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alcoholic liver cirrhosis

Mads Hornum, Luit Penninga, Andreas A Rostved, Karl B Christensen, Peter Oturai, Ulla Plagborg, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen, Jens G Hillingsø, Allan Rasmussen
Background: Renal dysfunction is a serious late complication after liver transplantation (LTX), but there are no studies addressing the early changes associated with this complication. Methods: We prospectively studied glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and at 1, 3 and 12 weeks after LTX using 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance in 37 adult consecutive patients who underwent non-acute first LTX. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 49...
January 11, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Negar Rezaei, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Ali Sheidaei, Sara Khademi, Kimiya Gohari, Farnaz Delavari, Alireza Delavari, Elham Abdolhamidi, Maryam Chegini, Nazila Rezaei, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Pegah Bahrami Taghanaki, Milad Hasan, Moein Yoosefi, Farshad FarzadFar
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality number has increased over the last decades. We aimed to estimate the liver cirrhosis mortality rate and its trends for the first time by sex, age, geographical distribution, and cause in Iran. METHOD: Iranian Death Registration System, along with demographic (Complete and Summary Birth History, Maternal Age Cohort and Period methods) and statistical methods (Spatio-temporal and Gaussian process regression models) were used to address the incompleteness and misclassification and uncertainty of death registration system to estimate annual cirrhosis mortality rate...
2019: PloS One
Gurmehr Brar, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Alcohol and high-fat diet are two major risk factors responsible for metabolic diseases, which are manifested as steatohepatitis and liver cancer in the liver, and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the pancreas. These metabolic diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent around the globe, and more importantly, their two major etiologies commonly coexist to precipitate the disease processes. To highlight the importance of these metabolic diseases, Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) and National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse of National Institute of Health cosponsored the JSGE's 7th International Forum jointly held with the 12th International Symposium on ALPD and Cirrhosis...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jasmohan S Bajaj
Alcoholic liver disease, which ranges from mild disease to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol intake can lead to changes in gut microbiota composition, even before liver disease development. These alterations worsen with advancing disease and could be complicit in disease progression. Microbial function, especially related to bile acid metabolism, can modulate alcohol-associated injury even in the presence of cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis...
January 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Issah Younossi, Andrei Racila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The chronic liver disease questionnaire for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (CLDQ-NASH) was developed in a systematic manner for assessment of patient-reported outcomes. This instrument collects data on 36 items grouped into 6 domains: abdominal symptoms, activity/energy, emotional health, fatigue, systemic symptoms, and worry. We aimed to validate CLDQ-NASH in a large group of patients with NASH. METHODS: We collected data from patients with biopsy-proven NASH enrolled in 2 international phase 3 trials of selonsertib (NCT03053050 and NCT03053063)...
January 10, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
J Mayerle, D Anz, J G D'Haese, J Werner
With an increasing number of hospital admissions, an average of 16-to 20 days in hospital per year, 34% of patients constantly taking pain medication, 57% in need of enzyme supplementation, and 29% with diabetes mellitus, chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating disease of high socio-economic relevance. In total, 33% of all patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis can no longer practice their original profession. The number of unemployed chronic pancreatitis patients due to prolonged stays in hospital or continued alcohol abuse is known to be as high as 40%...
January 11, 2019: Der Internist
Pascal Lebray, Shaida Varnous
Various types of liver impairment have been described in patients with end-stage heart failure who are awaiting heart transplantation. The liver impairment may be severe, characterized by a high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) Score and/or the presence of ascites, both of which are associated with a high risk of failure after single heart transplantation. A liver function assessment is therefore necessary before registration on the heart transplant list, moreover in case of long-developing heart failure, such as with congenital heart disease or in the presence of risk factors for chronic liver disease including excessive alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome or chronic viral hepatitis B or C...
January 8, 2019: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Rahul Kumar, Eng Kiong Teo, Choon How How, Teck Yee Wong, Tiing Leong Ang
Liver fibrosis is a slow, insidious process involving accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the liver. The stage of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD) determines overall morbidity and mortality; the higher the stage, the worse the prognosis. Noninvasive composite scores can be used to determine whether patients with CLD have significant or advanced fibrosis. Patients with low composite scores can be safely followed up in primary care with periodic reassessment. Those with higher scores should be referred to a specialist...
December 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Shyam Menon, Ray Mathew
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatobiliary cancer is steadily increasing. It is unclear if this rise is related to increasing trends in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle changes. METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Cases with a diagnosis of liver, bile duct, and gallbladder cancers were matched in a 1:2 fashion with controls and analyzed for potential associations between hepatobiliary cancer and obesity/metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2019: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Susana G Rodrigues, Matteo Montani, Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Andrea De Gottardi, Annalisa Berzigotti, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradients (HVPGs) ≥10 mmHg and chronic liver disease are often assumed to have cirrhosis. We investigated the association between HVPGs and cirrhosis, using histologic findings as the reference standard. We also assessed the prevalence and characteristics of patients with HVPGs ≥10 mmHg without cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 157 consecutive patients, 89 with suspected cirrhosis and hepatic hemodynamic data collected from 2015 through 2017...
January 5, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Maria Freundlich Grydgaard, Palle Bager
OBJECTIVE: Health literacy (HL) is a concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills that comprises aspects necessary for patients to navigate in the healthcare system. Our study aimed to investigate HL in patients with liver cirrhosis and determine factors associated with low HL. METHODS: Data were collected among outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 108), using three dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire. The selected dimensions were: 'Social support for health' (Social support scale), 'Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers' (Engagement scale), and 'Understand health information well enough to know what to do' (Information scale)...
