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Serli Önlü, Melek Türker Saçan
The authors constructed novel, robust and validated linear Quantitative Structure-Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models in line with OECD criteria using the two cytotoxicity data sets which were obtained from the Alamar Blue (AB) and 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) assays. The data sets comprise the cytotoxic effect of structurally diverse and widely used pharmaceuticals, synthetic musks and industrial chemicals on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cell line RTL-W1. Common descriptors defined the relationship between structure and cytotoxicity for both the AB and the CFDA-AM assays which measure the metabolic activity and membrane integrity, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
M Rieck, A F Schumacher-Schuh, V Altmann, S M Callegari-Jacques, C R M Rieder, M H Hutz
Levodopa is the most used drug to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, dopaminergic side effects such as nausea and vomiting may occur. Several evidences indicate a major role for dopamine receptors D2 (DRD2) and D3 (DRD3) in emetic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of DRD2 rs1799732 and DRD3 rs6280 gene polymorphisms with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms induced by levodopa in PD patients. Two hundred and seventeen PD patients on levodopa therapy were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
K He, Y Wu
Plants are sessile organisms exposed constantly to potential virulent microbes seeking for full pathogenesis in hosts. Different from animals employing both adaptive and innate immune systems, plants only rely on innate immunity to detect and fight against pathogen invasions. Plant innate immunity is proposed to be a two-tiered immune system including pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In PTI, PAMPs, the elicitors derived from microbial pathogens, are perceived by cell surface-localized proteins, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs)...
2016: Enzymes
Aleš Ulrych, Nela Holečková, Jana Goldová, Linda Doubravová, Oldřich Benada, Olga Kofroňová, Petr Halada, Pavel Branny
BACKGROUND: Reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases is the primary mechanism for signal transduction in all living organisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a single Ser/Thr protein kinase, StkP, which plays a role in virulence, stress resistance and the regulation of cell wall synthesis and cell division. However, the role of its cognate phosphatase, PhpP, is not well defined. RESULTS: Here, we report the successful construction of a ΔphpP mutant in the unencapsulated S...
October 24, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Shavini Wijesuriya, Krishna Burugapalli, Ruth Mackay, Godwin Chukwuebuka Ajaezi, Wamadeva Balachandran
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates manufactured using complex nano-patterning techniques have become the norm. However, their cost of manufacture makes them unaffordable to incorporate into most biosensors. The technique shown in this paper is low-cost, reliable and highly sensitive. Chemical etching of solid Ag metal was used to produce simple, yet robust SERS substrates with broadband characteristics. Etching with ammonium hydroxide (NH₄OH) and nitric acid (HNO₃) helped obtain roughened Ag SERS substrates...
October 19, 2016: Sensors
Xiaolei Zhang, Huimin Sui, Xiaolei Wang, Hongyang Su, Weina Cheng, Xu Wang, Bing Zhao
A nanoscale metal-molecule-semiconductor assembly (Ag/4-mercaptophenol/TiO2) has been fabricated over Au nanoparticle (NP) films as a model to study the interfacial charge transfer (CT) effects involved in Ag/MPH/TiO2. Due to the interaction between Au NPs and Ag NPs, some distinct differences occur in the SERS spectra. We also measured the SERS of Ag/MPH (4-mercaptophenol), Ag/MPH/TiO2, and Au/Ag/MPH/TiO2 assemblies at excitation wavelengths of 477, 514, 532, 633, and 785 nm. We found that the changes in the CT process, caused by the introduction of TiO2 and Au, can be reflected in SERS...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhenglong Zhang, Yurui Fang, Wenhui Wang, Li Chen, Mengtao Sun
Plasmonics is a well-established field, exploiting the interaction of light and metals at the nanoscale; with the help of surface plasmon polaritons, remote-excitation can also be observed by using silver or gold plasmonic waveguides. Recently, plasmonic catalysis was established as a new exciting platform for heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Recent reports present remote-excitation surface catalytic reactions as a route to enhance the rate of chemical reactions, and offer a pathway to control surface catalytic reactions...
January 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Yongle Li, Zijie Chen, Ning Yu, Keyu Yao, Yiwen Che, Yupeng Xi, Shuangqing Zhai
Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) does great harm to women following childbirth. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of PPD. Methods. Published or ongoing registered trials were searched for from the inception of the various databases to December 31, 2015. Data extraction and methodology assessment were conducted independently by two researchers. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze the data. Results. Forty-seven registered clinical trials (RCTs) were identified and reviewed...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Alberto Vázquez-Salazar, George Tan, Amanda Stockton, Renato Fani, Arturo Becerra, Antonio Lazcano
The five-membered heterocyclic imidazole group, which is an essential component of purines, histidine and many cofactors, has been abiotically synthesized in different model experiments that attempt to simulate the prebiotic environment. The evolutionary significance of imidazoles is highlighted not only by its presence in nucleic acid components and in histidine, but also by experimental reports of its ability to restore the catalytic activity of ribozymes. However, as of today there are no reports of histidine in carbonaceous chondrites, and although the abiotic synthesis of His reported by Shen et al...
