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alcoholic liver cirrhosis

Liping Ma, Xiaoxue Yang, Rong Wei, Tinghong Ye, Jian-Kang Zhou, Maoyao Wen, Ruoting Men, Ping Li, Biao Dong, Lunxu Liu, Xianghui Fu, Heng Xu, Rami I Aqeilan, Yu-Quan Wei, Li Yang, Yong Peng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to modulate cellular processes in the liver. However, the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis is poorly understood. Because the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in the initiation and progression of hepatic fibrosis, we investigate the differential expression of miRNAs in activated and quiescent rat HSCs by microarray analysis and find that miR-214 (miR-214-3p) is significantly upregulated during HSC activation. Moreover, the robust induction of miR-214 is correlated with liver fibrogenesis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-treated rats and mice, high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice, and cirrhosis in humans...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Catherine T Frenette, Giuseppe Morelli, Mitchell L Shiffman, R Todd Frederick, Raymond A Rubin, Michael B Fallon, Jason T Cheng, Matt Cave, Saira A Khaderi, Omar Massoud, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos, James S Park, James M Robinson, Mason Yamashita, Alfred P Spada, Jean L Chan, David T Hagerty
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Caspase-mediated apoptosis and inflammation contribute to progression of liver disease. Emricasan is a pan-caspase inhibitor that reduced serum markers of apoptosis and liver inflammation in patients with hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We performed a multicenter study of 86 patients with cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A or B; mean score, 6.9; 38% with alcohol-associated cirrhosis, 29% with HCV-associated cirrhosis, and 23% with NASH) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores of 11-18 (mean, 12...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jennifer Phan, Vivian Ng, Alan Sheinbaum, Sam French, Gina Choi, Mohamed El Kabany, Francisco Durazo, Sammy Saab, Myron Tong, Ronald Busuttil, Steven-Huy Han
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary hepatic malignancies. With the exception of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), other etiologies of chronic liver disease require progression to cirrhosis before HCC development. Case reports have described HCC in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C (HCV) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. GOAL: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of patients without cirrhosis and CHB who developed HCC among a large cohort of HCC patients and to identify independent variables that are associated with no cirrhosis among patients with HCC...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
P J Proskynitopoulos, M Rhein, E Jäckel, M P Manns, H Frieling, S Bleich, T Thum, T Hillemacher, A Glahn
Aims: Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment available for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. As different studies showed a significant association between leptin plasma levels, gene methylation patterns and the extent of craving in alcohol-dependent patients, we investigated the effect of liver transplantation on leptin expression and promoter methylation. Short Summary: The present study shows that in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis leptin is significantly higher before liver transplantation and decreases significantly after transplantation...
June 15, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Jessica L Mellinger, G Scott Winder, Melissa DeJonckheere, Robert J Fontana, Michael L Volk, Anna S F Lok, Frederic C Blow
BACKGROUND: While alcohol cessation improves mortality in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), many patients struggle to achieve abstinence. Our aim was to characterize ALD patients' preferences, misconceptions, and barriers to alcohol use treatment options. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included outpatients with a history of alcohol-related cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis recruited from a hepatology clinic for a survey or an in-depth semi-structured interview. We purposefully sampled men and women, compensated and decompensated patients to ensure adequate representation of gender and severity of liver disease for the qualitative interviews...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
N Slyvka, N Virstyuk, F Abdelrahman
The concept of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) covers acute deterioration of the liver function in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC) caused by secondary or extra-hepatic provoking factors (PF) leading to dysfunction of target organs. CLIF-C-ACLF score refers to the number of decompensated organs/systems and is recommended for predicting outcome in patients with ALC. Objective - to compare the diagnostic value of the Child-Pugh score and the CLIF-C-ACLF score for predicting short-term mortality in patients with ALC...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Gordon P Watt, Miryoung Lee, Jen-Jung Pan, Michael B Fallon, Rohit Loomba, Laura Beretta, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic fibrosis is a primary risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affect a disproportionate number of Hispanics in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of significant fibrosis, measured by point shear-wave elastography (pSWE), and determine characteristics of hepatic fibrosis and simple steatosis in a population-based study of Mexican American Hispanics in south Texas. METHODS: Liver stiffness was measured by pSWE, performed by 2 separate operators, for 406 participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort from 2015 through 2017...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Banrida Wahlang, Craig McClain, Shirish Barve, Leila Gobejishvili
Liver disease is a significant health problem worldwide with mortality reaching around 2 million deaths a year. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the major causes of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, NAFLD and ALD share similar patterns of hepatic disorders ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It is becoming increasingly important to identify new pharmacological targets, given that there is no FDA-approved therapy yet for either NAFLD or ALD...
