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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857834/unusual-shape-and-structure-of-lymphocyte-nuclei-is-linked-to-hyperglycemia-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#1
T Martinovic, D Ciric, I Pantic, K Lalic, I Rasulic, S Despotovic, I Lalic, D Djuricic, V Bumbasirevic, T Kravic-Stevovic
Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder characterized with hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Morphological changes in cell nuclei in diabetes were recently detected. The aim of this study was to compare electron microscopic features of lymphocyte nuclei in type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals using conventional computer assisted methods, fractal analysis and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis of nuclear chromatin. Mononuclear cells taken from the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients and healthy individuals were analyzed with transmission electron microscope...
June 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846959/pharmacological-and-surgical-treatment-of-non-reproductive-outcomes-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Chau T Tay, Anju E Joham, Danielle S Hiam, Moustafa A Gadalla, Jyotsna Pundir, Shakila Thangaratinam, Helena J Teede, Lisa J Moran
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects up to 13% women and is associated with significant complications. The quality of evidence supporting the recommendations on treatment of non-reproductive outcomes in PCOS is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To summarise and appraise the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating pharmacological and surgical treatments for non-reproductive outcomes in PCOS. METHODS: A literature search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL PLUS, and PROSPERO was performed from inception until 15th of September 2017...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678491/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-an-inflammatory-systemic-lifestyle-endocrinopathy
#3
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder, afflicting females of reproductive age. This syndrome leads to infertility, insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular problems, including a litany of other health issues. PCOS is a polygenic, polyfactorial, systemic, inflammatory, dysregulated steroid state, autoimmune disease, manifesting largely due to lifestyle errors. The advent of biochemical tests and ultrasound scanning has enabled the detection of PCOS in the affected females. Subsequently, a huge amount of insight on PCOS has been garnered in recent times...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610032/personalized-prevention-in-high-risk-individuals-managing-hormones-and-beyond
#4
D Gareth Evans, Sacha J Howell, Anthony Howell
Increasing numbers of women are being identified at 'high-risk' of breast cancer, defined by The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as a 10-year risk of ≥8%. Classically women have been so identified through family history based risk algorithms or genetic testing of high-risk genes. Recent research has shown that assessment of mammographic density and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), when combined with established risk factors, trebles the number of women reaching the high risk threshold...
June 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434814/metformin-and-pioglitazone-combination-therapy-ameliorate-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-through-ampk-pi3k-jnk-pathway
#5
Yuanyuan Wu, Pengfen Li, Dan Zhang, Yingpu Sun
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disorder, which results in health problems such as menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism and persistent anovulation. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the basic characteristics of PCOS. To investigate the combined effect of metformin and pioglitazone on POCS and the potential mechanisms, a rat model of PCOS was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV). The effect of metformin and pioglitazone monotherapy or combination therapy in control rats and PCOS rats was evaluated, involving the testosterone level, follicular development and insulin resistance...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427952/survey-of-218-organic-contaminants-in-groundwater-derived-from-the-world-s-largest-untreated-wastewater-irrigation-system-mezquital-valley-mexico
#6
Luis E Lesser, Abrahan Mora, Cristina Moreau, Jürgen Mahlknecht, Arturo Hernández-Antonio, Aldo I Ramírez, Héctor Barrios-Piña
The Mezquital Valley system is the world's oldest and largest example with regard to use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Because of the artificial high recharge associated with the Mezquital Valley aquifers, groundwater is extracted for human consumption, and there are plans to use this groundwater as a water resource for Mexico City. Thus, this study analyzed 218 organic micro-contaminants in wastewater, springs, and groundwater from Mezquital Valley. Five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the wastewater used for irrigation...
