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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#1
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806184/noninfectious-aortitis-what-the-cardiologist-needs-to-know
#2
Ingolf Töpel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To sum up a group of noninfectious inflammatory diseases of the aorta and its branches relevant to a cardiologist's daily routine. To describe pathogenetic and clinical advances as well as modern diagnostic tools. To overview most recent treatment options and patient-tailored therapies. To provide an insight in future directions of research. RECENT FINDINGS: Pathophysiology of large vessel vasculitides (LVV) are still poorly defined. At least a certain number of patients with idiopathic periaortitis seem to part of the group of IgG4-related diseases which has implications for therapy...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805938/what-is-new-in-the-pathophysiology-of-acne-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
B Dréno
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology includes hyperseborrhoea, abnormal follicular keratinization and Propionibacterium acnes proliferation in the pilosebaceous unit. Recent research has shed some new light on the involvement of the sebaceous gland, as well as on the pro-inflammatory activity of the cutaneous microbiome. During puberty, alteration of the sebaceous lipid profile, called dysseborrhoea, stress, irritation, cosmetics and potential dietary factors lead to inflammation and formation of different types of acne lesions...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805415/actualizing-culture-change-the-promoting-excellent-alternatives-in-kansas-nursing-homes-peak-2-0-program
#4
Gayle A Doll, Laci J Cornelison, Heath Rath, Maggie L Syme
Nursing homes have been challenged in their attempts to achieve deep, organizational change (i.e., culture change) aimed at providing quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents through person-centered care. To attain deep change, 2 well-defined components must be in place: a shared understanding of (a) the what, or content goals, and (b) the how, or process of change. However, there are few examples of this at a macro or micro level in long-term care. In an effort to enact true culture change in nursing homes statewide, the Kansas Department for Aging and Disability Services implemented the Promoting Excellent Alternatives in Kansas Nursing Homes program...
August 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803767/semantic-control-deficits-impair-understanding-of-thematic-relationships-more-than-object-identity
#5
Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies
Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item changes depending on the context (for example, lamp goes with reading, bicycle and police). Control processes might stabilise weak yet currently-relevant interpretations during event understanding...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803713/a-review-of-the-key-factors-to-improve-adult-immunization-coverage-rates-what-can-the-clinician-do
#6
Litjen L J Tan
Adult immunization coverage rates remain low in the United States and internationally, despite obvious benefits to vaccinating and maintaining a well-vaccinated adult population. Broad policy changes are required to identify and address gaps in financing, in immunization infrastructure, and patient and provider awareness and knowledge to improve the protection of our adult and aging population from vaccine-preventable diseases. There is good evidence that efforts are now underway both within the United States and across the world to advance these policy changes...
August 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803114/the-inferomedial-femoral-neck-is-compromised-by-age-but-not-disease-fracture-toughness-and-the-multifactorial-mechanisms-comprising-reference-point-microindentation
#8
T Jenkins, O L Katsamenis, O G Andriotis, L V Coutts, B Carter, D G Dunlop, R O C Oreffo, C Cooper, N C Harvey, P J Thurner, The OStEO Group
The influence of ageing on the fracture mechanics of cortical bone tissue is well documented, though little is known about if and how related material properties are further affected in two of the most prominent musculoskeletal diseases, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA). The femoral neck, in close proximity to the most pertinent osteoporotic fracture site and near the hip joint affected by osteoarthritis, is a site of particular interest for investigation. We have recently shown that Reference Point micro-Indentation (RPI) detects differences between cortical bone from the femoral neck of healthy, osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic hip replacement patients...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802272/transcriptional-analysis-of-an-ammonium-excreting-strain-of-azotobacter-vinelandii-deregulated-for-nitrogen-fixation
#9
Brett M Barney, Mary H Plunkett, Velmurugan Natarajan, Florence Mus, Carolann M Knutson, John W Peters
Biological nitrogen fixation is accomplished by a diverse group of organisms known as diazotrophs, and requires the function of the complex metalloenzyme nitrogenase. Nitrogenase and many of the accessory proteins required for proper cofactor biosynthesis and incorporation into the enzyme have been characterized, but a complete picture of the reaction mechanism and key cellular changes that accompany biological nitrogen fixation remain to be fully elucidated. Studies have revealed that specific disruptions to the anti-activator encoding gene nifL result in the deregulation of the nif transcriptional activator NifA in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, triggering the production of extracellular ammonium levels approaching 30 mM during the stationary phase of growth...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801800/the-horizontal-plane-appearances-of-scoliosis-what-information-can-be-obtained-from-top-view-images
#10
REVIEW
Tamás S Illés, Máté Burkus, Szabolcs Somoskeőy, Fabien Lauer, Francois Lavaste, Jean F Dubousset
PURPOSE: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. METHODS: We used an EOS two-/three-dimensional (2D/3D) system and its sterEOS 3D software for 3D reconstruction of 139 normal and 814 scoliotic spines-of which 95 cases were analyzed pre-operatively and post-operatively, as well...
August 11, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801790/cardiovascular-disease-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Blossom C M Stephan, Stephanie L Harrison, Hannah A D Keage, Abrar Babateen, Louise Robinson, Mario Siervo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarise the evidence on the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment and explore the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway as a causal mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that the presence of CVD and its risk factors in midlife is associated with an increased risk of later life cognitive impairment and dementia. It is unclear what is driving this association but risk may be conveyed via an increase in neurodegeneration (e...
