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Daria Boglaienko, Berrin Tansel
Pulverized rubber (PR) can be utilized for capturing floating oils to prevent spreading and volatilization of hydrocarbons. Experiments were conducted using PR with four different particle sizes (ranging from 0.075 to 0.600mm) and South Louisiana crude oil. The oil capture performance of the PR particles was compared with that of powdered activated carbon (AC). Oil-particle interactions were analyzed using capillary theories for lateral aggregation and wicking processes, as well as sorption capacity in relation to particle size...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mohamed Mahmud, Adriana Piwoni, Nina Filiczak, Martyna Janicka, Jerzy Gubernator
The incorporation of hydrophobic drugs into liposomes improve their bioavailability and leads to increased stability and anticancer activity, along with decreased drug toxicity. Curcumin (Cur) is a natural polyphenol compound with a potent anticancer activity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). In the present study, different types of Cur-loaded liposomal formulations were prepared and characterized in terms of size, shape, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio and stability at 4°C, 37°C; and in human plasma in vitro...
2016: PloS One
Vijayakumar Somalinga, Greg Buhrman, Ashikha Arun, Robert B Rose, Amy M Grunden
Bacterial α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CA) are zinc containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. We report the first crystal structure of a pyschrohalophilic α-CA from a deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified P. profundum α-CA (PprCA) reveals that the protein is a heterogeneous mix of monomers and dimers. Furthermore, an "in-gel" carbonic anhydrase activity assay, also known as protonography, revealed two distinct bands corresponding to monomeric and dimeric forms of PprCA that are catalytically active...
2016: PloS One
Dominik Sammer, Katrin Krause, Matthias Gube, Katharina Wagner, Erika Kothe
Hydrophobins-secreted small cysteine-rich, amphipathic proteins-foster interactions of fungal hyphae with hydrophobic surfaces, and are involved in the formation of aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analyses of Tricholoma vaccinum hydrophobins showed a grouping with hydrophobins of other ectomycorrhizal fungi, which might be a result of co-evolution. Further analyses indicate angiosperms as likely host trees for the last common ancestor of the genus Tricholoma. The nine hydrophobin genes in the T. vaccinum genome were investigated to infer their individual roles in different stages of the life cycle, host interaction, asexual and sexual development, and with respect to different stresses...
2016: PloS One
Jia Chen, Theodore S Jardetzky, Richard Longnecker
: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD)...
November 15, 2016: MBio
Sujith Kakkattu S, Chelat Narayana Panicker Ramachandran
Natural gas extraction from gas hydrate sediments by injection of hydrate inhibitors involves the decomposition of hydrates. The evolution of dissolved gas from the hydrate melt is an important step in the extraction process. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we study the evolution of dissolved methane from its hydrate melt in presence of two thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors, NaCl and CH3OH. An increase in the concentration of hydrate inhibitors is found to promote the nucleation of methane nanobubbles in the hydrate melt...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Roozbeh Hajiraissi, Ignacio Giner, Guido Grundmeier, Adrian Keller
Misfolding and subsequent assembly of proteins and peptides into insoluble amyloid structures play important roles in the development of numerous diseases. The dynamics of self-assembly and the morphology of the resulting aggregates critically depend on various environmental factors and especially the presence of interfaces. Here, we show in detail how the presence of surfaces with different physicochemical properties impacts assembly dynamics and especially aggregate morphology of hIAPP(20-29), an amyloidogenic fragment of the peptide hormone human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) which is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes...
December 9, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Gabriele Cesare Sosso, Sebastiano Caravati, Grant Rotskoff, Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan, Ali A Hassanali
Density fluctuations in liquid water are at the heart of numerous phenomena associated with hydrophobic effects such as protein folding and the interaction between bio-molecules. One of the most fundamental processes in this regard, is the solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water. The vast majority of theoretical and numerical studies examine density fluctuations at the short length-scale focusing exclusively on spherical cavities. In this work, we use both first principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that density fluctuations in liquid water can deviate significantly from the canonical spherical shapes...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Taro Omura, Kaori Imagawa, Kyosuke Kono, Toyoko Suzuki, Hideto Minami
We have reported the cellulose particles with a spongy structure, which we prepared by the solvent releasing method (SRM) from cellulose droplets comprising cellulose, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumchrolide ([Bmim]Cl), and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The spongy structure collapsed as the medium evaporated, resulting in dense cellulose particles. In this study, we encapsulated the hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent substances in these particles to investigate the use of such particles in potential applications that require encapsulating of substances (e...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Akira Karasawa, Toshimitsu Kawate
The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with five structurally-unrelated antagonists. Unexpectedly, these drugs all bind to an allosteric site distinct from the ATP-binding pocket in a groove formed between two neighboring subunits...
December 9, 2016: ELife
Lauriane Alison, Patrick A Rühs, Elena Tervoort, Alexandra Teleki, Michele Zanini, Lucio Isa, André R Studart
Edible solid particles constitute an attractive alternative to surfactants as stabilizers of food-grade emulsions for products requiring a long-term shelf life. Here, we report on a new approach to stabilize edible emulsions using silica nanoparticles modified by noncovalently bound chitosan oligomers. Electrostatic modification with chitosan increases the hydrophobicity of the silica nanoparticles and favors their adsorption at the oil-water interface. The interfacial adsorption of the chitosan-modified silica particles enables the preparation of oil-in-water emulsions with small droplet sizes of a few micrometers through high-pressure homogenization...
