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Central nervous system metastasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340960/higher-levels-of-progranulin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lymphoma-and-carcinoma-with-cns-metastasis
#1
Akio Kimura, Masao Takemura, Ginette Serrero, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Kuniaki Saito, Takashi Inuzuka
Assessing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with lymphoma or carcinoma is important in determining therapy and prognosis. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with roles in cancer growth and survival; it is highly expressed in aggressive cancer cell lines and specimens from many cancer types. We examined PRGN levels by Enzyme Immuno-Assay (EIA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 230 patients, including 18 with lymphoma [12 with CNS metastasis (CNS+); 6 without CNS metastasis (CNS-)], 21 with carcinomas (10 CNS+; 11 CNS-), and 191 control patients with non-cancer neurological diseases, and compared PRGN levels among these disease groups...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327521/cerebrospinal-fluid-a-clinicopathologic-analysis
#2
Asha Shenoy, Heena Desai, Aparna Mandvekar
Context and Objective: This study aims to emphasize the importance of an appropriate CSF examination in patients of suspected CNS disease and the necessity of correlating it with the clinico-radiologic findings which will help in early diagnosis of CNS diseases and guide the further management of the disease. Design: In this 2 year study, 215 CSF samples from patients with clinically suspected diseases of the CNS were studied. The CSF samples were analyzed for gross examination, protein, sugar, adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, microscopic examination and microbiologic examination...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325982/multiple-cerebral-infarct-with-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-young-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#3
Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Ji Ho Ryu, Dae Sub Lee, Kang Ho Lee
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and debilitating disorder, characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa. UC can be considered a systemic disorder but UC-related manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite rare. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with repeated generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) type seizures. Based on brain CT, brain metastasis or hemorrhagic infarct was suspected. Diffusion-weighted image of brain MRI showed high signal in the left thalamus and heterogenous enhancement in the right parietal and left frontal lobes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315431/receptor-conversion-in-distant-breast-cancer-metastases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Willemijne A M E Schrijver, Karijn P M Suijkerbuijk, Carla H van Gils, Elsken van der Wall, Cathy B Moelans, Paul J van Diest
Background: In metastatic breast cancer, hormone and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy decision-making is still largely based on tissue characteristics of the primary tumor. However, a change of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status in distant metastases has frequently been reported. The actual incidence of this phenomenon has been debated. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis including 39 studies assessing receptor conversion from primary breast tumors to paired distant breast cancer metastases...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204523/fractionated-stereotactic-radiation-therapy-for-intact-brain-metastases
#5
Samuel R Marcrom, Andrew M McDonald, Jonathan W Thompson, Richard A Popple, Kristen O Riley, James M Markert, Christopher D Willey, Markus Bredel, John B Fiveash
Purpose: Limited data exist on fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) for brain metastases. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FSRT and further define its role in brain metastasis management. Methods and materials: A total of 72 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based FSRT to 182 previously untreated, intact brain metastases. Targets received 25 or 30 Gy in 5 fractions. All targets within the same course received the same prescription regardless of size...