August 11, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801423/comparative-efficacy-and-acceptability-of-antidepressants-psychological-interventions-and-their-combination-for-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis
#12
Xinyu Zhou, Andrea Cipriani, Yuqing Zhang, Pim Cuijpers, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Juncai Pu, Cinzia Del Giovane, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Jürgen Barth, David Coghill, Stefan Leucht, Lining Yang, Arun V Ravindran, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801301/exploring-user-learnability-and-learning-performance-in-an-app-for-depression-usability-study
#13
Colleen Stiles-Shields, Enid Montague, Emily G Lattie, Stephen M Schueller, Mary J Kwasny, David C Mohr
BACKGROUND: Mental health apps tend to be narrow in their functioning, with their focus mostly being on tracking, management, or psychoeducation. It is unclear what capability such apps have to facilitate a change in users, particularly in terms of learning key constructs relating to behavioral interventions. Thought Challenger (CBITs, Chicago) is a skill-building app that engages users in cognitive restructuring, a core component of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learnability and learning performance of users following initial use of Thought Challenger...
August 11, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800797/a-modern-day-fight-club-the-stabilization-and-management-of-acutely-agitated-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#14
REVIEW
Andrew New, Veronica Theresa Tucci, Juan Rios
This article is an overview of the treatment and management of acutely agitated patients as they present in the emergency department or emergency psychiatric facility. This article focuses on how a patient encounter may unfold and what issues need to be considered along the way. Verbal de-escalation is emphasized as a standard of care, including the offering of environmental changes and medications when indicated. Approved medications are reviewed as well as the proper use of restraints.
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800591/frequencies-of-decision-making-and-monitoring-in-adaptive-resource-management
#15
Byron K Williams, Fred A Johnson
Adaptive management involves learning-oriented decision making in the presence of uncertainty about the responses of a resource system to management. It is implemented through an iterative sequence of decision making, monitoring and assessment of system responses, and incorporating what is learned into future decision making. Decision making at each point is informed by a value or objective function, for example total harvest anticipated over some time frame. The value function expresses the value associated with decisions, and it is influenced by system status as updated through monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800360/prerequisites-for-a-dry-powder-inhaler-for-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
Anne J Lexmond, Paul Hagedoorn, Henderik W Frijlink, Bart L Rottier, Anne H de Boer
Correct inhalation technique is essential for effective use of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), as their effectiveness largely depends on the patient's inhalation manoeuvre. Children are an especially challenging target population for DPI development due to the large variability in understanding and inspiratory capacities. We previously performed a study in which we determined the prerequisites for a paediatric DPI in a mostly healthy paediatric population, for which we used an empty test inhaler with variable internal airflow resistance and mouthpiece...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800336/development-of-a-new-self-reporting-instrument-measuring-benefits-and-side-effects-of-corticosteroids-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-report-from-a-pilot-study
#17
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Judith M Lionarons, Jos G M Hendriksen, Johan S H Vles, Laura C McAdam, W Douglas Biggar
BACKGROUND: There is no cure for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD); treatment is symptomatic and corticosteroids slow the progression. Side effects of corticosteroids - especially the physical effects - have been described, however patients' and caregivers perception on chronic corticosteroid treatment and their side effects is less well known, in particular with regards to cognition, behaviour, and emotional functioning. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this pilot study was to (i) construct a self-report questionnaire to assess the perceived benefits and side effects of corticosteroids for patients with DMD and their parents...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800248/how-phenotypic-screening-influenced-drug-discovery-lessons-from-five-years-of-practice
#18
Dorothea Haasen, Ulrich Schopfer, Christophe Antczak, Chantale Guy, Florian Fuchs, Paul Selzer
Since 2011, phenotypic screening has been a trend in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in academia. This renaissance was triggered by analyses that suggested that phenotypic screening is a superior strategy to discover first-in-class drugs. Despite these promises and considerable investments, pharmaceutical research organizations have encountered considerable challenges with the approach. Few success stories have emerged in the past 5 years and companies are questioning their investment in this area. In this contribution, we outline what we have learned about success factors and challenges of phenotypic screening...
August 11, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800151/cost-comparison-of-prediction-based-decision-making-for-periodontally-affected-molars
#19
Falk Schwendicke, Michael Stolpe, Christian Graetz
AIM: Tooth loss prediction could improve decision-making for periodontally-affected molars. We analyzed the costs of removing all, none or only those molars predicted to be at-risk for extraction during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). METHODS: This is a model-based study using a German private-payer-perspective. Building mainly on cost and effectiveness data from 2039 molars (301 patients) which received long-term SPT, five (exemplary) prediction/decision strategies were compared: Retaining all molars, removing molars with furcation-involvement (FI) ≥I/≥II/III, or removing all molars...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799799/it-s-rarely-just-about-the-food
#20
Patricia Chuey
Why are you a dietitian doing what you do? Although we absolutely must keep food central in our conversations about nutritional well-being, our work is rarely ever about food alone. There's always so much more than meets the eye. Reflecting on an entrepreneurial path over 3 decades, the meaning of it all became clearer with each role. Patricia shares perspective on how the more deeply we understand this "thing", the more success we'll have. It's crucial to our effectiveness as communicators, counsellors, colleagues, and citizens of the world...
September 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
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