June 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Yuchen Hou, Nga Lei Tam, Zhicheng Xue, Xuzhi Zhang, Bing Liao, Jie Yang, Shunjun Fu, Yi Ma, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
RATIONALE: Hepatic vein occlusive disease (HVOD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation, which is characterized by nonthrombotic, fibrous obliteration of the small centrilobular hepatic veins by connective tissue and centrilobular necrosis in zone 3 of the acini. HVOD after solid organ transplantation has been reported; recently, most of these reports with limited cases have documented that acute cell rejection and immunosuppressive agents are the major causative factors. HVOD is relatively a rare complication of liver transplantation with the incidence of approximately 2%...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cláudia B M Strey, Luiz A de Carli, Marciane Fantinelli, Sabrina S Gobbato, Guilherme F Bassols, Alexandre Losekann, Gabriela P Coral
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing. Type 2 diabetes mellitus may aggravate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increasing the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aims to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin therapy on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients with morbid obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data were analyzed together with intraoperative liver biopsies from morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Esther Caparrós, Rubén Francés
The three main causes of inflammation and chronic injury in the liver are viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, all of which can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which in turn may prompt the need for liver transplant. The interleukin (IL)-20 is a subfamily part of the IL-10 family of cytokines that helps the liver respond to damage and disease, they participate in the control of tissue homeostasis, and in the immunological responses developed in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sujay Kulkarni, Mithun Sharma, Padaki N Rao, Rajesh Gupta, Duvvuru N Reddy
Aims: We studied in-hospital predictors of mortality of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in Indian patients. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our institute fulfilling the definition of ACLF based on the Asia-Pacific Association for Study of Liver Disease (APASL) consensus were included. Complete history and medical evaluation to assess the etiology of underlying liver cirrhosis and to identify the acute precipitating insult of worsening liver function was done...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Franziska Lindner, Reinhard Mühlberg, Johannes Wiegand, Michael Tröltzsch, Albrecht Hoffmeister, Volker Keim, Thomas Karlas
BACKGROUND:  Recurrent ascitic decompensation is a frequent complication of advanced alcoholic liver disease. Ascites can be controlled by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation, but specific pre-procedural outcome predictors are not well established. Liver and spleen stiffness measurement (LSM, SSM) correlate with outcome of compensated liver disease, but data for decompensated cirrhosis disease are scarce. Therefore, the predictive value of LSM and SSM was evaluated in patients with refractory ascites treated with TIPS insertion or receiving conservative therapy...
June 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Jeremy Chak-Lun Chow, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Anthony Wing-Hung Chan, Sally She-Ting Shu, Carmen Ka-Man Chan, Julie Ka-Yu Leung, Paul Cheung-Lung Choi, Angel Mei-Ling Chim, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Baveno VI Consensus recommends repeating examination in patients with high liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography to reduce false-positive diagnosis of advanced liver disease. We tested whether repeating transient elastography can increase the overall diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who underwent two FibroScan examinations within 6 months prior to liver biopsy were evaluated...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ron C Gaba, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Daniel P Regan, Kelly D Garcia, R Peter Lokken, Regina M Schwind, Michael Eichner, Faith M Thomas, Lauretta A Rund, Lawrence B Schook, Kyle M Schachtschneider
PURPOSE: This study used the Oncopig Cancer Model (OCM) to develop alcohol-induced fibrosis in a porcine model capable of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver injury was induced in 8-week-old Oncopigs (n = 10) via hepatic transarterial infusion of 0.75 mL/kg ethanol-ethiodized oil (1:3 v/v). Feasibility was assessed in an initial Oncopig cohort (n = 5) by histologic analysis at 8 weeks after induction, and METAVIR results were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 5)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Anne I Christensen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Janne S Tolstrup
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To test whether alcohol intake, both observational and estimated by genetic instruments, is associated with risk of ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We used data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991 to 1994 and 2001 to 2003, and the Copenhagen General Population Study 2003 to 2012 (n=78,546). As measure of alcohol exposure, self-reported consumption and genetic variation in alcohol metabolizing genes (alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B and ADH1C ) as instrumental variables were used...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Guenter Haemmerle, Achim Lass
Excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol is the common denominator of a wide range of clinical pathologies of liver diseases, termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Such excessive triacylglycerol deposition in the liver is also referred to as hepatic steatosis. Although liver steatosis often resolves over time, it eventually progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, with associated complications, including liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and ultimately death of affected individuals...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Shiu-Feng Huang, Il-Chi Chang, Chih-Chen Hong, Tseng-Chang Yen, Chao-Long Chen, Cheng-Chung Wu, Cheng-Chung Tsai, Ming-Chih Ho, Wei-Chen Lee, Hsien-Chung Yu, Ying-Ying Shen, Hock-Liew Eng, John Wang, Hui-Hwa Tseng, Yung-Ming Jeng, Chau-Ting Yeh, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Yun-Fan Liaw
Metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, fatty liver, high lipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are associated with increased risk for nonviral hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, few nonviral HCC studies have stratified patients according to underlying etiologies. From 2005 to 2011, 3,843 patients with HCC were recruited into the Taiwan Liver Cancer Network. Of these patients, 411 (10.69%) who were negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV), surface antigen, HBV DNA, and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody were classified as non-HBV non-HCV (NBNC)-HCC...
June 2018: Hepatology Communications
Simon Hohenester, Simon Christiansen, Jutta M Nagel, Ralf Wimmer, Renate Artmann, Gerald Denk, Monika Bischoff, Gert Bischoff, Christian Rust
Background The prevalence of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising. NAFLD may result in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), progressing to liver cirrhosis. Weight loss is recommended to treat obesity-related NASH. Lifestyle intervention may improve NASH. However, pertinent trials have so far focused on overweight patients, while patients with obesity are at highest risk of developing NAFLD. Furthermore, reports of effects on liver fibrosis are scarce. We evaluated the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD in a real-life cohort of morbidly obese patients...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Brian I Carr, Gianluigi Giannelli, Vito Guerra, Edoardo G Giannini, Fabio Farinati, Gian Ludovico Rapaccini, Maria Di Marco, Marco Zoli, Eugenio Caturelli, Alberto Masotto, Roberto Virdone, Rodolfo Sacco, Franco Trevisani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with several chronic liver diseases, especially chronic hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and alcoholism. It is increasingly appreciated that obesity/metabolic syndrome is also associated with chronic liver disease and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the serum lipid profiles in a large hepatocellular carcinoma cohort, associated predominantly with the hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcohol or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
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