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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040267/protecting-cows-in-small-holder-farms-in-east-africa-from-tsetse-flies-by-mimicking-the-odor-profile-of-a-non-host-bovid
#1
Rajinder K Saini, Benedict O Orindi, Norber Mbahin, John A Andoke, Peter N Muasa, David M Mbuvi, Caroline M Muya, John A Pickett, Christian W Borgemeister
BACKGROUND: For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036705/chalcogenozidovudine-derivatives-with-antitumor-activity-comparative-toxicities-in-cultured-human-mononuclear-cells
#2
Assis Ecker, Pauline Christ Ledur, Rafael S da Silva, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal, Oscar E D Rodrigues, Daniel Ardisson-Araújo, Emily Pansera Waczuk, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Nilda Vargas Barbosa
Considering a novel series of zidovudine (AZT) derivatives encompassing selenoaryl moieties promising candidates as therapeutics, we examined the toxicities elicited by AZT and derivatives 5'-(4-Chlorophenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ1); 5'-(Phenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ2); and 5'-(4-Methylphenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ3) in healthy cells and in mice. Resting and stimulated cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with the compounds at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µM for 24 and/or 72 h...
July 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032641/cholic-acid-attenuate-er-stress-induced-cell-death-in-coxsackievirus-b3-infection
#3
Jae-Young Han, Hae In Jeong, Cheol-Woo Park, Jisoo Yoon, Jaeyoung Ko, Sang-Jip Nam, Byung-Kwan Lim
Coxsackievirus Type B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae and causes of various diseases such as myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth diseases. But effective antiviral drug was still not developed. In this study, we looking for potential inhibitors of CVB3 replication by examining survival of CVB3-infected HeLa cells. We detected an antiviral effect of cholic acid and identified it as a candidate inhibitor of CVB3 replication. Cholic acid circulates in the liver and intestines, and it helps digestion and absorption of lipids in small intestine...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032284/mycobacterium-longobardum-infection-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-hand
#4
Nikola Lekic, Andrew E Rosenberg, Morad Askari
Mycobacterium longobardum is a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium that was first characterized in 2012. We report a case of M. longobardum infection in the right middle finger of a diabetic man. He underwent surgery for a presumed diagnosis of an epidermal inclusion cyst. Molecular diagnosis of the surgical specimens demonstrated M. longobardum through RNA polymerase β-subunit encoding gene sequencing. After surgery, the patient was treated with antibiotics and eventually cured of the infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of a pathogenic M...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030929/infection-prevention-in-pediatric-anesthesia-practice
#5
REVIEW
Lizabeth D Martin, Michael Kallile, Siri Kanmanthreddy, Danielle M Zerr
Healthcare-associated infections are an important source of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Anesthesiologists have a unique role in infection prevention. Hand hygiene and anesthesia workspace decontamination decrease infection rates in surgical patients. Standard protocols exist for insertion and handling of central lines, arterial lines, and regional procedures, which should be strictly adhered to in order to prevent infectious complications. Temperature control and timely administration of antibiotics contribute to the prevention of surgical site infections...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030787/armillifer-infected-snakes-sold-at-congolese-bushmeat-markets-represent-an-emerging-zoonotic-threat
#6
Richard Hardi, Gergely Babocsay, Dennis Tappe, Mihály Sulyok, Imre Bodó, Lajos Rózsa
African pythons (Pythonidae) and large vipers (Bitis spp.) act as definitive hosts for Armillifer armillatus and Armillifer grandis parasites (Crustacea: Pentastomida) in the Congo Basin. Since the proportion of snakes in bushmeat gradually increases, human pentastomiasis is an emerging zoonotic disease. To substantiate the significance of this threat, we surveyed snakes offered for human consumption at bushmeat markets in the Kole district, Democratic Republic of the Congo, for the presence of adult pentastomids...
October 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029147/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-with-human-monkeypox-infection-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#7
Placide K Mbala, John W Huggins, Therese Riu-Rovira, Steve M Ahuka, Prime Mulembakani, Anne W Rimoin, James W Martin, Jean-Jacques T Muyembe
Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028886/analysis-of-protein-targets-in-pathogen-host-interaction-in-infectious-diseases-a-case-study-on-plasmodium-falciparum-and-homo-sapiens-interaction-network
#8
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028841/efficacies-of-prevention-and-control-measures-applied-during-an-outbreak-in-southwest-madrid-spain
#9
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Maia Martcheva, Necibe Tuncer, Isabella Fontana, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, James Keesling
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and hare (Lepus granatensis), were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028691/job-burnout-reduces-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-nursing-staff
#10
Georgios Manomenidis, Efharis Panagopoulou, Anthony Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. METHODS: A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#11
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027640/the-utility-of-botulinum-toxin-a-in-the-repair-of-distal-biceps-tendon-ruptures
#12
L S Khalil, R A Keller, N Mehran, N E Marshall, K Okoroha, N B Frisch, S P DeSilva
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to report the outcomes and complications in patients who underwent distal biceps tendon repair with the use of Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) as an adjunct to surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent 15 distal biceps tendon repairs was performed. All repaired tendons had their correlating muscle bellies injected intraoperatively with a mixture of 100U of BoNT-A and 10 ml of normal saline. Each patient was evaluated for surgical and post-operative complications and followed with Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Disability Scores...
