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Mediastinal tumours

Daniël A Korevaar, Laurence M Crombag, Jérémie F Cohen, René Spijker, Patrick M Bossuyt, Jouke T Annema
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend endosonography with fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer, but most do not specify whether this should be through endobronchial endoscopy (EBUS), oesophageal endoscopy (EUS), or both. We assessed the added value and diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of EBUS and EUS. METHODS: For this systematic review and random effects meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science, without language restrictions, for studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Feb 25, 2016...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Lisa Squires, David Godbolt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Anna Kocurek, Bogdan Małkowski, Agnieszka Giza, Wojciech Jurczak
AIM OF THE STUDY: Determining the role of PET/CT imaging in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of seven PMBCL patients, treated at the University Hospital in Krakow, with interim PET/CT after the third course of chemo-immunotherapy.The analysis was based on the calculation of exact tumour volume and metabolic activity, compared with initial values (directly after diagnosis)...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Claudia Villanueva, Mathew Doyle, Jessica Berger, Gary Fermanis, Derek Glenn
Massive mediastinal tumours are rare in clinical practice and complete surgical resection may be associated with serious complications. Preoperative angiography and embolisation are valuable adjuncts in the management of giant tumours to decrease perioperative blood loss, provide a clear operative field and facilitate complete resection. We report the safe use of preoperative embolisation which facilitated excision via clamshell incision, of a highly vascular massive anterior mediastinal tumour with an unusual final diagnosis...
August 30, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Abdul Shahid Poovathum Parambil, Shruti Prem, Priya Mary Jacob, Rekha Appukuttan Nair
Mediastinal masses in children comprises of a heterogeneous group of tumours. In such cases, biopsy and histological analysis are mandatory for planning of treatment. We have reported an unusual aetiology for a mediastinal mass in a young boy presenting with features of Superior Vena Caval Obstruction (SVCO) who also had marked blood and marrow eosinophilia mimicking Chronic Eosinophilic Leukaemia (CEL). We have also discussed the differential diagnoses of mediastinal tumours with hyper-eosinophilia and possible therapeutic implications...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Andrea Lovece, Pamela Milito, Emanuele Asti, Luigi Bonavina
Leiomyoma is the most common oesophageal tumour and is symptomatic in about half of the patients. Dysphagia is the most common symptom. A 41-year-old woman presented with recent onset of severe orthostatic hypertension. During the cardiological work-up, a mediastinal mass was found at transthoracic echocardiogram. Further investigation (upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, CT scan and cardiac MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of a large oesophageal submucosal mass compressing the supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Weigang Zhao, Wentao Fang
Thymoma is an epithelial neoplasm of the thymus. It commonly lies in the anterior mediastinum and represents 20-30% of mediastinal tumours in adults. In this report we present a case of giant thymoma locating in the anterior-inferior mediastinum. A 46-year-old male came to our institute with slight pectoralgia and dyspnea. Chest CT shows a giant tumor measuring 19 cm × 16 cm × 15 cm in the left thoracic cavity. After careful examination, we performed surgery. At surgery, we found the tumor was adherent to left upper lobe of the lung, mediastinal pleura, and parietal pleural...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
P Maingon
The concept of image-guided radiotherapy benefits from the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) associated with different capacities of tissue analyses such as spectroscopy or diffusion analysis. The production of devices allowing the repositioning of patients through MRI represents a strong added value without delivering any additional dose to the patient while the optimization of the adaptative strategies are facilitated by a better contrast of the soft tissues compared to the scanner. The advantages of MRI are well demonstrated for brain tumours, head and neck carcinomas, pelvic tumors, mediastinal malignancies, gastrointestinal tract diseases...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Thomas Tsitsias, Levon Toufektzian, Tom Routledge, John Pilling
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether there is a specific subgroup of patients that would benefit from pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). A total of 524 papers were identified using the reported search, of which 1 meta-analysis, 1 systematic review and 17 retrospective studies represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, country, study type, population, outcomes and key results are tabulated...
August 29, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
T T Win, Z Kamaludin, A Husin
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a distinct clinicopathological entity in the WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. It is known to originate from B-cells of the thymus. It mimics thymic neoplasms and other lymphomas clinically and histopathologically. We reported a 33-year-old obese man who presented with shortness of breath off and on for 4 years. Radiologically, there was a huge anterior mediastinal mass. Tru-cut biopsy was initially diagnosed as type-A thymoma...
August 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Paul Flechsig, Philipp Frank, Clemens Kratochwil, Gerald Antoch, Daniel Rath, Jan Moltz, Michael Rieser, Arne Warth, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Lawrence H Schwartz, Uwe Haberkorn, Frederik L Giesel
PURPOSE: Mediastinal nodal (N)-staging done by integrated 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) in lung cancer patients is not always accurate. In order to reduce the need for invasive staging procedures, additional surrogate parameters for the detection of malignant lymph node infiltration would be helpful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if radiomic semi-automated density profiling in mediastinal lymph nodes can improve preclinical N-staging, irrespective of the specific lung cancer entity...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Aliena Badshah, Salman Khan, Usman Saeed
This report describes a patient who presented with pancoast syndrome, secondary to spindle cell sarcoma of the lung. A 56-year man presented with dyspnea, engorged neck veins and bilateral upper limb pitting edema. The patient also had ptosis and miosis in the right eye. Right ulnar nerve palsy with atrophy of hand muscles was seen. His chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion with an opacity involving the apex of the right lung along with mediastinal widening. Echocardiography revealed a pericardial effusion which was drained...
