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Central nervous system metastasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137288/elevated-timp-1-expression-is-associated-with-a-prometastatic-phenotype-disease-relapse-and-poor-survival-in-neuroblastoma
#1
Pritha Paul, Eric J Rellinger, Jingbo Qiao, Sora Lee, Natasha Volny, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Carmelle V Romain, Bret Mobley, Hernan Correa, Dai H Chung
Approximately two-thirds of patients with neuroblastoma are found to have metastatic disease at time of diagnosis with frequent skeletal, lymph node, central nervous system, and liver involvement. Using a serial in vivo splenic injection model, we have isolated an aggressive subclone (BE(2)-C/LM2) from MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas that demonstrate an enhanced propensity to develop metastatic liver lesions. BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone cells demonstrate increased adherent, soft agar colony and tumorsphere growth in vitro...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#2
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127594/morphine-double-faced-roles-in-the-regulation-of-tumor-development
#3
REVIEW
X Y Zhang, Y X Liang, Y Yan, Z Dai, H C Chu
Morphine, a highly potent analgesic, is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of severe pain associated with cancer. It directly acts on the central nervous system to relieve pain, but also cause secondary complications, such as addiction, respiratory depression and constipation due to its activities on peripheral tissues. Besides pain relief, morphine is of great importance on cancer management with its effect on tumor development being the subject of debate for many years with some contradictory findings...
November 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123467/the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-cxcr7-in-neuronal-regeneration-after-cerebral-ischemia
#4
REVIEW
Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiuchun Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Zhike Zhou, Xiaopeng Mu, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemoattractant produced by bone marrow stromal cell lines. It is recognized as a critical factor in the immune and central nervous systems (CNSs) as well as exerting a role in cancer. SDF-1 activates two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7; these are expressed in both developing and mature CNSs and participate in multiple physiological and pathological events, e.g., inflammatory response, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103666/identification-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-as-a-risk-factor-of-central-nervous-system-metastasis-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#5
Emilie Le Rhun, Nicolas Bertrand, Aurélie Dumont, Emmanuelle Tresch, Marie-Cécile Le Deley, Audrey Mailliez, Matthias Preusser, Michael Weller, Françoise Revillion, Jacques Bonneterre
INTRODUCTION: The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway may be involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer. Accordingly, herein we explored whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this pathway are associated with altered risk of CNS metastasis formation in metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: The GENEOM study (NCT00959556) included blood sample collection from breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097383/mind-the-sr-gap-roles-of-slit-robo-gaps-in-neurons-brains-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Bethany Lucas, Jeff Hardin
The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) were first identified as potential Slit-Robo effectors that influence growth cone guidance. Given their N-terminal F-BAR, central GAP and C-terminal SH3 domains, srGAPs have the potential to affect membrane dynamics, Rho family GTPase activity and other binding partners. Recent research has clarified how srGAP family members act in distinct ways at the cell membrane, and has expanded our understanding of the roles of srGAPs in neuronal and non-neuronal cells...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071274/bilateral-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-associated-with-bilateral-lymphoproliferative-infiltrative-optic-neuropathy
#7
Philip J DeSouza, Claudia G Hooten, Christopher M Lack, Vishak J John, Timothy J Martin
BACKGROUND: Leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve is relatively rare. While previously described in acute leukemia, the infiltration in our case represents central nervous system (CNS) metastasis of Burkitt-type lymphoma that developed as a complication of solid-organ transplantation, resulting in a bilateral infiltrative optic neuropathy with sequential, bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and devastating vision loss. METHODS: The medical record, serial ophthalmic examination findings, clinical course, and imaging including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiography of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070870/optical-properties-spectral-and-lifetime-measurements-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-humans
#8
F Poulon, H Mehidine, M Juchaux, P Varlet, B Devaux, J Pallud, D Abi Haidar
A key challenge of central nervous system tumor surgery is to discriminate between brain regions infiltrated by tumor cells and surrounding healthy tissue. Although monitoring of autofluorescence could potentially be an efficient way to provide reliable information for these regions, we found little information on this subject, and thus we conducted studies of brain tissue optical properties. This particular study focuses on the different optical quantitative responses of human central nervous system tumors and their corresponding controls...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045549/emerging-treatment-paradigms-in-brain-metastasis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-overview-of-the-current-landscape-and-challenges-ahead
#9
D Ulahannan, J Khalifa, C Faivre-Finn, S M Lee
Advances in the last decade in genomic profiling and the identification of druggable targets amenable to biological agents, has transformed the management and survival of a subgroup of patients with brain metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. In parallel, clinicians have re-evaluated the role of whole brain radiotherapy in selected patients with brain metastases to reduce neurocognitive toxicity. Continual progress in this understudied field is required: optimisation of the sequence of schedules for therapies in patients with brain metastases of differing genomic profiles, focusing on new strategies to overcome mechanisms of biological resistance and increasing drug penetrability into the central nervous system...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035383/extracellular-nme-proteins-a-player-or-a-bystander
#10
Patrizia Romani, Marilena Ignesti, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Tien Hsu, Valeria Cavaliere
The Nm23/NME gene family has been under intensive study since Nm23H1/NME1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor. Inverse correlation between the expression levels of NME1/2 and prognosis has indeed been demonstrated in different tumor cohorts. Interestingly, the presence of NME proteins in the extracellular environment in normal and tumoral conditions has also been noted. In many reported cases, however, these extracellular NME proteins exhibit anti-differentiation or oncogenic functions, contradicting their canonical anti-metastatic action...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033772/intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-due-to-brain-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Rafael Sartori Balbinot, Ana Laura Facco Muscope, Mateus Dal Castel, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Jonathan Soldera
Although extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are present in only 5-15% of cases, they are certainly factors associated with poor prognosis. The main sites include lung, lymph nodes, bones, and adrenal glands, in descending order. Metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare, and the incidences vary from 0.6 to 1.7%. We report a case of a 54-year-old man previously diagnosed with alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. The patient was admitted presenting progressive left hemiparesis and headache which started 2 days earlier, with no history of cranioencephalic trauma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028110/melanoma-staging-evidence-based-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#12
Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Richard A Scolyer, Kenneth R Hess, Vernon K Sondak, Georgina V Long, Merrick I Ross, Alexander J Lazar, Mark B Faries, John M Kirkwood, Grant A McArthur, Lauren E Haydu, Alexander M M Eggermont, Keith T Flaherty, Charles M Balch, John F Thompson
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE To update the melanoma staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) a large database was assembled comprising >46,000 patients from 10 centers worldwide with stages I, II, and III melanoma diagnosed since 1998. Based on analyses of this new database, the existing seventh edition AJCC stage IV database, and contemporary clinical trial data, the AJCC Melanoma Expert Panel introduced several important changes to the Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis (TNM) classification and stage grouping criteria...
