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Neurological complications of cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332184/neurologic-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#1
Avi Fellner, Chen Makranz, Michal Lotem, Felix Bokstein, Alisa Taliansky, Shai Rosenberg, Deborah T Blumenthal, Jacob Mandel, Suzana Fichman, Elena Kogan, Israel Steiner, Tali Siegal, Alexander Lossos, Shlomit Yust-Katz
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have recently emerged as a novel treatment for cancer. These agents, transforming the field of oncology, are not devoid of toxicity and cause immune-related side effects which can involve any organ including the nervous system. In this study, we present 9 patients (7 men and 2 women) with neurologic complications secondary to ICPI treatment. These included meningoencephalitis, limbic encephalitis, polyradiculitis, cranial polyneuropathy, myasthenic syndrome and myositis...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326803/treatment-of-early-stages-hodgkin-lymphoma-during-pregnancy
#2
Agustin Avilés, Maria-Jesus Nambo, Natividad Neri
Background: To assess maternal and fetal outcome of women and newborns who received chemotherapy during pregnancy to treat Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)in early stages (IA, IIA), we performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 44 pregnant women with HL and early stages, diagnosed and treated between 1988 to 2013, at a tertiary reference cancer center. Methods: We analyzed data on HL characteristics and treatment, with a particular attention to maternal and fetal complications; in children, we performed a longer follow-up to detect any anomaly in physical development, scholar performance, psychological, cardiac, neurological function, and intelligence tests...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#3
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304362/leptomeningeal-metastases-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Haiying Cheng, Roman Perez-Soler
Leptomeningeal metastasis is a complication of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Diagnosis and monitoring of leptomeningeal metastasis are challenging, and are based on neurological, radiographic, and cerebrospinal fluid findings. Substantial progress has been made in several key aspects of management of leptomeningeal metastasis, including improved characterisation of the genetic profiles, generation of clinically relevant animal models, advances in cerebrospinal fluid liquid biopsy with improved cytology and genotyping analysis, and the development of therapeutic agents with greater CNS penetration...
January 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200112/epidemiology-treatment-and-complications-of-central-nervous-system-metastases
#5
Amy A Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic problems resulting from systemic cancer metastases to brain parenchyma, dura, spinal cord, and leptomeninges are among the most common types of consultations addressed by neurologists. With patients surviving longer from systemic cancer, along with the rapidly evolving therapeutic options, the treatment of these devastating complications has become both more effective and more complicated. This article reviews current patterns of metastatic disease and the increasingly nuanced landscape of evolving therapies, their complications, and their impact on quality of survival...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198072/pres-in-the-course-of-hemato-oncological-treatment-in-children
#6
Katarzyna Musioł, Sylwia Waz, Michał Boroń, Magdalena Kwiatek, Magdalena Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Gruszczyńska, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome of varying aetiologies, characterised by acute neurological symptoms of brain dysfunction with MRI abnormalities in posterior cerebral white and grey matter. In most cases, symptoms resolve without neurological consequences. AIM: The aim of this paper is the analysis of predisposing factors, clinical outcomes and radiological features of PRES in eight children with hemato-oncological disease...
December 2, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197621/inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-6-hdac6-protects-against-vincristine-induced-peripheral-neuropathies-and-inhibits-tumor-growth
#7
Lawrence Van Helleputte, Mandy Kater, Dana P Cook, Caroline Eykens, Elisabeth Rossaert, Wanda Haeck, Tom Jaspers, Natasja Geens, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Guido Cavaletti, Matthew Jarpe, Ludo Van Den Bosch
As cancer is becoming more and more a chronic disease, a large proportion of patients is confronted with devastating side effects of certain anti-cancer drugs. The most common neurological complications are painful peripheral neuropathies. Chemotherapeutics that interfere with microtubules, including plant-derived vinca-alkaloids such as vincristine, can cause these chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN). Available treatments focus on symptom alleviation and pain reduction rather than prevention of the neuropathy...
