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alcoholic liver cirrhosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238510/epidemiology-transmission-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237409/iga-nephropathy-featuring-massive-wire-loop-like-deposits-in-two-patients-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis
#2
Daisuke Takada, Keiichi Sumida, Akinari Sekine, Ryo Hazue, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Tatsuya Suwabe, Noriko Hayami, Junichi Hoshino, Naoki Sawa, Kenmei Takaichi, Takeshi Fujii, Kenichi Ohashi, Yoshifumi Ubara
BACKGROUND: Various renal manifestations are known to develop in patients with liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We evaluated renal disease in two 47-year-old Japanese men with liver cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism for 34 years and 27 years, respectively. Renal biopsy demonstrated massive wire loop-like deposits in the subendothelial space of the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. However, immunofluorescence was only positive for IgA and C3, and electron microscopy did not reveal any organized structures in the electron-dense deposits...
December 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237362/de-novo-malignancies-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-institution-experience
#3
Tufan Egeli, Tarkan Unek, Mucahit Ozbilgin, Cihan Agalar, Serhan Derici, Mesut Akarsu, Ilkay Tugba Unek, Murat Aysin, Aylin Bacakoglu, Ibrahim Astarcıoglu
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to analyze characteristics, risk factors, and incidence of de novo malignancies after liver transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hospital records of 557 patients who underwent liver transplant were analyzed from the point of de novo malignancy development. We evaluated the demographic features and survival of these patients retrospectively. RESULTS: The research covered 429 patients, 9 (2%) of whom developed de novo malignancy...
December 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236785/the-soluble-mannose-receptor-smr-is-elevated-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-and-associated-with-disease-severity-portal-hypertension-and-mortality-in-cirrhosis-patients
#4
Thomas Damgaard Sandahl, Sidsel Hyldgaard Støy, Tea Lund Laursen, Sidsel Rødgaard-Hansen, Holger Jon Møller, Søren Møller, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently been identified in humans. We aimed to study plasma sMR levels and its correlation with disease severity and survival in ALD patients. METHODS: We included 50 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), 68 alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) patients (Child-Pugh A (23), B (24), C (21)), and 21 healthy controls (HC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234193/results-of-portosystemic-shunt-embolization-in-selected-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
Narendra S Choudhary, Sanjay Saran Baijal, Sanjiv Saigal, Amit Agarwal, Neeraj Saraf, Rohit Khandelwal, Vaibhav Jain, Anubhav Harish Khandelwal, Abhay Kapoor, Deepak Jain, Smurti R Misra, Rajesh Puri, Randhir Sud, Arvinder S Soin
Background: Large portosystemic shunts (PSSs) may lead to recurrent encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis and embolization of these shunts may improve encephalopathy. Material and methods: Five patients underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) or plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) of a large PSS at our center in last 2 years for recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) at a tertiary care center at north India...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228666/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-treatment-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-beyond-marrow-cell-mobilization
#6
Ho Hyun Nam, Dae Won Jun, Kiseok Jang, Waqar Khalid Saeed, Jai Sun Lee, Hyeon Tae Kang, Yeon Ji Chae
Protective effects of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in acute liver injury via marrow cell mobilization have been reported in several studies. But exact mode of action and optimal protocol of G-CSF has been still doubt in chronic disease. Here we investigated mode of action and optimization of G-CSF as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Various doses of conventional G-CSF (30 μg/kg once weekly, once daily for 5 days, twice weekly) and long acting G-CSF (30 μg/kg once a month) were evaluated in two kinds of NAFLD animal models to optimize the G-CSF protocol...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228164/liver-fat-content-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-ischaemic-heart-disease-mendelian-randomization-and-meta-analysis-of-279%C3%A2-013-individuals
#7
Bo Kobberø Lauridsen, Stefan Stender, Thomas Skårup Kristensen, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Lars Køber, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen
Aims: In observational studies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD is a causal risk factor for IHD. Methods and results: In a cohort study of the Danish general population (n = 94 708/IHD = 10 897), we first tested whether a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD was associated observationally with IHD...