December 9, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Andrew Kozbial, Feng Zhou, Zhiting Li, Haitao Liu, Lei Li
Graphitic carbons are important solid materials with myriad applications including electrodes, adsorbents, catalyst support, and solid lubricants. Understanding the interaction between water and graphitic carbons is critically important for both fundamental material characterization and practical device fabrication because the water-graphitic interface is essential to many applications. Research interests in graphene and carbon nanotubes over the past decades have brought renewed interest to elucidate wettability of graphitic carbons and understand their interaction with the surrounding environment...
December 9, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Rieko Goto, Shin Miyakawa, Emire Inomata, Tomonori Takami, Junji Yamaura, Yoshikazu Nakamura
Correct sequences are prerequisite for quality control of therapeutic oligonucleotides. However, there is no definitive method available for determining sequences of highly modified therapeutic RNAs, and thereby most of the oligonucleotides have been used clinically without direct sequence determination. In this study, we developed a novel sequencing method called 'hydrophobic tag sequencing'. Highly modified oligonucleotides are sequenced by partially digesting oligonucleotides conjugated with a 5'-hydrophobic tag, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Xinlong Ni
A cucurbit[6]uril (Q[6] or CB[6]) outer surface interactions based supramolecular three-dimensional (3D) infinite polycatenated triply-linked cage with 3-torus topology is reported. The arrangement of the poly-interlocked supramolecular framework is evidently stabilized by a favorable combination of weak non-covalent interactions such as hydrophobic effects, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole interaction, and C-H***Cl interactions in the sold state. Further study suggested that such 3D poly-interlocked species could be rapidly precipitated from the mixture solution in high yield owing to electrostatic interaction of the [CdCl4]2- anion with the electropositive outer surface of Q[6] host...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hung Mok Park, Damoa Kim, Se Young Kim
For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species...
December 9, 2016: Electrophoresis
Madhavan Narayanan, Vijay R Singh, Goutham Kodali, Kimberly Jacoby, Katarina Moravcevic, Robert J Stanley
Reduced anionic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH-) is the critical cofactor in DNA photolyase (PL) for the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in UV-damaged DNA. The initial step involves photoinduced electron transfer from *FADH- to the CPD. The adenine (Ade) moiety is nearly stacked with the flavin ring, an unusual conformation compared to other FAD-dependent proteins. The role of this proximity has not been unequivocally elucidated. Some studies suggest that Ade is a radical intermediate, but others conclude that Ade modulates the electron transfer rate constant (kET) through superexchange...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Chenhui Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jinmei Lei, Yue Ma, Fengpei Du
In this research the wetting behavior of agro-surfactant solutions (Triton X-100, SDS, DTAB) on wheat leaf surfaces have been investigated based on the surface free energy, surface tension, and the contact angle. The results show that the contact angle of those surfactant solutions keeps constant with low adsorption at interfaces below 1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). With the increase in concentration, the contact angles of Triton X-100 decrease sharply because the adsorption of molecules at solid-liquid interfaces (ΓSL') is several times greater than that at liquid-air interfaces (ΓLV)...
December 9, 2016: Soft Matter
A K L Oppermann, L C Verkaaik, M Stieger, E Scholten
Double (w1/o/w2) emulsions are potential fat replacers in foods. Fats are known for their lubricating properties, which contribute to texture perception. It is therefore of interest to understand how the composition of double emulsions influences lubrication properties. This study focuses on the understanding of the influence of the fraction of inner dispersed aqueous phase w1 and the gelation of the w1 droplets on the lubrication properties of double emulsions. The addition of an inner water phase w1 to the oil droplets decreased friction at low entrainment speeds due to adsorption of the lipophilic emulsifier polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) at the hydrophobic tribo-surface...
December 9, 2016: Food & Function
Bekir Sami Yilbas, Billel Salhi, Muhammad Rizwan Yousaf, Fahad Al-Sulaiman, Haider Ali, Nasser Al-Aqeeli
In this study, nanowires/nanowalls were generated on a silicon wafer through a chemical etching method. Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) was deposited onto the nanowire/nanowall surfaces to alter their hydrophobicity. The hydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces were further modified via a 1.5-μm-thick layer of n-octadecane coating on the OTS-deposited surface. The hydrophobic characteristics of the resulting surfaces were assessed using the sessile water droplet method. Scratch and ultraviolet (UV)-visible reflectivity tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficient and reflectivity of the surfaces...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yuqiao Sun, Yongnu Zhang, Lingling Tian, Yuyuan Zhao, Dongni Wu, Wei Xue, Seeram Ramakrishna, Wutian Wu, Liumin He
In the current study, we present three designer self-assembling peptides (SAPs) by appending RADA 16-I with epitopes IKVAV, RGD, and YIGSR, which have different net charges and amphiphilic properties at neutral pH. The self-assembly of the designer SAPs is intensively investigated as a function of pH, canion type, and assembly time. The morphologies of the designer SAPs were studied by atomic force microscope. The secondary structure was investigated by circular dichroism. The dynamic viscoelasticity of designer SAP solutions was examined during titration with different alkaline reagents...
December 9, 2016: Biomedical Materials
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