October 22, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Bharat Baruah, Toni-Ann Miller
This article reports a surface modification of gold nanoparticles with water soluble polyoxometalate, V10O28(6-) (decavanadate, V10). Two sizes of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles AuNP-Citrate-S (∼11nm) and AuNP-Citrate-L (∼46nm) were modified with V10 in aqueous media to form AuNP-V10-S and AuNP-V10-L, respectively. Both AuNP-V10-S and AuNP-V10-L were found to be significantly better than their citrate counterparts in strengthening Raman vibrational signals of analyte molecule. All the nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) line analysis...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jung Seok Hwang, Sun Ah Ham, Taesik Yoo, Won Jin Lee, Kyung Shin Paek, Jae-Hwan Kim, Chi-Ho Lee, Han Geuk Seo
Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, mediates cellular processes involved in gene silencing and aging. The regulation of lifespan by SIRT1 has been extensively investigated, but less is known about the mechanisms associated with its cellular turnover during inflammatory responses. In this study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is associated with SIRT1 stability in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yan Xu, Yawei Xing, Yanjie Xu, Chahua Huang, Huihui Bao, Kui Hong, Xiaoshu Cheng
We know that silencing Bim, a pro-apoptosis protein, significantly attenuates glucose and oxygen-deprived induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the Bim activation in the heart have remained unknown. Pim-2 is one of three Pim serine/threonine kinase family members thought to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition in vitro, mimicking ischemic/reperfusion injury in vivo. H/R augmented the expression of Bim, Cyt C, and Pim-2 and induced H9c2 cell apoptosis...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Beatriz Yoldi Muñoz, Antonio Gómez Centeno, José Vicente Moreno Muelas
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatologic care is offered by the National Health System in Spain. However, more than a quarter of health spending is carried out in private medicine. Currently, there are no data about the number of rheumatologists with private activity in Spain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the number of rheumatologists with private activity in Spain and to describe the profile and location of these professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey was developed and sent from the SER Commission on Private Practice to all SER active members...
October 18, 2016: Reumatología Clinica
Chenglong Hu, Shaoyun Chen, Yuan Wang, Xueqing Liu, Jiyan Liu, Weihong Zhang, Jian Chen, Wenzhi Zhang
Recently, considerable efforts have been made to prepare Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanostructures with high sensitivity and good reproducibility, which are always difficult and costly. In this article, we provide a simple route on the synthesis of silver particles with a novel single {111} plane and triangular morphology by reducing silver nitrate with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions. The results show that the Raman intensities of rhodamine 6G (R6G) decrease with decreasing the loading concentration and that R6G loading follows the first-order adsorption kinetics...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yunfei Tian, Peng Wu, Qin Liu, Xi Wu, Xiandeng Hou
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been applied in a range of fields for its super high sensitivity which can even reach the single molecule level. But the quantification methods based on SERS still have some challenges such as stability, repeatability, and linearity at low concentrations. Here we propose a new quantification approach by using a total mapping scheme, and then add all the spectra together to obtain a final merged spectrum (a total SERS spectrum). The total SERS spectra were used to perform quantification analysis...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Shih-Hsin Tu, Yin-Ching Lin, Chi-Cheng Huang, Po-Sheng Yang, Hui-Wen Chang, Chien-Hsi Chang, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Li-Ching Chen, Yuan-Soon Ho
We previously demonstrated that the activation of α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAchR) signaling by smoking promotes breast cancer formation. To investigate the downstream signaling molecules involved in α9-nAChR-induced breast tumorigenesis, we used real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting to assess expression of protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F (PPM1F), a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, in human breast cancer samples (n=167). Additionally, stable PPM1F-knockdown and -overexpressing cell lines were established to evaluate the function of PPM1F...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Boris Redko, Helena Tuchinsky, Tamar Segal, Dror Tobi, Galia Luboshits, Osnat Ashur-Fabian, Albert Pinhasov, Gabi Gerlitz, Gary Gellerman
The newly discovered short (9 amino acid) non-RGD S-S bridged cyclic peptide ALOS-4 (H-cycl(Cys-Ser-Ser-Ala-Gly-Ser-Leu-Phe-Cys)-OH), which binds to integrin αvβ3 is investigated as peptide carrier for targeted drug delivery against human metastatic melanoma. ALOS4 binds specifically the αvβ3 overexpressing human metastatic melanoma WM-266-4 cell line both in vitro and in ex vivo assays. Coupling ALOS4 to the topoisomerase I inhibitor Camptothecin (ALOS4-CPT) increases the cytotoxicity of CPT against human metastatic melanoma cells while reduces dramatically the cytotoxicity against non-cancerous cells as measured by the levels of γH2A...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Abdul K Parchur, Qifei Li, Anhong Zhou
We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of Prussian blue (PB) functionalized CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2@Au nanorod hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs), with multimodal capabilities such as fluorescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection and photothermal therapy (PTT). The average size of CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2 NPs was 206 nm. The HNPs are highly dispersible in water for several weeks without settling and show a strong absorption in the near-infrared region, overlapping with the PB absorption between 600 nm and 1000 nm and the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods around 800 nm...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Nicole Cathcart, Neil Coombs, Ilya Gourevich, Vladimir Kitaev
In this work, we use silver decahedral nanoparticle (AgDeNP) seeds to synthesize pentagonal silver stars (AgStDeNPs) and study the sensing properties of these nanoparticles. The regrowth process of AgStDeNPs is kinetically-controlled, so the purity of the seed NPs is critical to avoid secondary deposition in the highly non-equilibrium reduction. To control the regrowth process, surface blocking with sodium polyacrylate (PANa) was implemented. PANa moderates rough silver nanostructures typically obtained by reduction with ascorbic acid...
October 21, 2016: Nanoscale
James J Lischeske, Nathan C Crawford, Erik Kuhn, Nicholas J Nagle, Daniel J Schell, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan, Edward J Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/days continuous reactor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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