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Central nervous system metastasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920514/foe-or-friend-janus-faces-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-formation-of-brain-metastases
#1
Imola Wilhelm, Csilla Fazakas, Kinga Molnár, Attila G Végh, János Haskó, István A Krizbai
Despite the potential obstacle represented by the blood-brain barrier for extravasating malignant cells, metastases are more frequent than primary tumors in the central nervous system. Not only tightly interconnected endothelial cells can hinder metastasis formation, other cells of the brain microenvironment (like astrocytes and microglia) can also be very hostile, destroying the large majority of metastatic cells. However, malignant cells that are able to overcome these harmful mechanisms may benefit from the shielding and even support provided by cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia, rendering the brain a sanctuary site against anti-tumor strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905151/the-role-of-the-neural-niche-in-brain-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
Cancers with neurologic metastasis are a burdensome affliction. As primary cancer care improves, the incidence of metastatic cancer increases as a result of prolonged survival time. Because of this, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis are important for the development of continuing management strategies. Knowing how metastatic tumor cells engage, survive, and proliferate in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important first step in developing treatment paradigms. The neural niche is the soil of the CNS that accommodates tumor cells, is a microenvironment of cell signaling that exists between the tumor cell and the native neural cellular network...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883219/high-dose-chemotherapy-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-following-systemic-chemotherapy-prophylactic-intrathecal-methotrexate-and-radiotherapy-prevents-relapse-and-improves-the-outcome-of-advanced-stage-primary-testicular-lymphoma-even-with-cardiac
#3
Shin Lee, Takahiro Yamauchi, Keiichi Kinoshita, Shin Imamura, Kenichi Kamiya
Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare but aggressive disease. Although most patients present in the early stage, their prognosis is poor. Similar with PTL, cardiac lymphoma is also an uncommon disease characterized by its aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. We herein report an extremely rare case of advanced stage PTL with cardiac involvement, treated by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) followed by systemic chemotherapy, prophylactic intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), and radiotherapy...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868044/merkel-cell-carcinoma-with-distant-metastasis-to-the-clivus-causing-symptoms-mimicking-tolosa-hunt-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Kwo Wei David Ho, Peter A Drew, Miguel Chuquilin
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon but highly malignant neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC can metastasize, but involvement of the central nervous system is rare. Here, we report a case of rapidly progressing metastatic MCC to the clivus and bilateral cavernous sinus in an immunocompromised patient. This case is unique in that it is the first case report showing MCC metastasis to the clivus from a distant site. It also demonstrates that a MCC metastasis can masquerade with symptoms of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859365/incidence-of-brain-metastasis-from-esophageal-cancer
#5
G Welch, H J Ross, N P Patel, D E Jaroszewski, D E Fleischer, W G Rule, H R Paripati, F C Ramirez, J B Ashman
We investigated whether the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) from primary esophageal and esophagogastric cancer is increasing. A single-institution retrospective review identified 583 patients treated from January 1997 to January 2016 for stages I through IV cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (follow-up, ≥3 months). Collected data included demographic information, date and staging at primary diagnosis, histologic subtype, treatment regimen for primary lesion, date of BM diagnosis, presence or absence of central nervous system symptoms, presence or absence of extracranial disease, treatment regimen for intracranial lesions, and date of death...
September 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834695/multimodality-therapy-improves-survival-in-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-of-lung-primary
#6
Hayder Saeed, Reema Patel, Jigisha Thakkar, Lames Hamoodi, Li Chen, John Villano
BACKGROUND: Most metastatic spinal cord lesions are located either in the intradural, extramedullary, or in the epidural compartments. Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is a rare central nervous system spread of cancer. The aim of this report was to evaluate ISCM in the published literature. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed from 1960 to 2016 was undertaken for the publications having demographic, clinical, histological, and outcome data. RESULTS: A total of 59 relevant papers were identified, showing 128 cases of intramedullary metastasis from lung cancer...