May 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367875/myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-with-diabetes-mellitus-mixed-hypogonadism-and-adrenal-insufficiency
#7
Ken Takeshima, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Tatsuya Ishibashi, Shintaro Kawai, Shinsuke Uraki, Jinsoo Koh, Hidefumi Ito, Takashi Akamizu
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease affecting muscles, the eyes and the endocrine organs. Diabetes mellitus and primary hypogonadism are endocrine manifestations typically seen in patients with DM1. Abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have also been reported in some DM1 patients. We present a case of DM1 with a rare combination of multiple endocrinopathies; diabetes mellitus, a combined form of primary and secondary hypogonadism, and dysfunction of the HPA axis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358486/cellular-energy-sensing-and-metabolism-implications-for-treating-diabetes-the-2017-outstanding-scientific-achievement-award-lecture
#8
Gregory R Steinberg
The Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award recognizes distinguished scientific achievement in the field of diabetes, taking into consideration independence of thought and originality. Gregory R. Steinberg, PhD, professor of medicine, Canada Research Chair, J. Bruce Duncan Endowed Chair in Metabolic Diseases, and codirector of the Metabolism and Childhood Obesity Research Program at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, received the prestigious award at the American Diabetes Association's 77th Scientific Sessions, 9-13 June 2017, in San Diego, CA...
February 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354951/-acupuncture-and-chinese-medicine-of-artificial-cycle-therapy-for-insulin-resistance-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-phlegm-damp-type-and-its-mechanism
#9
Juan Yang, Ying Liu, Jian Huang, Jinbang Xu, Xiumi You, Qiuping Lin, Junxin Zhang, Jingjing Dun, Shan Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect difference between acupuncture combined with Chinese medicine of artificial cycle therapy on the basis of western medication and simple western medication for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) of phlegm damp type with insulin resistance, and to explore its mechanism. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. Patients of the control group began to take letrozole and metformin orally on the third menstrual day...
November 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248761/low-dose-metformin-exposure-causes-changes-in-expression-of-endocrine-disruption-associated-genes
#10
Nicholas J Niemuth, Rebecca D Klaper
The presence of intersex fish in watersheds around the world is a warning of the presence of anthropogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) being deposited into the aquatic environment. The anti-diabetic drug metformin is among the most prevalent and ubiquitous of the myriad pharmaceuticals found in wastewater effluent and watersheds worldwide. In addition to its prescription for type-2 diabetes, metformin is indicated as a treatment in cancers and the endocrine disorder polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)...
February 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210642/antidiabetics-structural-diversity-of-molecules-with-a-common-aim
#11
Jelena B Popovic-Dordevic, Ivana I Jevtic, Tatjana P Stanojkovic
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is an endocrine disease of global proportions which is currently affecting 1 in 12 adults in the world, with still increasing prevalence. World Health Organization (WHO) declared this worldwide health problem, as an epidemic disease, to be the only non-infectious disease with such categorization. People with DMT2 are at increased risk of various complications and have shorter life expectancy. The main classes of oral antidiabetic drugs accessible today for DMT2 vary in their chemical composition, modes of action, safety profiles and tolerability...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172796/effect-of-orlistat-or-metformin-in-overweight-and-obese-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-with-insulin-resistance
#12
Jinghua Song, Xiangyan Ruan, Muqing Gu, Lijuan Wang, Husheng Wang, Alfred Otto Mueck
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orlistat or metformin combined with Diane-35 on anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with insulin resistance (fasting insulin > 10 mIU/L). A total of 240 PCOS women were randomly allocated to orlistat plus Diane-35(OD group), metformin plus Diane-35(MD group), orlistat plus metformin plus Diane-35(OMD group) or Diane-35 (D group). Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, endocrine profile, lipid profile and insulin resistance were assessed at baseline and after 3 months...
May 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156452/an-international-consortium-update-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-adolescence
#13
Lourdes Ibáñez, Sharon E Oberfield, Selma Witchel, Richard J Auchus, R Jeffrey Chang, Ethel Codner, Preeti Dabadghao, Feyza Darendeliler, Nancy Samir Elbarbary, Alessandra Gambineri, Cecilia Garcia Rudaz, Kathleen M Hoeger, Abel López-Bermejo, Ken Ong, Alexia S Peña, Thomas Reinehr, Nicola Santoro, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Rachel Tao, Bulent O Yildiz, Haya Alkhayyat, Asma Deeb, Dipesalema Joel, Reiko Horikawa, Francis de Zegher, Peter A Lee
This paper represents an international collaboration of paediatric endocrine and other societies (listed in the Appendix) under the International Consortium of Paediatric Endocrinology (ICPE) aiming to improve worldwide care of adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)1. The manuscript examines pathophysiology and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. The complex pathophysiology of PCOS involves the interaction of genetic and epigenetic changes, primary ovarian abnormalities, neuroendocrine alterations, and endocrine and metabolic modifiers such as anti-Müllerian hormone, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, adiposity, and adiponectin levels...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#14
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin-intolerant PCOS. METHODS: We conducted a 12-week, prospective, randomized, open-label study with 30 obese metformin-intolerant women with PCOS (age 35.0 ± 7.2 years; body mass index, 36...
