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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#1
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135270/-effectiveness-of-prenatal-ultrasound-in-fetal-and-neonatal-malformations-and-examination-of-difficulty-and-uncertainty-factors
#2
Fanni Rebeka Erős, Artúr Beke
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The birth prevalence of congenital malformations is around 2-3%. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of ultrasound diagnostics in detecting congenital malformations. METHOD: We have processed the prenatal sonographic and postnatal clinical details of 1867 inborn abnormalities in 1200 fetuses over a 7-year period. RESULTS: The mean maternal age upon delivery/abortion was 29.96 ± 5.88 years. In 671 cases, the pregnancy concluded in delivery with a mean gestational age of 35...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127207/perinatal-outcomes-after-treatment-with-adhd-medication-during-pregnancy
#3
Ulrika Nörby, Birger Winbladh, Karin Källén
OBJECTIVES: To analyze perinatal outcomes after maternal use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication during pregnancy. METHODS: The study included singletons born between 2006 and 2014 in Sweden. Data on prescription drug use, pregnancies, deliveries, and the newborn infants' health were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Prescribed Drug Register, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. We compared infants exposed to ADHD medication during pregnancy with infants whose mothers never used these drugs and infants whose mothers used ADHD medication before or after pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102110/fetopathic-effects-of-experimental-schmallenberg-virus-infection-in-pregnant-goats
#4
Eve Laloy, Emmanuel Bréard, Sascha Trapp, Nathalie Pozzi, Mickaël Riou, Céline Barc, Sylvain Breton, Rémi Delaunay, Nathalie Cordonnier, Sophie Chateau-Joubert, Didier Crochet, Julie Gouzil, Typhaine Hébert, Maxime Raimbourg, Cyril Viarouge, Damien Vitour, Benoît Durand, Claire Ponsart, Stéphan Zientara
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging virus responsible for congenital malformations in the offspring of domestic ruminants. It is speculated that infection of pregnant dams may also lead to a significant number of unrecognized fetal losses during the early period of gestation. To assess the pathogenic effects of SBV infection of goats in early pregnancy, we inoculated dams at day 28 or 42 of gestation and followed the animals until day 55 of gestation. Viremia in the absence of clinical signs was detected in all virus-inoculated goats...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099699/epidemiological-features-of-the-perinatal-risk-factors-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-georgia-pilot-study
#5
N Tskimanauri, N Khachapuridze, T Chanadiri, S Bakhtadze
The purpose of this work was to identify and evaluate the epidemiological features, like the point prevalence of the perinatal risk factors and related to them pathological conditions revealing at the neonatal period. The descriptive population based prospective pilot study of children population of age 0-2 years was con-ducted in the City Tbilisi (in clinical centers "Medcapital", "family center N3" and "Valeo"), also in medical centers of districts of Mtsketa and Dusheti in period January 2015- January 2017...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097334/brainstem-cavernous-malformations-surgical-indications-based-on-the-natural-history-and-surgical-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Ming-Guo Xie, Da Li, Fang-Zhou Guo, Li-Wei Zhang, Jun-Ting Zhang, Zhen Wu, Guo-Lu Meng, Xin-Ru Xiao
Cavernous malformations (CMs) are uncommon lesions occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), with an incidence of approximately 0.5% in the general population and constituting 5-10% of all intracranial vascular malformations. Among CMs, prevalence within the brainstem as reported in the literature has ranged from 4 to 35%. With their precarious location and potentially devastating clinical events, brainstem CMs have attracted attention from neurosurgeons, and with their unrelenting efforts, the microsurgical techniques to treat these lesions in the brainstem have greatly improved in recent decades...
October 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063958/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-chemically-induced-allele-at-the-planar-cell-polarity-gene-vangl2
#7
Abdul-Rahman El-Hassan, Vicki Leung, Fares Kharfallah, Marie-Claude Guyot, Redouane Allache, Philippe Gros, Zoha Kibar
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls a number of morphogenetic processes including convergent extension during gastrulation and neural tube formation. Defects in this pathway cause neural tube defects (NTD), the most common malformations of the central nervous system. The Looptail (Lp) mutant mouse was the first mammalian mutant implicating a PCP gene (Vangl2) in the pathogenesis of NTD. We report on a novel chemically induced mutant allele at Vangl2 called Curly Bob that causes a missense mutation p...
October 24, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055384/the-central-nervous-system-pressure-histogram-in-hydrocephalus-and-hydromyelia
#8
H F Williams
This work makes proposals on the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and hydrocephalus that changes over time with the evolution of the disease. This includes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filling mechanism that leads to an increase in mode pressure if excess fluid volume exacerbates the obstructive process. Elevation in mode occurs because pressure in the central nervous system (CNS) represents a state of reduced flow, rather than an abnormality of volume. Diseases that cause elevated mode pressure by means of a primary edema can lead to hydrocephalus if there is sufficient time and obstruction to flow for the filling mechanism to act...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042787/perinatal-and-follow-up-outcome-study-of-fetal-anomalies-with-multidisciplinary-consultation
#9
Genxia Li, Na Yang, Mingkun Xie, Yajuan Xu, Ning Han, Qi Chen, Hezhou Li, Yueli Wu, Chunhua Cheng, Yuhong Wang, Man Zhou, Bo Xia, Shuhua Guo, Shihong Cui
SYNOPSIS: The establishment of a multidisciplinary consultation system is necessary for the diagnosis of complicated fetal anomalies. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the incidences of different types of fetal anomalies and the influence of multidisciplinary consultation on fetal prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multidisciplinary specialists include obstetricians, pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and experts of ultrasound department and genetic counseling...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033382/clinical-pathological-correlations-in-three-patients-with-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva
#10
Kelly L Wentworth, Katherine Bigay, Tea V Chan, Jennifer P Ho, Blanca M Morales, Joseph Connor, Erin Brooks, M Shahriar Salamat, Henry Charles Sanchez, Geoffrey Wool, Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan, Edward C Hsiao
OBJECTIVE: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare genetic disorder in which heterotopic bone forms in the soft tissues. This often occurs in response to injury or inflammation, leading to joint immobilization and significant disability. There are currently no definitive treatment options for this devastating disease. Although the most dramatic phenotype in FOP is the episodic and progressive heterotopic ossification, patients report a number of symptoms that affect other organ systems...