November 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971065/preclinical-modeling-and-therapeutic-avenues-for-cancer-metastasis-to-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Mohini Singh, David Bakhshinyan, Chitra Venugopal, Sheila K Singh
Metastasis is the dissemination of cells from the primary tumor to other locations within the body, and continues to be the predominant cause of death among cancer patients. Metastatic progression within the adult central nervous system is 10 times more frequent than primary brain tumors. Metastases affecting the brain parenchyma and leptomeninges are associated with grave prognosis, and even after successful control of the primary tumor the median survival is a dismal 2-3 months with treatment options typically limited to palliative care...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960907/malignant-pleural-effusion-from-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-diagnosed-by-pleural-effusion-cytology-a-case-report
#14
Konstantinos Kosmas, Anna Tsonou, Georgia Mitropoulou, Eufrosyni Salemi, Danai Kazi, Ageliki Theofanopoulou
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is by far the most common thyroid malignancy (over 85%) of all the thyroid cancers. It has excellent prognosis and 10-year survival rate in most of the cases (95%). Most of the tumors are indolent and do not recur or metastasize after removal. However, widespread metastases to lung, skeleton, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs may be observed. In rare instances, this disease may metastasize to the pleura and manifest as a malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and portend poor prognosis...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954644/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-their-role-in-invasion-of-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Charlton Lam, Melissa Jamerson, Guy Cabral, Ana Maris Carlesso, Francine Marciano-Cabral
Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability...
September 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952231/metastasis-acquired-changes-in-clinically-actionable-genes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients-with-central-nervous-system-metastases-focus-on-her2-targeted-therapies
#16
Kadri Altundag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946213/regulation-of-hoxa11-as-mir-214-3p-ezh2-axis-on-the-growth-migration-and-invasion-of-glioma-cells
#17
Chenyang Xu, Tao He, Zhenjiang Li, Honglin Liu, Bingqian Ding
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most common and aggressive malignant tumors in central nervous system. Recently, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOXA11-AS has been reported to be an oncogenic gene in multiple cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of HOXA11-AS involved in cancer progression of human glioma remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of HOXA11-AS in 45 paired primary glioma tissues and cell lines were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the correlation between HOXA11-AS expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with glioma were analyzed...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943635/ng2-antigen-is-involved-in-leukemia-invasiveness-and-central-nervous-system-infiltration-in-mll-rearranged-infant-b-all
#18
C Prieto, B López-Millán, H Roca-Ho, R W Stam, D Romero-Moya, F J Rodríguez-Baena, A Sanjuan-Pla, V Ayllón, M Ramírez, M Bardini, P De Lorenzo, M G Valsecchi, M Stanulla, M Iglesias, P Ballerini, Á M Carcaboso, J Mora, F Locatelli, A Bertaina, L Padilla, J Carlos Rodríguez-Manzaneque, C Bueno, P Menéndez
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged (MLLr) infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (iMLLr-B-ALL) has a dismal prognosis and is associated with a pro-B/mixed phenotype, therapy refractoriness and frequent central nervous system (CNS) disease/relapse. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is specifically expressed in MLLr leukemias and is used in leukemia immunophenotyping because of its predictive value for MLLr acute leukemias. NG2 is involved in melanoma metastasis and brain development; however, its role in MLL-mediated leukemogenesis remains elusive...
September 25, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920514/foe-or-friend-janus-faces-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-formation-of-brain-metastases
#19
Imola Wilhelm, Csilla Fazakas, Kinga Molnár, Attila G Végh, János Haskó, István A Krizbai
Despite the potential obstacle represented by the blood-brain barrier for extravasating malignant cells, metastases are more frequent than primary tumors in the central nervous system. Not only tightly interconnected endothelial cells can hinder metastasis formation, other cells of the brain microenvironment (like astrocytes and microglia) can also be very hostile, destroying the large majority of metastatic cells. However, malignant cells that are able to overcome these harmful mechanisms may benefit from the shielding and even support provided by cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia, rendering the brain a sanctuary site against anti-tumor strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905151/the-role-of-the-neural-niche-in-brain-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
Cancers with neurologic metastasis are a burdensome affliction. As primary cancer care improves, the incidence of metastatic cancer increases as a result of prolonged survival time. Because of this, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis are important for the development of continuing management strategies. Knowing how metastatic tumor cells engage, survive, and proliferate in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important first step in developing treatment paradigms. The neural niche is the soil of the CNS that accommodates tumor cells, is a microenvironment of cell signaling that exists between the tumor cell and the native neural cellular network...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
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