October 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201484/intracranial-myeloid-sarcoma-metastasis-mimicking-acute-subdural-hematoma
#6
Amandip S Gill, Rabina Gill, Paul Kaloostian, Dina Elias, John S Roufail, Aurora S Cruz, Panayiotis E Pelargos, Frank P K Hsu, Ronald C Kim, Robert E Ayer, Samer Ghostine
Myeloid sarcoma, a rare consequence of myeloproliferative disorders, is rarely seen in the central nervous system, most commonly in the pediatric population. Although there are a handful of case reports detailing initial presentation of CNS myeloid sarcoma in the adult population, we have been unable to find any reports of CNS myeloid sarcoma presenting as a large mass lesion in a herniating patient. Here, we present the case of a patient transferred to our facility for a very large subdural hematoma. Based on imaging characteristics, it was felt to be a spontaneous hematoma secondary to coagulopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200158/cardiac-toxicity-after-craniospinal-irradiation-a-late-effect-that-may-be-eliminated-with-proton-therapy
#7
Gabrielle D Welch, Kimberly Y Lin, Michael J Fisher, Christine E Hill-Kayser
BACKGROUND: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is commonly required for pediatric patients with central nervous system malignancies. Traditionally, CSI is given using x-rays to deliver radiation to the brain and spine, exposing normal anterior structures, including heart, to unnecessary radiation. OBSERVATIONS: We present a patient treated with x-ray CSI for medulloblastoma with spinal metastasis (3600 cGy CSI with focal boost to 5000 cGy), who subsequently developed significant cardiac toxicity, likely related to radiation exposure...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197363/metastatic-retinoblastoma-of-the-parotid-and-submandibular-glands-a-rare-case-report
#8
Ping Wang, Yang-Jun Li, Shao-Bo Zhang, Qi-Lin Cheng, Qiong Zhang, Li-Sha He
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy occurring in children. It can metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, central nervous system and distant organs usually the bones and bone marrow and very rarely to the soft tissue. Here, we report a case of unilateral retinoblastoma in a 4-year-old girl accompanied by a large metastasis of the parotid and submandibular glands that developed about 6 months previously and gradually increased in size 5 months after enucleation of the left eye...
December 2, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184763/usefulness-of-enhancement-perfusion-mismatch-in-differentiation-of-cns-lymphomas-from-other-enhancing-malignant-tumors-of-the-brain
#9
Pradeep Goyal, Yogesh Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Ajay Malhotra, Saurabh Gupta, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Background: Surgical planning and treatment options for primary or secondary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL or SCNSL) are different from other enhancing malignant lesions such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic gliomas and metastases; so, it is critical to distinguish them preoperatively. We hypothesized that enhancement-perfusion (E-P) mismatch on dynamic susceptibility weighted magnetic resonance (DSC-MR) perfusion imaging which corresponds to low mean relative cerebral blood volume (mean rCBV) in an enhancing portion of the tumor should allow differentiation of CNS lymphomas from other enhancing malignant lesions...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175386/impact-of-clinicopathologic-features-on-the-efficacy-of-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-patients-with-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Tao Jiang, Hongcheng Liu, Meng Qiao, Xuefei Li, Chao Zhao, Chunxia Su, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to comprehensively investigate the impact of various clinicopathologic features on the efficacy of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials that compared PD-1/PD-L1-inhibitor monotherapy with chemotherapy or placebo in patients with previously treated NSCLC were included. RESULTS: Five trials were included (n = 3025)...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137288/elevated-timp-1-expression-is-associated-with-a-prometastatic-phenotype-disease-relapse-and-poor-survival-in-neuroblastoma
#11
Pritha Paul, Eric J Rellinger, Jingbo Qiao, Sora Lee, Natasha Volny, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Carmelle V Romain, Bret Mobley, Hernan Correa, Dai H Chung
Approximately two-thirds of patients with neuroblastoma are found to have metastatic disease at time of diagnosis with frequent skeletal, lymph node, central nervous system, and liver involvement. Using a serial in vivo splenic injection model, we have isolated an aggressive subclone (BE(2)-C/LM2) from MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas that demonstrate an enhanced propensity to develop metastatic liver lesions. BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone cells demonstrate increased adherent, soft agar colony and tumorsphere growth in vitro...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#12
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127594/morphine-double-faced-roles-in-the-regulation-of-tumor-development
#13
REVIEW
X Y Zhang, Y X Liang, Y Yan, Z Dai, H C Chu
Morphine, a highly potent analgesic, is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of severe pain associated with cancer. It directly acts on the central nervous system to relieve pain, but also cause secondary complications, such as addiction, respiratory depression and constipation due to its activities on peripheral tissues. Besides pain relief, morphine is of great importance on cancer management with its effect on tumor development being the subject of debate for many years with some contradictory findings...