August 16, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803175/seeding-of-abdomen-with-primary-intracranial-hemangiopericytoma-by-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-case-report
#7
Kelly Bridges, Rebecca Sauerwein, Marjorie Grafe, Vassiliki Liana Tsikitis, Aaron Halfpenny, Ahmed Raslan
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement has been implicated in extraneural metastasis of many primary central nervous system tumors. Reported cases include, but are not limited to, medulloblastoma, germ cell tumor, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, lymphoma, ependymoma, melanoma, and choroid plexus tumors. However, a literature review reveals no reported cases of extraneural metastasis of solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC). CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we report the case of a 34-year-old man with recurrent intracranial malignant SFT/HPC who had undergone surgical tumor resection and subsequent placement of a VPS for obstructive hydrocephalus in 2004...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802798/most-common-sites-on-mri-of-intracranial-neoplastic-leptomeningeal-disease
#8
J Matthew Debnam, Rory R Mayer, T Linda Chi, Leena Ketonen, Jeffrey S Weinberg, Wei Wei, Morris D Groves, Nandita Guha-Thakurta
Neoplastic leptomeningeal disease (LMD) represents infiltration of the leptomeninges by tumor cells. Knowledge of the frequencies of locations of LMD on MRI may assist in early detection, help elucidate the process of leptomeningeal spread of cancer and understand how LMD affects the central nervous system. Our goal was to identify intracranial sites of neoplastic LMD predilection on MRI in patients with cytologically-proven LMD. The presence of FLAIR signal hyperintensity and T1-weighted post-contrast enhancement in the sulci of the supratentorial compartment and cerebellum and enhancement of the cranial nerves (CNs), basal cisterns, pituitary stalk, and ependymal surface of the lateral ventricles, as well as the presence of parenchymal metastasis were recorded...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779849/the-necessity-of-intrathecal-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-patients-with-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#9
Yen-Chien Lee, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Jen-Pin Chuang, Chung-Yi Li
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a devastating disease. Despite its numerous complications, intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy remains a longstanding treatment for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Using case studies with internationally reported results, we attempted to determine the necessity of IT chemotherapy in treating leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. We conducted a systematic review and pooled analysis to compare hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and IT therapy. We excluded articles on IT trastuzumab therapy. We performed our literature search without language restriction...
July 12, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764170/histopathological-analysis-of-brain-tumours-a-seven-year-study-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#10
Renu Thambi, Subitha Kandamuthan, Sheeja Sainulabdeen, Letha Vilasiniamma, Tinu Ravi Abraham, P K Balakrishnan
INTRODUCTION: Tumours of central nervous system constitute 1%-2% of tumours in adults. The incidence of brain tumours has been reported to be around 3.9 and 3.0/one lac/year in males and females respectively. A few studies are available from India which show a lower incidence of brain tumours compared to the developed countries. Not much is known about the epidemiology of brain tumours in the population from South India. AIM: To identify the age groups, gender distribution, topography and different histological types of brain tumours...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758857/brain-metastases-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-on-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-symptom-and-economic-burden
#11
Ancilla W Fernandes, Bingcao Wu, Ralph M Turner
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the symptom and economic burden associated with brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). METHODS: This retrospective study included adults with ≥2 medical claims, within 90 days, for lung cancer and ≥1 administration of EGFR-TKIs. Based on ICD-9 codes, patients were stratified into cohorts by type of metastases (BM, other metastases [OM], or no metastases [NM]), and by when the metastasis diagnosis occurred (synchronous or asynchronous)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728219/-solitary-fibrous-tumor-hemangiopericytoma-of-central-nervous-system-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-71-cases
#12
X L Li, W W Fu, S Zhang, D Y Chen, Y P Chen, J Wu, X Y Liu, G P Li, S M Lin, S Luo, S S Cai, W Guo, X F Wang
Objective: As solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) share the same molecular genetics features, the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors had created the combined term SFT/HPC and assigns three grades. This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of CNS SFT/HPC. Methods: Seventy-one cases of CNS SFT and HPC were retrospectively reclassified and studied. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and imaging features were analyzed...
