoing minor cutaneous surgery, including skin grafts and local flaps...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232589/peptides-having-antimicrobial-activity-and-their-complexes-with-transition-metal-ions
#6
REVIEW
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232419/mycobacterium-marinum-remains-an-unrecognized-cause-of-indolent-skin-infections
#7
Julie Steinbrink, Molara Alexis, Daniella Angulo-Thompson, Mayur Ramesh, George Alangaden, Marisa H Miceli
We identified 5 patients who had cutaneous lesions with cultures that yielded Mycobacterium marinum. It was discovered that all 5 patients had a home aquarium, and infection was preceded by trauma to the hand. However, the association between the development of the infection and exposure of the trauma site to the aquarium was not initially established until repeated questioning was performed. Skin biopsies or incision and drainage were performed for all patients, and the diagnosis was established by culture of the specimens...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229490/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-intensive-care-unit-outbreak-winnowing-of-transmissions-with-molecular-and-genomic-typing
#8
Benjamin J Parcell, Katarina Oravcova, Miguel Pinheiro, Matthew T G Holden, Gabby Phillips, Jane F Turton, Stephen H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa healthcare outbreaks can be time consuming and difficult to investigate. Guidance does not specify which typing technique is most practical to base decisions on. AIM: We explore the usefulness of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the investigation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak describing how it compares with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. METHODS: Six patient isolates and six environmental samples from an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) positive for P...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228997/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-breeding-pigs-in-estonia
#9
Azzurra Santoro, Maarja Tagel, Kärt Must, Miia Laine, Brian Lassen, Pikka Jokelainen
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies...
December 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228851/volar-locking-plate-fixation-versus-external-fixation-of-distal-radius-fractures-a-meta-analysis
#10
Conor J C Gouk, Randip R Bindra, Drew J Tarrant, Michael J E Thomas
This meta-analysis evaluates reported outcomes of volar locking plates versus external fixation for management of distal radius fractures. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PubMed, embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Multiple outcomes were analysed: study characteristics, objective/subjective outcome measures, radiographic parameters, and complication rates. Nine studies containing 780 participants met the outlined inclusion criteria. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand scores significantly favoured volar locking plates, but only at 3 months was the difference clinically meaningful...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228208/advances-in-serodiagnostic-testing-for-lyme-disease-are-at-hand
#11
John A Branda, Barbara A Body, Jeff Boyle, Bernard M Branson, Raymond J Dattwyler, Erol Fikrig, Noel J Gerald, Maria Gomes-Solecki, Martin Kintrup, Michel Ledizet, Andrew E Levin, Michael Lewinski, Lance A Liotta, Adriana Marques, Paul S Mead, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Segaran Pillai, Prasad Rao, William H Robinson, Kristian M Roth, Martin E Schriefer, Thomas Slezak, Jessica Snyder, Allen C Steere, Jan Witkowski, Susan J Wong, Steven E Schutzer
The cause of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, was discovered in 1983. A 2-tiered testing protocol was established for serodiagnosis in 1994, involving an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or indirect fluorescence antibody, followed (if reactive) by immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G Western immunoblots. These assays were prepared from whole-cell cultured B. burgdorferi, lacking key in vivo expressed antigens and expressing antigens that can bind non-Borrelia antibodies. Additional drawbacks, particular to the Western immunoblot component, include low sensitivity in early infection, technical complexity, and subjective interpretation when scored by visual examination...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227142/perineal-urethrostomy-to-treat-obstructive-urolithiasis-in-a-captive-hand-raised-steenbok-i-raphicerus-campestris-i
#12
Luke A Poore, Ross Hendry, Johan Steyl, Silke Pfitzer
The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a small antelope of the family Bovidae native to the African continent. Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary calculi in the urinary tract, can be caused by a variety of factors such as diet, dehydration, infection and anatomical predisposition. Urolithiasis, with uroliths identified as magnesium calcium phosphate carbonate in composition, was diagnosed in a hand-reared 5-month-old steenbok. Perineal urethrostomy was performed as a component of the broad treatment regime that included fluid therapy, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227001/antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-during-second-pregnancies
#13
Yasuhiro Wakano, Tokio Sugiura, Takeshi Endo, Koichi Ito, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Tajiri, Yasuhito Tanaka, Shinji Saitoh
Mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern for infected mothers, especially after their first child has become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis. Eight mothers whose first child had become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis were referred for antiviral therapy during the subsequent pregnancy. All pregnant women were seropositive for both the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In the treatment group (three receiving lamivudine and two receiving tenofovir), mother-to-child transmission of the HBV was successfully prevented in all infants (5/5)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226107/cholangitis-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#14
REVIEW
Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh
Cholangitis is a serious life-threatening situation affecting the hepatobiliary system. This review provides an update regarding the clinical and pathological features of various forms of cholangitis. A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases. It was found that the etiology and pathogenesis of cholangitis are heterogeneous. Cholangitis can be categorized as primary sclerosing (PSC), secondary (acute) cholangitis, and a recently characterized form, known as IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226102/timing-of-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-in-liver-transplant-candidates-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#15
REVIEW
George Cholankeril, Mairin Joseph-Talreja, Brandon J Perumpail, Andy Liu, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed, Aparna Goel
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States. While most patients with chronic HCV infection remain asymptomatic, up to one-third develop progressive liver disease resulting in cirrhosis. LT is often the only curative treatment once significant hepatic decompensation develops. However, antiviral therapy for HCV infection has advanced markedly in the past 5 years with the discovery and approval of direct-acting antiviral agents. These new regimens are well tolerated, of short duration and highly effective, unlike the traditional treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225753/study-of-bacterial-flora-associated-with-mobile-phones-of-healthcare-workers-and-non-healthcare-workers
#16
Raghavendra Rao Morubagal, Sowmya Govindanahalli Shivappa, Rashmi Padmanabha Mahale, Sumana Mhadevaiah Neelambike
Background and Objectives: Despite improvements in modern diagnosis and therapies, hospital acquired infections remain a leading problem of global health systems. Healthcare workers mobile phones is a reservoir for potential pathogens. Despite the high possibility of being contaminated, mobile phones are rarely clean and are often touched during or after examination of patients and handling of specimens without proper hand washing. The main objective of the present study was to isolate, identify different types of bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity from mobile phones of healthcare workers and non-health-care workers...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225092/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-photobacterium-damselae-among-some-marine-fishes-in-lake-temsah
#17
I A M Eissa, H I Derwa, Mona Ismail, Maather El-Lamie, Amina Desuki, Hassnaa Elsheshtawy, Elsayed M Bayoumy
Photobacterium damselae speciese are one of the most devastating bacterial pathogens in mariculture worldwide. Some species of Photobacterium are pathogenic for marine animals and human. They are the causative agents of photobacteriosis, formerly known as pasteurellosis. A total of (202) marine fishes of three different species were represented as: seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), seabream (Sparus aurata) and gray mullet (Mugil capitus) randomly collected from Lake Temsah at Ismailia governorate along the parallel Pelagic road to the lake in the governorate from August 2015 to July 2016...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224946/revision-arthroplasty-of-the-wrist-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-mean-follow-up-6-6-years
#18
Per Fischer, Marcus Sagerfors, Ole Brus, Kurt Pettersson
PURPOSE: Management of failed total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) can be challenging; surgical treatment options include salvage arthrodesis, revision arthroplasty, and resection arthroplasty. There are few studies regarding salvage arthrodesis, and revision arthroplasty has been infrequently investigated. The aim of the study was to report the outcome after revision arthroplasty of the wrist. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 16 revision TWAs was evaluated between 2003 and 2016...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#19
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221787/evaluation-of-alternative-serum-biomarkers-to-monitor-the-progression-of-chronic-hbv-and-hcv-infection
#20
S Tsiomita, U Georgopoulou, P P Doumba, J Koskinas, K Adamidis, C Papaloukas, G Thyphronitis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most serious health conditions affecting about 600 million people worldwide leading to a number of severe liver diseases. Due to the lack of warning signs or mild symptoms during the early stage of the infection, a molecular signature associated with disease progression would be useful. Based on our recent paper where candidate biomarkers were determined through topological and modularity analysis of protein interaction networks (PINs), this study was focused on the evaluation of MIF, TNFRSF1A, FAS and TMSB4X as diagnostic biomarkers in chronic HBV and HCV infections...
December 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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