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metformin endocrine

Bedowra Zabeen, Jebun Nahar, Samin Tayyeb, Fauzia Mohsin, Nazmun Nahar, Kishwar Azad
INTRODUCTION: Recent data show that the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents is increasing in some ethnic groups. The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics of children and adolescents diagnosed ≤18 years who had features of T2D and presented at Changing Diabetes in Children, Paediatric Diabetes Clinic at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mohsen Rezaee, Nasrin Asadi, Yasna Pouralborz, Mahshid Ghodrat, Shaghayegh Habibi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age, with a variety of complications and consequences mostly due to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS patients with IR are at risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (DM) along with its complications such as cardiovascular events. There are several methods for screening IR in patients with PCOS to predict DM and other complications. Fasting plasma glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are some available screening tools for IR...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lorena Oróstica, Carlos Rosas, Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Isis Astorga, Fernando Gabler, Víctor García, Carmen Romero, Margarita Vega
BACKGROUND: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine/metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenemia and in most cases, by hyperinsulinemia in addition to obesity. Besides ovarian dysfunction, endometrial physiology is also disrupted since this tissue is highly dependent on the action of steroids; in case of conception cycles, high percentage of abortion is observed. Because of the endocrine/metabolic alterations, PCOS-women present high probability to develop hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, where an imbalance of cell proliferation/apoptosis processes is detected...
August 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Artur Bjelica, Jelena Bjelanović, Natasa Milić, Ljiljana Mladenović Segedi, Đorde Ilić, Jelena Dimitrijević
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent endocrine disturbance in the reproductive period of women's life and the most frequent cause of anovulatory infertility. Ovulation and pregnancy in patients having polycystic ovary syndrome may be a result of a wide range of therapeutic options, and the treatment assumes a gradual approach--from simple noninvasive to expensive and demanding procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature survey concerning the efficiency of particular ovulation induction methods in respect of the reproductive outcome was carried out with the aim of establishing the algorithm for ovulation induction in infertile patients having polycystic ovary syndrome...
January 2016: Medicinski Pregled
Rowena M Briones, Ajit K Sarmah, Lokesh P Padhye
Metformin is the most commonly used anti-diabetic drug in the world. When consumed, this unmetabolised pharmaceutical compound is excreted by the body and eventually enters the environment through a variety of pathways. Based on its high consumption and excretion rates, high concentrations of metformin have been detected in influents of wastewater treatment plants. Metformin and its transformation product, guanylurea, are also expected to be present in other aquatic environments based on their physico-chemical properties...
July 26, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Qianying Yang, Fang Wang
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of anovulatory infertility. It is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), obesity and other endocrine or metabolic disorders. Exenatide (EX) is a kind of glucagon-like peptide, which is a new option for patients with diabetes mellitus. We present a patient with infertility for PCOS. She was overweight and her medical history included IR, right-sided ovarian mucinous cystadenomas, and left-sided teratoma. Although she had been treated with ovarian surgery, clomiphene citrate and gonadotropins, weight loss and metformin, which have been effective for dominant follicle development, she still failed to conceive...
2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Yu-Gang Wang, Xin-Hua Qu, Ying Yang, Xiu-Guo Han, Lei Wang, Han Qiao, Qi-Ming Fan, Ting-Ting Tang, Ke-Rong Dai
Several metabolic, genetic and oncogenic bone diseases share the common pathological phenotype of defective bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation. Many reports in bone science in the past several years have suggested that the skeleton also has an endocrine role. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy metabolism sensor and how it regulates BMSC differentiation is largely unknown. In the current study, we used AMPK agonists to activate AMPK in MC3T3-E1 cells to investigate the functional roles of AMPK in osteogenesis...
September 2016: Cellular Signalling
Soheila Riahinejad, Ahmad Mirdamadi, Elham Alizadeh
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. Metformin is a biguanide commonly used to improve PCOS symptoms. Effect of metformin on the levels of serum homocysteine (Hcy) in PCOS women is unclear. The aim of this study is evaluating the effect of metformin administration on serum Hcy levels and metabolic parameters of PCOS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty three patients with PCOS were enrolled in this study who were selected randomly...
November 2015: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
Dorte Glintborg
Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas...