January 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137418/a-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-aromatase-inhibitors-plus-metformin-in-pre-treated-postmenopausal-patients-with-hormone-receptor-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Yannan Zhao, Chengcheng Gong, Zhonghua Wang, Jian Zhang, Leiping Wang, Sheng Zhang, Jun Cao, Zhonghua Tao, Ting Li, Biyun Wang, Xichun Hu
Background: Everolimus significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) and has been approved to use in aromatase inhibitor pretreated patients with hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer. Metformin has been shown to inhibit mTOR pathway, with more favorable safety profile, leading to this hypothesis-generating trial to assess whether metformin enhances the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors. Methods: 60 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned 1:1 to aromatase inhibitor (exemestane 25mg/d or letrozole 2...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125183/ovarian-surgery-for-symptom-relief-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Sam Lepine, Junyoung Jo, Mostafa Metwally, Ying C Cheong
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Long-term health concerns include an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and the development of precancerous disease of the womb...
November 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111858/women-s-health-endocrine-update
#17
Ekta Kapoor, Stephanie Faubion, Stephanie Hines, Cynthia A Stuenkel
The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality...
December 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966224/interaction-between-bone-and-glucose-metabolism-review
#18
Ippei Kanazawa
Accumulating evidence has shown that bone and glucose metabolism are closely associated with each other. Since the risk of osteoporotic fractures is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), osteoporosis is recently recognized as one of diabetic complications, called DM-induced bone fragility. Previous studies showed that collagen cross-links of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and dysfunctions of osteoblast and osteocyte are involved in DM-induced bone fragility. Circulating levels of AGEs and homocysteine are increased in patients with DM, and they directly impair the functions of osteoblast and osteocyte, resulting in decreased bone formation and bone remodeling...
November 29, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834135/the-pharmacogenetics-of-metformin-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-trial
#19
Andreas J T Pedersen, Tore Bjerregaard Stage, Dorte Glintborg, Marianne Andersen, Mette Marie Hougaard Christensen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, and metformin treatment may improve such metabolic features. The effect of genetic variants in key metformin transporters, their transcriptional regulators or in metformin target genes on metformin response in women with PCOS is unclear. Associations between pharmacodynamic responses to metformin (changes in weight, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity evaluated by oral glucose tolerance testing) and polymorphisms in OCT1 (rs12208357 and rs72552763), HNF1A (rs1169288 and rs2464196), MATE1 (rs2289669 and rs2252281), MATE2-K (rs12943590) and ATM (rs11212617) were studied in 40 women with PCOS randomized to 12 months of treatment with metformin 1000 mg twice daily ± oral contraceptive pills (150 μg desogestrel + 30 μg ethinylestradiol)...
February 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819133/combined-transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-of-metformin-effects-reveal-novel-links-between-metabolic-networks-in-steroidogenic-systems
#20
Sameer S Udhane, Balazs Legeza, Nesa Marti, Damian Hertig, Gaëlle Diserens, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Peter Vermathen, Christa E Flück
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug, which inhibits mitochondrial respiratory-chain-complex I and thereby seems to affect the cellular metabolism in many ways. It is also used for the treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women. In addition, metformin possesses antineoplastic properties. Although metformin promotes insulin-sensitivity and ameliorates reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, its exact mechanisms of action remain elusive. Therefore, we studied the transcriptome and the metabolome of metformin in human adrenal H295R cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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