November 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123467/the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-cxcr7-in-neuronal-regeneration-after-cerebral-ischemia
#14
REVIEW
Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiuchun Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Zhike Zhou, Xiaopeng Mu, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemoattractant produced by bone marrow stromal cell lines. It is recognized as a critical factor in the immune and central nervous systems (CNSs) as well as exerting a role in cancer. SDF-1 activates two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7; these are expressed in both developing and mature CNSs and participate in multiple physiological and pathological events, e.g., inflammatory response, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103666/identification-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-as-a-risk-factor-of-central-nervous-system-metastasis-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Emilie Le Rhun, Nicolas Bertrand, Aurélie Dumont, Emmanuelle Tresch, Marie-Cécile Le Deley, Audrey Mailliez, Matthias Preusser, Michael Weller, Françoise Revillion, Jacques Bonneterre
INTRODUCTION: The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway may be involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer. Accordingly, herein we explored whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this pathway are associated with altered risk of CNS metastasis formation in metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: The GENEOM study (NCT00959556) included blood sample collection from breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097383/mind-the-sr-gap-roles-of-slit-robo-gaps-in-neurons-brains-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Bethany Lucas, Jeff Hardin
The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) were first identified as potential Slit-Robo effectors that influence growth cone guidance. Given their N-terminal F-BAR, central GAP and C-terminal SH3 domains, srGAPs have the potential to affect membrane dynamics, Rho family GTPase activity and other binding partners. Recent research has clarified how srGAP family members act in distinct ways at the cell membrane, and has expanded our understanding of the roles of srGAPs in neuronal and non-neuronal cells...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071274/bilateral-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-associated-with-bilateral-lymphoproliferative-infiltrative-optic-neuropathy
#17
Philip J DeSouza, Claudia G Hooten, Christopher M Lack, Vishak J John, Timothy J Martin
BACKGROUND: Leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve is relatively rare. While previously described in acute leukemia, the infiltration in our case represents central nervous system (CNS) metastasis of Burkitt-type lymphoma that developed as a complication of solid-organ transplantation, resulting in a bilateral infiltrative optic neuropathy with sequential, bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and devastating vision loss. METHODS: The medical record, serial ophthalmic examination findings, clinical course, and imaging including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiography of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070870/optical-properties-spectral-and-lifetime-measurements-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-humans
#18
F Poulon, H Mehidine, M Juchaux, P Varlet, B Devaux, J Pallud, D Abi Haidar
A key challenge of central nervous system tumor surgery is to discriminate between brain regions infiltrated by tumor cells and surrounding healthy tissue. Although monitoring of autofluorescence could potentially be an efficient way to provide reliable information for these regions, we found little information on this subject, and thus we conducted studies of brain tissue optical properties. This particular study focuses on the different optical quantitative responses of human central nervous system tumors and their corresponding controls...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045549/emerging-treatment-paradigms-for-brain-metastasis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-overview-of-the-current-landscape-and-challenges-ahead
#19
D Ulahannan, J Khalifa, C Faivre-Finn, S-M Lee
Advances in the last decade in genomic profiling and the identification of druggable targets amenable to biological agents have transformed the management and survival of a subgroup of patients with brain metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. In parallel, clinicians have reevaluated the role of whole brain radiotherapy in selected patients with brain metastases to reduce neurocognitive toxicity. Continual progress in this understudied field is required: optimization of the sequence of schedules for therapies in patients with brain metastases of differing genomic profiles, focusing on new strategies to overcome mechanisms of biological resistance and increasing drug penetrability into the central nervous system...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035383/extracellular-nme-proteins-a-player-or-a-bystander
#20
Patrizia Romani, Marilena Ignesti, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Tien Hsu, Valeria Cavaliere
The Nm23/NME gene family has been under intensive study since Nm23H1/NME1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor. Inverse correlation between the expression levels of NME1/2 and prognosis has indeed been demonstrated in different tumor cohorts. Interestingly, the presence of NME proteins in the extracellular environment in normal and tumoral conditions has also been noted. In many reported cases, however, these extracellular NME proteins exhibit anti-differentiation or oncogenic functions, contradicting their canonical anti-metastatic action...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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