October 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026859/molecular-identification-of-leishmania-species-in-a-re-emerged-focus-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-varamin-district-iran
#13
Mahmoodreza Behravan, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri, Ali Haghighi, Nourina Rahbarian, Niloofar Taghipour, Alireza Abadi, Homa Hajjaran
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and a major public health challenge in Iran caused by Leishmania spp and transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The number of CL cases has shown an increasing pattern all over the country, including the district of Varamin, southeast of Tehran, Iran. This study aimed to identify the Leishmania spp isolated from CL patients using molecular methods in Varamin during 2012-2013. METHODS: Exudate materials collected from the swollen edge of the skin lesions of 44 parasitological positive CL patients by disposable lancet...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026372/delivery-practices-hygiene-birth-attendance-and-neonatal-infections-in-karamoja-uganda-a-community-based-study
#14
Leah J Hopp
BACKGROUND: Drawing attention to home birth conditions and subsequent neonatal infections is a key starting point to reducing neonatal morbidity which are a main cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of respiratory, ophthalmic, and diarrhoeal infections in neonates; the proportion of mothers of neonates, following clean delivery practices; and to explore existing community practices during delivery and the neonatal period...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025602/complex-tibial-plateau-fractures-a-retrospective-study-and-proposal-of-treatment-algorithm
#15
Amerigo Menghi, Giuseppe Mazzitelli, Emanuele Marzetti, Francesco Barberio, Emanuela D'Angelo, Giulio Maccauro
INTRODUCTION: Complex tibial plateau fractures are characterized by compression and sinking of one or both the articular surfaces. In this study, we evaluated clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with 41.C1,41.C2,41.C3 fractures according to AO classification. We also provide a specific therapeutic algorithm for each type of fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 43 patients who underwent surgical treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures and were followed for a minimum of 12 months...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025064/impact-of-adding-hand-washing-and-water-disinfection-promotion-to-oral-cholera-vaccination-on-diarrhoea-associated-hospitalization-in-dhaka-bangladesh-evidence-from-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial
#16
Nusrat Najnin, Karin Leder, Firdausi Qadri, Andrew Forbes, Leanne Unicomb, Peter J Winch, Pavani K Ram, Elli Leontsini, Fosiul A Nizame, Shaila Arman, Farzana Begum, Shwapon K Biswas, John D Clemens, Mohammad Ali, Alejandro Cravioto, Stephen P Luby
Background: Information on the impact of hygiene interventions on severe outcomes is limited. As a pre-specified secondary outcome of a cluster-randomized controlled trial among >400 000 low-income residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we examined the impact of cholera vaccination plus a behaviour change intervention on diarrhoea-associated hospitalization. Methods: Ninety neighbourhood clusters were randomly allocated into three areas: cholera-vaccine-only; vaccine-plus-behaviour-change (promotion of hand-washing with soap plus drinking water chlorination); and control...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024766/protective-effect-of-an-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-against-enterovirus-71-infection-in-neuronal-cells
#17
FengXia Song, LinQin Zhao, RuNan Zhu, QinWei Song, Jie Deng, Run Tian, Fang Wang, Yuan Qian
Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies...
October 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023927/hepatitis-b-virus-dual-infection-disrupts-platelet-count-recovery-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-with-curative-antiviral-therapy
#18
Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia recovers after viral eradication. The current study explored the rate and factors associated with platelet (PLT) recovery, which may represent the degree of liver fibrosis regression. METHODS: A total of 466 patients who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) were enrolled to compare the PLT change after a mean follow-up period of 85.5months (range 12-163 months)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022904/zika-virus-infection-dysregulates-human-neural-stem-cell-growth-and-inhibits-differentiation-into-neuroprogenitor-cells
#19
Pradip Devhare, Keith Meyer, Robert Steele, Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022248/coxsackievirus-b4-as-a-causative-agent-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-is-there-a-role-of-inefficiently-treated-drinking-water-and-sewage-in-virus-spreading
#20
Waled M El-Senousy, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Rehab G Khalil
This study proposed to detect the enterovirus (EV) infection in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and to assess the role of insufficiently treated water and sewage as sources of viral spreading. Three hundred and eighty-two serum specimens of children with T1D, one hundred serum specimens of children who did not suffer from T1D as control, and forty-eight water and sewage samples were screened for EV RNA using nested RT-PCR. The number of genome copies and infectious units of EVs in raw and treated sewage and water samples were investigated using real-time (RT)-PCR and plaque assay, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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