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monocyte alcoholic liver cirrhosis

Victoria L Gadd, Preya J Patel, Sara Jose, Leigh Horsfall, Elizabeth E Powell, Katharine M Irvine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence. METHODS: Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1) expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) (n = 39) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 34) (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis) and healthy controls (n = 11) by flow cytometry...
2016: PloS One
Konstantina Sargenti, Åsa Johansson, Sara Bertilsson, Inger Mattsby-Baltzer, Daniel Klintman, Evangelos Kalaitzakis
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis represents a state of functional immune paresis with increased infection risk. AIMS: To investigate polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte and monocyte function in ambulatory cirrhotics, and their potential relation with cirrhosis etiology or patient outcome. METHODS: Consecutive ambulatory cirrhotics without current or recent (<1 month) infection or acute decompensation were prospectively enrolled in 2013 and followed for a median time of 20 months until death, transplant or end of 2014...
August 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Akira Yokoyama, Philip J Brooks, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Takeshi Mizukami, Toshifumi Matsui, Mitsuru Kimura, Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi, Katsuya Maruyama
BACKGROUND: Roughly 40% of East Asians have inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele, and 90% have highly active alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele. Macrocytosis and macrocytic anemia in alcoholics have been associated with ADH1B and ALDH2 gene variants which increase acetaldehyde (AcH) levels. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and leukocyte counts of Japanese alcoholic men (N = 1,661)...
March 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Marina Nati, David Haddad, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Christian A Koch, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
The low grade inflammatory state present in obesity promotes the progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). In Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH), augmented hepatic steatosis is accompanied by aberrant intrahepatic inflammation and exacerbated hepatocellular injury. NASH is an important disorder and can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and even neoplasia. The pathology of NASH involves a complex network of mechanisms, including increased infiltration of different subsets of immune cells, such as monocytes, T-lymphocytes and neutrophils, to the liver, as well as activation and in situ expansion of liver resident cells such as Kupffer cells or stellate cells...
March 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Geoffrey M Thiele, Michael J Duryee, Geoffrey E Thiele, Dean J Tuma, Lynell W Klassen
INTRODUCTION: Ethanol metabolism in the liver induces oxidative stress and altered cytokine production preceding fat accumulation in the liver. It is thought that there is a second hit that causes relatively benign fat accumulation to transform into liver failure. However, investigations into the mechanism(s) for this injury have been hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro culture models in which to conduct in depth and specific studies. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we have developed the use of precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) as an in vitro culture model in which to investigate how ethanol causes alcohol-induced liver injury...
August 17, 2015: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Eun Ju Cho, Moon Young Kim, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Il Young Lee, Yoo Li Lim, Dae Hee Choi, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Soon Koo Baik
Portal hypertension is a direct consequence of hepatic fibrosis, and several hepatic fibrosis markers have been evaluated as a noninvasive alternative to the detection of portal hypertension and esophageal varices. In the present study, we compared the diagnostic and prognostic values of the noninvasive fibrosis markers in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A total of 219 consecutive alcoholic cirrhosis patients were included. Biochemical scores and liver stiffness (LS) were compared with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)...
2015: PloS One
Binit Sureka, Kalpana Bansal, Yashwant Patidar, S Rajesh, Amar Mukund, Ankur Arora
The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation...
September 2015: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Banishree Saha, Johanna C Bruneau, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of liver disease characterized by liver inflammation, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis. Immunomodulatory effects of alcohol on monocytes and macrophages contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol use, an independent risk factor for progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-mediated liver disease, impairs host defense and alters cytokine production and monocyte/macrophage activation. We hypothesized that alcohol and HCV have synergistic effects on the phenotype and function of monocytes...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lee J L Markwick, Antonio Riva, Jennifer M Ryan, Helen Cooksley, Elena Palma, Tom H Tranah, Godhev K Manakkat Vijay, Nikhil Vergis, Mark Thursz, Alex Evans, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, John O'Grady, Roger Williams, Debbie L Shawcross, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Susceptibility to bacterial infection is a feature of alcohol-related liver disease. Programmed cell death 1 (PD1), the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3, also known as hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2), and their respective ligands-CD274 (also known as PD ligand 1 [PDL1]) and galectin-9-are inhibitory receptors that regulate the balance between protective immunity and host immune-mediated damage. However, their sustained hyperexpression promotes immune exhaustion and paralysis...
March 2015: Gastroenterology
Michal Ganz, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo
AIM: To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. METHODS: In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation...