November 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179434/growth-of-malignant-extracranial-tumors-alters-micrornaome-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tumorgraft-mice
#8
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
A wide array of central nervous system complications, neurological deficits, and cognitive impairments occur and persist as a result of systemic cancer and cancer treatments. This condition is known as chemo brain and it affects over half of cancer survivors. Recent studies reported that cognitive impairments manifest before chemotherapy and are much broader than chemo brain alone, thereby adding in tumor brain as a component. The molecular mechanisms of chemo brain are under-investigated, and the mechanisms of tumor brain have not been analyzed at all...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173113/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-possibly-induced-by-pemetrexed-maintenance-therapy-for-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Gert-Jan Smets, Tine Loyson, Wim Van Paesschen, Philippe Demaerel, Kristiaan Nackaerts
Introduction Advances in systemic chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy have extended and improved the quality of life of patients with cancer. However, the central nervous system is very susceptible to complications of systemic cancer and its treatment. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinical and neuroradiologic entity which has garnered increasing recognition in the past two decades. Cancer patients are generally treated with cytotoxic agents, immunotherapy, molecular targeted therapies or glucosteroids which are more frequently associated with PRES...
November 24, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165794/leptomeningeal-metastasis-from-systemic-cancer-review-and-update-on-management
#10
REVIEW
Nancy Wang, Mia S Bertalan, Priscilla K Brastianos
Leptomeningeal metastasis is an uncommon and typically late complication of cancer with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Diagnosis is often challenging, with nonspecific presenting symptoms ranging from headache and confusion to focal neurologic deficits, such as cranial nerve palsies. Standard diagnostic evaluation involves a neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine with gadolinium, and cytologic evaluation of the cerebral spinal fluid. Therapy entails a multimodal approach focused on palliation with surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, which may be administered systemically or directly into the cerebral spinal fluid...
November 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161783/cancer-treatment-and-management-for-elderly-patients-80-years-of-age-or-older-with-malignant-solid-tumors
#11
Mao Matsubayashi, Fumihiro Oshita, Natsuki Kawata, Takafumi Yanagibashi, Satoshi Tanaka, Yoshiteru Hao, Yuichi Kurakami, Keisuke Iwabuchi, Yohsuke Kunishi, Mitsuyasu Ohta, Yuki Nakamura, Kohichiro Yoshie
We retrospectively analyzed the backgrounds, treatment and nursing care for 96 patients aged 80 years or more with malignant tumors. Twenty of them were hospitalized on an emergency basis. Sixty patients were male and 36 were female, with a median age of 83 years (range: 80-94 years). Twenty-seven had a PS of 3 or 4, and 41 were rated as not independent based on analysis of autonomy at hospitalization. Forty-seven patients had clinical stage III or IV malignancies. The proportions of patients with disease complications were 33...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112541/european-guidelines-on-perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-cardiovascular-and-thoracic-surgery
#12
Aamer B Ahmed, Andreas Koster, Marcus Lance, David Faraoni
: None of the predictive models for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis have been designed for and validated in patients undergoing cardiothoracic and vascular surgery. The presence of one or more risk factors [age over 70 years old, transfusion of more than 4 U of red blood cells/fresh frozen plasma/cryoprecipitate, mechanical ventilation lasting more than 24 h, postoperative complication (e.g. acute kidney injury, infection/sepsis, neurological complication)] should place the cardiac population at high risk for VTE...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097306/conserved-structural-and-functional-aspects-of-the-tripartite-motif-gene-family-point-towards-therapeutic-applications-in-multiple-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Liubov V Gushchina, Thomas A Bodnar, Sayak Bhattacharya, Noah L Weisleder
The tripartite motif (TRIM) gene family is a highly conserved group of E3 ubiquitin ligase proteins that can establish substrate specificity for the ubiquitin-proteasome complex and also have proteasome-independent functions. While several family members were studied previously, it is relatively recent that over 80 genes, based on sequence homology, were grouped to establish the TRIM gene family. Functional studies of various TRIM genes linked these proteins to modulation of inflammatory responses showing that they can contribute to a wide variety of disease states including cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as various forms of cancer...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092871/heart-transplant-outcomes-in-patients-with-pretransplant-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Anne Jalowiec, Kathleen L Grady, Connie White-Williams
BACKGROUND: Findings on outcomes of heart transplant patients who had diabetes mellitus before transplant are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To compare survival, hospitalization, and complications in heart transplant recipients during the first 3 years after surgery in recipients with or without diabetes mellitus before transplant. METHODS: Of 347 recipients, 64 were diabetic (35.9% taking insulin; mean age 56 years; 17.2% females; 12.5% minorities) and 283 were not (mean age 51 years; 20...