July 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717395/brain-imaging-before-primary-lung-cancer-resection-a-controversial-topic
#13
Zoe Hudson, Eveline Internullo, Anthony Edey, Isabel Laurence, Davide Bianchi, Alfredo Addeo
OBJECTIVE: International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in EnglandClin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707070/functional-role-of-matrix-gla-protein-in-glioma-cell-migration
#14
Mu-Hui Fu, Chih-Yen Wang, Yun-Ti Hsieh, Kuan-Min Fang, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor subtype. Despite that metastasis of GBM beyond the central nervous system (CNS) is rare, its malignancy is attributed to the highly infiltration trait, leading to the difficulty of complete surgical excision. Matrix gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent small secretory protein, and functions as a calcification inhibitor. The involvement of MGP function in glioma cell dynamics remains to be clarified. The study showed that a low proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line named as C6-2 exhibited faster migratory and invasive capability compared to that observed in a high tumorigenic rat C6 glioma cell line (called as C6-1)...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689343/a-rare-case-report-and-literatures-review-on-primary-germinoma-in-cerebellar-hemisphere
#15
Lei Wang, Wanchun Zhu, Xiang Li, Jintao He, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECT: Primary intracranial germinoma is a rare intracranial lesion which accounts for approximately 0.5-2% of all intracranial tumors. Generally, primary intracranial germinoma occurs in the midline structures of the central nervous system of a pediatric patient. Only four cases of primary cerebellar germinomas with poor prognosis have been previously reported. The object of this paper is to introduce a case of germinoma originating from cerebellar hemisphere and to discuss its clinical features...
July 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667686/pulsatile-crizotinib-treatment-for-brain-metastasis-in-a-patient-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
S Wang, J Chen, Z Xie, L Xia, W Luo, J Li, Q Li, Z Yang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a distinct subtype with patients showing peculiar clinicopathological features and dramatic responses to the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. Patients with this cancer variant have a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options when it has progressed to intracranial metastasis because of inadequate drug penetration into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors associated with response to TKI therapy have been reported to include pharmacokinetic and biodynamic resistance phenomena...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647309/optic-nerve-metastasis-caused-by-lung-adenocarcinoma
#17
F Hernández Pardines, J C Molina Martín, L Fernández Montalvo, A Juárez Marroquí
INTRODUCTION: Isolated optic nerve metastases are extremely uncommon. Many cases are associated with involvement from locations such as the choroid, orbit, or central nervous system. Optic nerve metastases often have their origin in primary tumours of the breast, lung, and stomach, in adults. CASE REPORT: The case is presented of a 57 year-old woman with a diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Her first complaint was a sudden loss of visual acuity in her right eye. The diagnosis of optic nerve metastases was made based on her history, and the results of the MRI scan...
June 21, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634946/3d-coculture-model-of-the-brain-parenchyma-metastasis-interface-of-brain-metastasis
#18
Raquel Blazquez, Tobias Pukrop
Central nervous system (CNS ) metastasis is not only an increasing but still a very unsatisfying clinical problem, with very few treatment options nowadays and an unmet clinical need. Additionally, the patients suffer from severe neurological symptoms. Furthermore the preclinical studies are limited and thus innovative methods are needed to study the mechanism of CNS metastasis during the final steps. Especially nowadays, the most critical step during metastasis seems to be the contention of the microenvironment of host organs with the cancer cells coming from other organs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627687/microrna%C3%A2-205-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-and-directly-targets-yap1-in-glioma
#19
Tao Ji, Xiejun Zhang, Weiping Li
Glioma is the most common form of primary malignant tumor that occurs in the central nervous system. The underlying molecular mechanism of the carcinogenesis and progression of glioma remains to be elucidated. It is well‑established that microRNAs (miRs) are associated with the regulation of glioma initiation and progression, and may represent a novel effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, the expression, roles and molecular mechanisms of miR‑205 in glioma were investigated...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626511/assessment-of-real-world-central-nervous-system-events-in-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-using-abiraterone-acetate-bicalutamide-enzalutamide-or-chemotherapy
#20
Dominic Pilon, Ajay S Behl, Lorie A Ellis, Marie-Noëlle Robitaille, Patrick Lefebvre, Nancy A Dawson
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) events are frequently reported among patients with advanced prostate cancer as a consequence of the treatments used in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of CNS events in patients with advanced prostate cancer who initiated treatment with abiraterone acetate, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, or chemotherapy. METHODS: The Truven Health MarketScan Research databases were used to retrospectively identify patients with prostate cancer who initiated treatment with abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, bicalutamide, or chemotherapy after September 1, 2012 (ie, the index date)...
May 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
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