July 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Samjhana Thapaliya, Alexander Wree, Davide Povero, Maria Eugenia Inzaugarat, Michael Berk, Laura Dixon, Bettina G Papouchado, Ariel E Feldstein
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocyte cell death is a key feature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). As the contribution of specific caspases remains unclear, our aim was to ascertain the effect of caspase 3 suppression on liver injury and fibrogenesis. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and caspase 3 knock out (Casp3 (-/-)) mice were placed on a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 6 weeks to induce steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Thereafter, liver injury, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular apoptosis were quantified in liver sections...
June 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Bashar M Attar, Christopher M Moore, Magdalena George, Nicolae Ion-Nedelcu, Rafael Turbay, Annamma Zachariah, Guiliano Ramadori, Jawed Fareed, David H Van Thiel
AIM: To quantitate the simultaneous serum and ascitic fluid levels of procalcitonin and inflammatory markers in cirrhotics with and without ascites. METHODS: A total of 88 consecutive severe cirrhotic patients seen in a large city hospital liver clinic were studied and divided into two groups, those with and without ascites. Group 1 consisted of 41 cirrhotic patients with massive ascites, as demonstrated by necessity for therapeutic large-volume paracentesis. Group 2 consisted of 47 cirrhotic patients without any clinically documented ascites to include either a recent abdominal computed tomography scan or ultrasound study...
March 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Marnie J Wood, Lawrie W Powell, Jeannette L Dixon, V Nathan Subramaniam, Grant A Ramm
AIM: To investigate the role of genetic polymorphisms in the progression of hepatic fibrosis in hereditary haemochromatosis. METHODS: A cohort of 245 well-characterised C282Y homozygous patients with haemochromatosis was studied, with all subjects having liver biopsy data and DNA available for testing. This study assessed the association of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of six genes including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 and interleukin-10 with liver disease severity...
December 28, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Wen-Xing Zhao, Li Wang, Ju-Lun Yang, Lian-Zhen Li, Wen-Mang Xu, Tao Li
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated signaling through Τoll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in HSCs has been identified as a key event in liver fibrosis, and as the molecular link between inflammation and liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, on the pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic phenotypes of LPS-stimulated HSCs. HSCs from rats were isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)...
March 2014: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Simon C Afford, Elizabeth H Humphreys, Danielle T Reid, Clare L Russell, Vanessa M Banz, Ye Oo, Tina Vo, Craig Jenne, David H Adams, Bertus Eksteen
UNLABELLED: Chronic hepatitis occurs when effector lymphocytes are recruited to the liver from blood and retained in tissue to interact with target cells, such as hepatocytes or bile ducts (BDs). Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1; CD106), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, supports leukocyte adhesion by binding α4β1 integrins and is critical for the recruitment of monocytes and lymphocytes during inflammation. We detected VCAM-1 on cholangiocytes in chronic liver disease (CLD) and hypothesized that biliary expression of VCAM-1 contributes to the persistence of liver inflammation...
May 2014: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Suzanne van Meer, Robert A de Man, Peter D Siersema, Karel J van Erpecum
Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the third cause of cancer-related death. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents more than 90% of primary liver cancers and generally occurs in patients with underlying chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Especially cirrhotic patients are at risk of HCC and regular surveillance could enable early detection and therapy, with potentially improved outcome...
October 28, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Young-Je Kim, Myung-Sook Choi, Yong Bok Park, Sang Ryong Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, Un Ju Jung
AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively...
August 7, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hyon-Seung Yi, Won-Il Jeong
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been considered as a major type of cells in liver fibrosis by producing a huge amount of extracellular matrix, especially collagen fibers, and profibrotic mediators such as transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Recently, accumulated evidence suggests that the liver is an immunologic organ because of enrichment of diverse types of immune cells and that their interactions with HSCs are closely related with the progression of liver fibrosis...
August 2013: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Romy Ouziel, Eric Trépo, Anneline Cremer, Christophe Moreno, Delphine Degré, Mustapha Chaouni, Vincent Vercruysse, Eric Quertinmont, Jacques Devière, Arnaud Lemmers, Thierry Gustot
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have vitamin A (VA) deficiency and an enhanced immune response associated with disease severity. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a VA-active metabolite, has anti-inflammatory effects and its deficiency could contribute to the exacerbated proinflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ATRA/VA deficiency and supplementation on the monocyte response in ALD. METHODS: Vitamin A and ATRA plasma levels were quantified in ALD patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
March 2014: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Rachel H McMahan, Xiaoxin X Wang, Lin Ling Cheng, Tibor Krisko, Maxwell Smith, Karim El Kasmi, Mark Pruzanski, Luciano Adorini, Lucy Golden-Mason, Moshe Levi, Hugo R Rosen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large proportion of the American population. The spectrum of disease ranges from bland steatosis without inflammation to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Bile acids are critical regulators of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and signal through two major receptor pathways: farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and TGR5, a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1). Both FXR and TGR5 demonstrate pleiotropic functions, including immune modulation...
April 26, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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