December 8, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227330/total-bile-acid-levels-are-associated-with-left-atrial-volume-and-cardiac-output-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#8
Andrei M Voiosu, Signe Wiese, Theodor A Voiosu, Jens Hove, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) are potent signaling molecules involved in the regulation of several metabolic and functional aspects of cardiovascular homeostasis. BA pool alteration in cirrhosis may contribute toward the development of hemodynamic and cardiac disturbances. We aimed to investigate the association between total BA levels and echocardiographic and biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients were enrolled prospectively in this hypothesis-generating study and evaluated for cardiac and hemodynamic dysfunction through clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical means...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222917/diagnostic-modalities-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-associated-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Quentin M Anstee, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Zachary D Goodman, Naga P Chalasani, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Keith Lindor
NAFLD is a spectrum comprised of isolated steatosis, NASH, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of NAFLD subjects do not have NASH and don't carry a significant risk for adverse outcomes (cirrhosis and mortality). Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD is approximately 25%. In Asia, a gradient of high prevalence rates to low rates are noted from urban to rural areas. Given the prevalence of NAFLD, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD and NASH can be substantial. With increasing recognition as an important liver disease, the diagnosis of NASH still requires a liver biopsy which is suboptimal...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222911/current-and-future-therapeutic-regimens-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#10
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
NASH/NAFLD is rapidly becoming one of top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and indication for liver transplantation. Except for life style modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is hard to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD and has been shown to improve liver histology. In order to have approved regimens for treatment of NASH/NAFLD, a number of issues that must be addressed...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215462/liver-transplantation-in-cryptogenic-cirrhosis-outcome-comparisons-between-nash-alcoholic-and-aih-cirrhosis
#11
Paul Joseph Thuluvath, Steven Hanish, Yulia Savva
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) have not been adequately examined except for small case series. We believe that patients currently listed as CC have truly cryptogenic liver disease and may have different post-LT outcomes compared to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We compared the post-LT outcomes of adults with CC (n=3241) and compared them with cirrhosis from NASH (n=4089), alcohol (AC, n=7837) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, n=1435) using the UNOS database from 2002-16...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214510/myeloid-deficiency-of-ccn3-exacerbates-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Wenconghui Wu, Xingjian Hu, Xianming Zhou, Philip A Klenotic, Qi Zhou, Zhiyong Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat accumulates in the liver of patients without a prior history of alcohol abuse. The most severe form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), often leads to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis with ensuing complications. To date, there is no pharmacologic treatment for NASH. The biological effects of CCN3, specifically its role in the regulation of inflammation, reactive oxygen species production and angiogenesis, have been recently established. Additional data suggests that CCN3 is associated with the development of tumors in the liver yet may be protective of liver fibrogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210096/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-are-important-risk-factors-underlying-previously-undiagnosed-cirrhosis-in-general-practice-a-cross-sectional-study-using-transient-elastography
#13
D J Harman, S D Ryder, M W James, E A Wilkes, T R Card, G P Aithal, I N Guha
BACKGROUND: Rising cirrhosis incidence and mortality in the United Kingdom has been attributed predominantly to excess alcohol consumption. However, metabolic risk factors such as Type 2 diabetes and obesity may also be important. AIM: To screen at-risk individuals in general practice for undetected cirrhosis using transient elastography and study the risk factors underlying these cases. METHODS: The study was undertaken in 4 general practices (adult patient population 20 868) between February 2012 and September 2014...
December 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209107/functional-interaction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hepatitis-b-virus-in-the-pathogenesis-of-liver-diseases
#14
REVIEW
So Young Kim, Yi Yi Kyaw, Jaehun Cheong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a non-cytopathic virus that causes acute and chronic inflammatory liver diseases, often leading to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although many studies for the roles of HBV on pathogenesis of the liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic inflammation, cirrhosis, and HCC, have been reported, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have the protective mechanisms to restore their damaged function by intrinsic or extrinsic stresses, but their chronic dysfunctions are associated with the pathogenesis of the various diseases...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208504/hepatoprotective-effects-of-garlic-against-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Min-Jie Guan, Ning Zhao, Ke-Qin Xie, Tao Zeng
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with a diverse spectrum from steatosis to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Epidemiological studies reveal that alcohol is one of the major causes of advanced liver disease in Europe, United States, and China. Despite the considerable harm, progression in ALD research is slow and the current therapies for ALD have less efficient. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a flavoring agent and also a folk medicine since ancient time. Along with the prosperity in the use of herbal medicines for the treatment of human diseases in recent decades, a series of studies have focused on the beneficial effects of garlic against ALD...
December 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206894/liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease-a-retrospective-study
#16
Gabriele A Vassallo, Claudia Tarli, Maria M Rando, Carolina Mosoni, Antonio Mirijello, Adwoa Agyei-Nkansah, Mariangela Antonelli, Luisa Sestito, Germano Perotti, Daniela Di Giuda, Salvatore Agnes, Antonio Grieco, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Addolorato
Aim: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western World. Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment for end-stage ALD. However, many transplant centers are still reluctant to transplant these patients because of the risk of alcohol relapse, recurrence of the primary liver disease and associated post-transplant complications. We examined survival rate, prevalence of primary liver disease recurrence, re-transplantation and post-transplant complications among transplanted patients for alcoholic cirrhosis compared with those transplanted for viral cirrhosis...
December 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201778/liver-disease-in-sri-lanka
#17
REVIEW
Hasitha S Wijewantha
Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199911/an-unexpected-cause-of-liver-cirrhosis-and-cardiomyopathy-in-a-young-man
#18
Ruben Pauwels, Els Vandecasteele, Daniel Devos, Walter Pauwels, Michel De Pauw
Introduction Juvenile hemochromatosis is a rare but severe form of hereditary hemochromatosis that typically presents early in life and can be fatal if left untreated. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old man with a clear symptomatology of juvenile hemochromatosis, but in whom the diagnosis was initially mistaken for alcoholic liver disease because of known excessive use of alcohol, with the consequence that an adequate treatment was postponed. Discussion In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of juvenile hemochromatosis, focusing on the interaction between hemochromatosis and alcohol induced liver disease and how to differentiate both...
December 4, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198690/preexisting-cerebral-aspergillosis-successfully-treated-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#19
J S Lee, S-H Kim, J H Kwon, Y C Yoon
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare condition that generally affects immunosuppressed patients. The mortality of IA is known to be >90% in liver transplantation (LT) recipients; the lung is the most commonly affected organ, followed by the brain. There have been reports in the literature of cerebral aspergillosis (CA) in LT recipients. In all previous reports, CA developed after LT. We present the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of preexisting CA diagnosed and successfully treated after LT...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195673/alcohol-smoking-and-the-liver-disease-patient
#20
REVIEW
Hannes Hagström
Alcohol is an established risk factor for cirrhosis. Current recommendations for a "safe" limit for alcohol consumption are usually set to around 30 g of alcohol per day for men and 20 g per day for women, but evidence is mounting that these cut-offs might be set too high. Also, inter-individual differences in the hepatic sensitivity for alcohol likely play into the risk of development of cirrhosis. In patients with concomitant liver diseases, a synergistic effect on fibrosis progression and high consumption of alcohol is evident...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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