October 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030170/in-utero-negativization-of-zika-virus-in-a-case-with-serious-central-nervous-system-abnormalities
#11
Carlota Rodó, Anna Suy, Elena Sulleiro, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Andrés Antón, Itziar García, Silvia Arévalo, Élida Vázquez, Ana Vázquez, Fernando de Ory, M Paz Sánchez-Seco, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomás Pumarola, Elena Carreras
OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of a pregnant woman with Zika virus infection and severe fetal brain malformations. METHODS: Serial ultrasound measurements, fetal magnetic resonance imaging results, laboratory and amniocentesis results, and perinatal outcomes of the pregnant woman and her neonate are reported. RESULTS: Zika virus tested positive in amniotic fluid at 19 weeks while being negative at delivery. The newborn did not meet the case definition of congenital Zika virus syndrome because neither the Zika virus RNA nor immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected; however, prenatal brain lesions were confirmed after birth...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019762/central-nervous-system-effects-of-intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-review
#12
Bianca Guedes Ribeiro, Heron Werner, Flávia P P L Lopes, L Celso Hygino da Cruz, Tatiana M Fazecas, Pedro A N Daltro, Renata A Nogueira
Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#13
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987191/developmental-and-perinatal-brain-diseases
#14
Homa Adle-Biassette, Jeffery A Golden, Brian Harding
This chapter briefly describes the normal development of the nervous system, the neuropathology and pathophysiology of acquired and secondary disorders affecting the embryo, fetus, and child. They include CNS manifestations of chromosomal change; forebrain patterning defects; disorders of the brain size; cell migration and specification disorders; cerebellum, hindbrain and spinal patterning defects; hydrocephalus; secondary malformations and destructive pathologies; vascular malformations; arachnoid cysts and infectious diseases...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984371/sonographic-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-fetal-arachnoid-cysts
#15
Linliang Yin, Zhong Yang, Qi Pan, Jun Zhang, Xiaobing Li, Feng Wang, Yanlin Ye, Xuedong Deng, Chunhong Hu
PURPOSE: To explore the clinical significance of sonographic (US) diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts and to evaluate their prognosis. METHODS: Sixty fetuses deemed to have arachnoid cysts by prenatal US were included in this study. Data from serial US, prenatal and/or postnatal MRI, or post-mortem examinations were retrospectively analyzed. For live births, the developmental quotient scores were determined using the Gesell Developmental Scale. RESULTS: Thirty fetuses were diagnosed during the second trimester and another 30 fetuses were diagnosed in the third trimester...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968597/cerebral-cavernous-malformations-patient-reported-outcome-validates-conservative-management
#16
Vitor Chehuen Bicalho, Anke Bergmann, Flávio Domingues, João Thiago Frossard, Jorge Paes Barreto Marcondes de Souza
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. In contradistinction to arteriovenous malformations, these lesions do not have smooth muscle or elastin in their lining and they are angiographically occult, and the MRI is the most sensitive test for CCM detection. CCM are one of the most prevalent vascular malformations of the central nervous system, affecting about 0.4-0.6% of the general population...
October 3, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940600/chromosomal-aneuploidies-and-copy-number-variations-in-posterior-fossa-abnormalities-diagnosed-by-prenatal-ultrasonography
#17
Ting Lei, Jie-Ling Feng, Ying-Jun Xie, Hong-Ning Xie, Ju Zheng, Mei-Fang Lin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic aetiology of fetal posterior fossa abnormalities (PFAs). METHODS: This study involved cases of PFAs that were identified by prenatal ultrasonographic screening and confirmed postnatally between January 2012 and January 2016. Conventional cytogenetic analyses and chromosomal microarray analysis were performed, and chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were identified. RESULTS: Among 74 cases included in this study, 8 were of Blake's pouch cyst; 7, Dandy-Walker malformation; 11, vermian hypoplasia; 32, enlarged cisterna magna; and 16, cerebellar hypoplasia...
September 20, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928561/periprocedural-management-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-patients-an-11-year-experience
#18
Ajay Prasad Hrishi, Karen Ruby Lionel
CONTEXT: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare arteriovenous malformation where a dilated median prosencephalic vein provides a low-resistance conduit for intracerebral blood flow resulting in high-output cardiac failure, severe pulmonary hypertension, with or without central nervous system symptoms secondary to hydrocephalus, in the neonatal and pediatric population. AIM: This study aims to analysis of the anesthetic management of this unique subset of patients with VGAM...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917252/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-the-brain-a-review-of-common-indications
#19
Philip Gilbo, Isabella Zhang, Jonathan Knisely
Over the past half-century since Lars Leksell first utilized radiation to address deep and difficult to treat lesions of the central nervous system (CNS), intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become an increasingly valued tool in the hands of neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists. Following developments in medical imaging and radiation technology, radiosurgery has evolved from its first application in movement disorders to widespread use for a varied range of malignant and benign conditions. SRS remains a powerful, minimally invasive instrument that offers additional options for intervention to a diverse patient population...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#20
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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