January 8, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Andreia Ribeiro, Maria-Jose Igual-Perez, Ermelinda Santos Silva, Etienne M Sokal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging entity, becoming the most prevalent pediatric chronic liver disease. Its broad spectrum of histological findings, comorbidities, and complications, including cirrhosis and liver failure, can occur in childhood, emphasizing the severity of pediatric NAFLD. Current lifestyle and diet modifications have been linked to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, including the rise of fructose consumption, a monosaccharide present in foods that contain added sugar, such as sugar-sweetened beverages...
January 2019: Hepatology Communications
Erik Christensen
There is increasing evidence of gut dysbiosis being a significant factor in the development and progression of important chronic liver diseases including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis and cirrhosis. Dysbiotic microbiota and their toxic metabolites translocate across the gut epithelium via the portal vein and cause damage to the liver. In NASH, alcohol-producing gut bacteria may be critical for its development. Therapeutic measures to normalise the gut microbiota with diet, probiotics or transplantation of normal microbiota seem to have a beneficial effect...
January 7, 2019: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Tian Yang, Lun-Yang Hu, Zhen-Li Li, Kai Liu, Han Wu, Hao Xing, Wan Yee Lau, Timothy M Pawlik, Yong-Yi Zeng, Ya-Hao Zhou, Wei-Min Gu, Hong Wang, Ting-Hao Chen, Jun Han, Chao Li, Ming-Da Wang, Meng-Chao Wu, Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Higher perioperative risks may be anticipated due to underlying steatohepatitis, while long-term outcomes after liver resection are unknown. We sought to investigate outcomes after liver resection for NAFLD-HCC versus hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HCC using propensity score matching (PSM). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent liver resection for HCC between 2003 and 2014 were identified from a multicenter database...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Nadim Mahmud, David E Kaplan, Tamar H Taddei, David S Goldberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The term acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) intends to identify chronic liver disease patients who develop rapid deterioration of liver function and high short-term mortality after an acute insult. The two prominent definitions (European Association for the Study of the Liver [EASL] and Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver [APASL]) differ, and existing literature applies to narrow patient groups. We sought to compare ACLF incidence and mortality among a diverse cohort of compensated cirrhotic patients, using both definitions...
January 7, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jian-Min Yuan, Menno Grouls, Steven G Carmella, Renwei Wang, Alisa Heskin, Yang Jiang, Yu-Ting Tan, Jennifer Adams-Haduch, Yu-Tang Gao, Stephen S Hecht
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of 347 HCC cases and 691 matched controls within a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α), a biomarker of oxidative stress, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite (PGE-M), a biomarker of the inflammation mediator PGE2, were determined in baseline urine samples using validated mass spectrometry assays...
January 5, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Brigita Smolovic, Batric Vukcevic, Damir Muhovic, Marina Ratkovic
BACKGROUND: Aspergillosis is a frequent invasive fungal infection in liver recipients (affecting 1%-9.2% of all patients), second only to candidiasis. Significant risk factors for invasive aspergillosis in liver recipients include corticosteroid therapy, neutropenia, T-cell dysfunction, renal failure and requirement for renal replacement therapy. Aspergillus infection usually affects the lungs of liver recipients, with hematogenous dissemination occurring in 50%-60% of cases. Renal involvement is rare and is considered to occur in 0...
December 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Sarah Bos, Bente van den Boom, Pieter W Kamphuisen, Jelle Adelmeijer, Hans Blokzijl, Tim Schreuder, Ton Lisman
BACKGROUND AND AIM:  Patients with cirrhosis may acquire profound changes in haemostasis. Although haemostatic changes in cirrhosis have been extensively studied, most studies were performed in groups of patients with mixed aetiology. As thrombotic events appear more common in some aetiologies of disease, notably non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestatic disease, we hypothesized that haemostatic changes might be different across aetiologies. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  We studied 109 patients with cirrhosis (31 cholestatic liver disease, 23 NASH, 37 alcoholic liver disease [ALD], 18 viral hepatitis) and 44 healthy controls...
January 4, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Luis Calzadilla-Bertot, Gary P Jeffrey, Bryon Jacques, Geoffrey McCaughan, Michael Crawford, Peter Angus, Robert Jones, Edward Gane, Stephen Munn, Graeme Macdonald, Jonathan Fawcett, Alan Wigg, John Chen, Michael Fink, Leon A Adams
The worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes has led to predictions that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) will become the leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Data supporting this prediction from outside the United States are limited. Thus, we aimed to determine trends in the frequency of NASH among adults listed and undergoing OLT in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) from 1994 to 2017. Data from the ANZ Liver Transplant Registry were analyzed with patients listed for fulminant liver failure, retransplantation, or multivisceral transplants excluded...
January 2019: Liver Transplantation
Berend J van Welzen, Tania Mudrikova, Ayman El Idrissi, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends
The burden of liver-related morbidity remains high among HIV-infected patients, despite advances in the treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis. Especially, the impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant with a prevalence of up to 50%. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the reasons for progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still not fully elucidated, but insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction and dyslipidemia seem to be the main drivers. Both HIV-infection itself and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can contribute to the development of NAFLD/NASH in various ways...
January 3, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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