April 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Yashasvi Suvarna, Nivedita Maity, Pramila Kalra, M C Shivamurthy
OBJECTIVE: The 2013 Endocrine Society guidelines state that hormonal contraceptives should be used for treating both menstrual irregularity and hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin should be reserved for the treatment of women presenting with only menstrual irregularity because it has limited benefits in treating hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS. A high prevalence of insulin resistance is noted among the South Asians, and these guidelines may not hold good for this population...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Errol L Fields, Maria E Trent
IMPORTANCE: Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by an excess in androgen levels, ovarian dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology but is also associated with metabolic dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, there are few therapeutic recommendations for these cardiometabolic risk factors and little evidence of their long-term clinical relevance to cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: To determine metabolic and/or cardiovascular outcomes in polycystic ovary syndrome treatment literature since the publication of the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines in 2013...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Zuhayer Ahmed, M A Hafez, M A Bari, Jesmin Akhter
BACKGROUND: Globally, diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. This study was conducted for collecting the demographic details of diabetic patients and determining the pattern of drugs prescribed among them in outpatient department of a tertiary healthcare center. METHODS: A descriptive type of cross-sectional study was carried out at the outpatient department of Endocrinology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from 1 May to 31 July, 2015. Diabetic patients receiving the management for at least 6 months were enrolled and interviewed by the researchers after getting informed written consent...
January 2016: International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology
Marina Bacci, Elisa Giannoni, Antony Fearns, Ricardo Ribas, Qiong Gao, Maria Letizia Taddei, Gianfranco Pintus, Mitch Dowsett, Clare M Isacke, Lesley-Ann Martin, Paola Chiarugi, Andrea Morandi
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have become the first-line endocrine treatment of choice for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients, but resistance remains a major challenge. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and may contribute to drug resistance. Here, we investigated the link between altered breast cancer metabolism and AI resistance using AI-resistant and sensitive breast cancer cells, patient tumor samples, and AI-sensitive human xenografts. We found that long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED), a model of AI resistance, was associated with increased glycolysis dependency...
March 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Elham Pourmatroud, Razieh Mohammadjafari, Mandana Roozitalab
BACKGROUND: Drugs administration as a pretreatment regiment before ICSI cycle in PCOs patients could enhance the success rate. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of metformin with Simvastatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) candidates for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) before starting the cycle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, double blind, randomized clinical trial the efficacy of these drugs was evaluated in 40 women with PCO syndrome (20 patients in each group; A: simvastatin and B: metformin) candidates for ICSI...
December 2015: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Giovanna Talarico, Stefania Orecchioni, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Francesca Reggiani, Patrizia Mancuso, Angelica Calleri, Giuliana Gregato, Valentina Labanca, Teresa Rossi, Douglas M Noonan, Adriana Albini, Francesco Bertolini
Metformin can induce breast cancer (BC) cell apoptosis and reduce BC local and metastatic growth in preclinical models. Since Metformin is frequently used along with Aspirin or beta-blockers, we investigated the effect of Metformin, Aspirin and the beta-blocker Atenolol in several BC models. In vitro, Aspirin synergized with Metformin in inducing apoptosis of triple negative and endocrine-sensitive BC cells, and in activating AMPK in BC and in white adipose tissue (WAT) progenitors known to cooperate to BC progression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Charla C Engels, Nienke A de Glas, Anita Sajet, Esther Bastiaannet, Vincent T H B M Smit, Peter J K Kuppen, Caroline Seynaeve, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Gerrit Jan Liefers
BACKGROUND: Signaling via the Insulin-like Growth Factor type 1 Receptor (IGF1R) plays a crucial role in cancer development. In breast cancer (BC), IGF1R and estrogen receptor expression are correlated. In this current study we explored the hypothesis that postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+ve) BC patients with high IGF1R tumor expression still have estrogen driven IGF1R stimulated tumor growth when treated with tamoxifen, resulting in detrimental clinical outcome compared to patients treated with exemestane...
April 2016: Molecular Oncology
Ting Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Qingre Yangyin Recipe (QRYYR) on sex hormones and insulin resistance (IR) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. METHODS: Totally 90 PCOS patients were randomly assigned to the Chinese herbs group,the Western medicine group, the combined group, 30 in each group. Patients in the Chinese herbs group took QRYYR, one dose per day in two portions, once in the morning and once in the evening. Patients in the Western medicine group took Metformin 500 mg, twice per day for 3 consecutive months...
October 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Forough Javanmanesh, Maryam Kashanian, Maryam Rahimi, Narges Sheikhansari
OBJECTIVE: To compare N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and metformin on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHOD: Study was performed as a randomized double-blind clinical trial on women with diagnosis of PCOS without additional complications. In one group, oral NAC 600 mg, three times a day and in the other group, 500 mg oral metformin, three times a day were prescribed. Duration of treatment was 24 weeks, and after finishing this period of treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBS) and insulin, lipid profile and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index were measured (all the blood samples were taken while fasting) and were compared in the two groups...
2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Neil F Goodman, Rhoda H Cobin, Walter Futterweit, Jennifer S Glueck, Richard S Legro, Enrico Carmina
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear...
December 2015: Endocrine Practice
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