July 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
P Nesnídal, J Štulík, R Lischke, M Barna
UNLABELLED: The case of a 15-year-old girl with a large ganglioneuroma in the mediastinum and spinal canal is presented. The tumour initially manifested as scoliosis. Its diagnosis was made on the basis of CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging, and confirmed by thoracoscopic mediastinal biopsy. Radical tumour excision was indicated. The first stage involved removal of the tumour from the spinal canal through a posterior approach, and transpedicular fixation of the spinal column with correction of the curve...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Jun-Feng Liu, Tao Jiang, Zhi-Hua Shi, Xin-Bo Liu
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG) potentially metastasizes to lymph nodes (LNs) in the abdomen and thorax. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of metastatic LN location on prognosis in patients with AEG. METHODS: From May 2000 to March 2002, 645 patients with AEG underwent resection in our hospital. There were 525 males and 120 females, aged from 31 to 78 years (median = 60 years). Follow-up was carried out by correspondence every 6 months...
July 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Jonas Scherman Rydhög, Steen Riisgaard Mortensen, Klaus Richter Larsen, Paul Clementsen, Rasmus Irming Jølck, Mirjana Josipovic, Marianne Camille Aznar, Lena Specht, Thomas Lars Andresen, Per Munck Af Rosenschöld, Gitte Fredberg Persson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We analysed the positional and structural stability of a long-term biodegradable liquid fiducial marker (BioXmark) for radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Markers were injected via endoscopic- or endobronchial ultrasound in lymph nodes and reachable primary tumours. Marker volume and Hounsfield Units (HU) changing rates were estimated using breath-hold CBCT. Inter-fraction variation in marker position relative to gross tumour volume (GTV) position was established, as well as the inter-fraction variation in mediastinal marker registration relative to a carina registration through the treatment...
July 18, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Adam Bubel, Paweł Rogoziński, Krzysztof Bruliński
A mature teratoma is a tumour of primary germ cells. It is often found in the mediastinum. The authors describe a case of a young man who demonstrated haemoptysis as the only symptom of a mediastinal tumour. The tumour was removed operatively, sent for histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. The removed tumour was a mature teratoma including elements of the pancreas. The authors revealed the presence of trypsin in the pancreatic acinar cells. The proteolytic activity of the tumour was taken as the cause of haemoptysis because of enzymatic erosion of lung tissue intimately attached to the tumour...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
P Jacobs, D Stein, P C Bornman, E Bolding, P Close, S Cunningham
Fibrosing retroperitoneal changes can mimic malignant tumours. The correlation with beta-blockers has long been known where practolol was the prototype agent. It is now possible to report supradiaphragmatic occurrence of a similar pathology and its link with later generation beta adrenergic receptor blocking drugs leading to a diagnosis of lymphoma. This rare association needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of mass lesions in both abdomen and chest.
1997: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
José María González-Santos, María Elena Arnáiz-García, Ángel Muñoz-Herrera, Javier López-Rodríguez
A 60-year-old male patient who previously underwent carotid and jugular paraganglioma resections was referred because of a mediastinal recurrence at the root of the great vessels. Coronary angiography confirmed the circumflex artery of the left coronary artery as the feeding artery of the tumour. The patient underwent surgery due to the tumour's location and malignant potential. Upon mass resection, histopathological examination characterized the tumour as a secondary paraganglioma. Neuroendocrine tumours arising from chromaffin tissues at the extra-adrenal paraganglions of the autonomic nervous system are termed paragangliomas...
July 1, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
M J Trott, G Farah, V J Stokes, L M Wang, A B Grossman
UNLABELLED: We present a case of a young female patient with a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion from a thymic neuroendocrine tumour. A 34-year-old female presented with a constellation of symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, including facial swelling, muscle weakness and cognitive impairment. We use the terms 'relapsing and remitting' in this case report, given the unpredictable time course of symptoms, which led to a delay of 2 years before the correct diagnosis of hypercortisolaemia...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Marina T van Leeuwen, Howard Gurney, Jennifer J Turner, Sandra L Turner, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Maarit A Laaksonen, Paul Harnett, Bavanthi Balakrishnar, Dhanusha Sabanathan, Claire M Vajdic
PURPOSE: Germ cell tumour (GCT) aetiology is uncertain and comprehensive epidemiological studies of GCT incidence are few. METHODS: Nationwide data on all malignant GCTs notified to Australian population-based cancer registries during 1982-2011 were obtained. Age- and sex-specific, and World age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for paediatric (0-14) and adult (15+) cases using the latest WHO subtype classification scheme. Temporal trends were examined using Joinpoint regression...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
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