November 2017: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089682/ct-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-in-osteoid-osteoma-result-from-a-tertiary-cancer-centre-in-india
#15
Suyash S Kulkarni, Nitin S Shetty, Ashwin M Polnaya, Amit Janu, Suresh Kumar, Ajay Puri, Ashish Gulia, Venkatesh Rangarajan
AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation as a minimally invasive therapy for osteoid osteoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 43 symptomatic osteoid osteoma patients who were treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Forty out of 43 patients were naive cases and underwent primary treatment for osteoid osteoma with RFA, whereas 3 patients included in the study underwent RFA for local recurrence after having undergone surgical treatment...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069871/leptomeningeal-disease-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Gautam Nayar, Tiffany Ejikeme, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Kimberly L Blackwell, Jeffrey M Clarke, Shivanand P Lad, Peter E Fecci
Leptomeningeal disease has become increasingly prevalent as novel therapeutic interventions extend the survival of cancer patients. Although a majority of leptomeningeal spread occurs secondary to breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma, a wide variety of malignancies have been reported as primary sources. Symptoms on presentation are equally diverse, often involving a combination of neurological deficits with the possibility of obstructive hydrocephalus. Diagnosis is definitively made via cerebrospinal fluid cytology for malignant cells, but neuro-imaging with high quality T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can aid diagnosis and localization...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067433/urinary-incontinence-in-women-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Emily S Lukacz, Yahir Santiago-Lastra, Michael E Albo, Linda Brubaker
Importance: Urinary incontinence, the involuntary loss of urine, is a common health condition that may decrease quality of life. Ten to twenty percent of women and up to 77% of women residing in nursing homes have urinary incontinence, yet only 25% seek or receive treatment. Observations: This review summarizes the evaluation and therapeutic options for women affected by urinary incontinence. The initial assessment should focus on understanding the effect of incontinence on quality of life, the patient's goals and preferences for treatment, the results of previous treatments, and the presence of concomitant conditions, such as advanced pelvic organ prolapse, that may require referral...
October 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049237/effect-and-safety-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cell-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#18
Jianxin Hu, Junfeng Hu, Xiandong Liu, Chao Hu, Ming Li, Wei Han
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is considered a systemic disease with a primarily locoregional component. The accumulation of basic researches and clinical studies related to cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells has confirmed their safety and feasibility in treating BC. By searching the PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of DC/CIK plus chemotherapy regimen (Exp) compared with chemotherapy (Con) alone regimen for breast carcinoma...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025771/endothelial-activation-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-neurotoxicity-after-adoptive-immunotherapy-with-cd19-car-t-cells
#19
Juliane Gust, Kevin A Hay, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Daniel Li, David Myerson, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Cecilia Yeung, W Conrad Liles, Mark Wurfel, Jose A Lopez, Junmei Chen, Dominic Chung, Susanna Harju-Baker, Tahsin Özpolat, Kathleen R Fink, Stanley R Riddell, David G Maloney, Cameron J Turtle
Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells can be complicated by neurologic adverse events (AE) in patients with refractory B-cell malignancies. In 133 adults treated with CD19 CAR-T cells, we found that acute lymphoblastic leukemia, high CD19(+) cells in bone marrow, high CAR-T cell dose, cytokine release syndrome, and preexisting neurologic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of neurologic AEs. Patients with severe neurotoxicity demonstrated evidence of endothelial activation, including disseminated intravascular coagulation, capillary leak, and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994832/carotid-endarterectomy-for-treatment-of-carotid-in-stent-restenosis-long-term-follow-up-results-and-surgery-experiences-from-one-single-centre
#20
Le-Bao Yu, Wei Yan, Qian Zhang, Ji-Zong Zhao, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Jun-Shi Shao, Dong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have reported the surgical treatment of carotid in-stent restenosis (ISR), more data and longer follow-up are needed. We describe the surgical treatment of ISR by standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with stent removal, including long-term follow-up in 10 patients from our centre. METHODS: Ten patients from our centre who underwent CEA with stent removal for ISR were retrospectively analysed, including nine symptomatic and one asymptomatic ISR of at least 70% with mean age 67...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
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