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Neurological complications of cancer

Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Christos Panayi, Nagui Antoun, Richard Sandford
A 44-year-old woman with a history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, a rare inherited neoplasia syndrome, presented acutely to hospital with a productive cough, symptoms of respiratory tract infection and odynophagia (painful swallowing). A chest X-ray confirmed right-sided pneumonia. Investigation of the persistent odynophagia using barium swallow revealed aspiration of the contrast into the lungs and suggested a neurological cause for her chest infection. Clinical assessment and speech and language therapy confirmed a pseudobulbar palsy...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jessyca Couto Otoni, Julia Noschang, Thábata Yaedu Okamoto, Diego Rosseman Vieira, Michel Souto Mayor Petry, Lucas de Araujo Ramos, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto Barbosa, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Rubens Chojniak
To evaluate the imaging methods used at the emergency department (ED) of a cancer center, with emphasis on computed tomography (CT). A descriptive, retrospective, single-center study was conducted by reviewing imaging exams and medical records, after approval of the institution's Ethics Review Board. The demographic data, cancer history, and imaging exam requested were evaluated for all patients and the indications and results of head, chest, and abdominopelvic CT scans were also evaluated. During the study period, there were 8710 visits to the ED, and 5999 imaging studies were requested in 3788 patients (43...
October 8, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Haidar M Abdul-Muhsin, Nicholas J Jakob, Ryan M McLemore, Sean B McAdams, Mitchell R Humphreys
INTRODUCTION: To examine the infectious outcomes after the insertion of the temporary prostatic urethral stent (TPUS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2007 and September 2012, ninety TPUS were used in 33 patients with BPH at our institution. All patients had negative urine cultures prior to the first stent insertion. TPUS were sent for cultures at time of removal or exchange. Stents were removed at the time of definite surgical intervention, at 4-6 weeks, or when patients elected another course of treatment...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Urology
Craig Nolan, Lisa M DeAngelis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a practical clinical approach to confusion in the patient with cancer. Confusion in the cancer population has a broader differential diagnosis than in the general medical population. The clinician must consider the usual differential diagnoses as well as causes unique to the cancer patient including direct complications from the cancer and indirect complications related to cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In the recent age of precision medicine, the oncologist now utilizes the genomic profile of both the patient and the tumor to provide advanced biologic therapies including targeted anticancer drugs, antiangiogenic agents, and immunotherapy...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Özge Uluçkan, Erwin F Wagner
Chronic systemic inflammation (CSI) has recently been identified as a major contributor to common diseases ranging from cancer to metabolic disorders and neurologic alterations. In the last decade, we and others have generated genetically engineered mouse models for inflammatory diseases, which enable studying the molecular mechanisms of CSI. Recently, organ cross-talk induced by CSI under homeostatic and pathological conditions has begun to be appreciated. In this review, we will revisit whole organism physiology in relation to CSI originating from epithelial tissues, such as the skin and gut...
September 21, 2016: FEBS Journal
Astra Cabaj, Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Marek Duczkowski
The amount of people living with cancer is increasing; they live longer and have thus a higher risk of developing neurological complications. Magnetic resonance as a diagnostic procedure of choice in detecting the reasons of neurological/psychiatric symptoms in oncological patients is nowadays relatively easily accessible. Early diagnosis established by radiologists familiar with neurological entities that may follow cancer treatment allow clinicians to provide proper treatment, even if the diagnosis seems unbelievable...
July 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Lukasz S Wylezinski, Jacek Hawiger
The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), disrupts the blood-brain barrier and alters brain microcirculation, underlying Vascular Leak Syndrome that complicates cancer immunotherapy with IL2. The microvascular effects of IL2 also play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis and other chronic neurological disorders. The mechanism of IL2-induced disruption of brain microcirculation has not been previously determined. We found that both human and murine brain microvascular endothelial cells express constituents of the IL2 receptor complex...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Takao Koiso, Masaaki Yamamoto, Takuya Kawabe, Shinya Watanabe, Yasunori Sato, Yoshinori Higuchi, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Bierta E Barfod
We aimed to reappraise whether post-stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) results for brain metastases differ between patients with and without neurological symptoms. This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our prospectively accumulated database including 2825 consecutive BM patients undergoing gamma knife SRS alone during the 15-year period since July 1998. The 2825 patients were divided into two groups; neurologically asymptomatic [group A, 1374 patients (48.6 %)] and neurologically symptomatic [group B, 1451 (51...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Bijin Thajudeen, Abdulla K Salahudeen
Hyponatremia is the most frequently observed electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice, and its frequency is almost double in hospitalized cancer patients. As a subset of cancer, hyponatremia is quite common in lung cancer patients, and it is often coupled with the diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The presence of hyponatremia is consequential in that its presence adversely affects cancer patients' prognosis and outcomes. Limited data suggest that correcting hyponatremia in lung cancer patients can increase response to anticancer treatment, may help reduce length of hospital stay and cost, and reduce morbidity and mortality...
2016: Cancer Management and Research
Renata Salgado Fernandes, Diego Dos Santos Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar Ferreira, Francesco Giammarile, Domenico Rubello, André Luis Branco de Barros
Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly remodeled throughout the lifetime to ensure the integrity of the skeleton. Primary cancer cells disseminate into circulation, often extravasating to bone, where they interact with the bone marrow to grow and proliferate, disrupting the bone homeostasis. Although primary bone tumors account for less than 0.2% of all cancers, bone is a common site for the development of metastases, as its microenvironment provides the necessary conditions for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells...
August 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Somit Mittal, Mohd Khalid, Aamir Bin Sabir, Saifullah Khalid
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: To note the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences between pathologically proven cases of atypical spinal tuberculosis and spinal metastasis in 40 cases. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Spinal tuberculosis, or Pott's spine, constitutes less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis and can be associated with a neurologic deficit. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of metastatic bone disease cases, and spine is the most common site of bone metastasis...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Sahejmeet S Guraya, Richard A Prayson
The diagnosis of a tumor-to-tumor metastasis in the central nervous system most commonly involves metastasis to a meningioma. These combined lesions are often radiographically unsuspected and mimic a meningioma. Most commonly, the source of metastatic disease are carcinomas from the lung and breast. To our knowledge, fewer than a half dozen cases of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma to a meningioma have been documented in the literature. This report documents a 67-year-old man who presented with worsening confusion and altered mental status, accompanied by symptoms of increased urinary frequency, incontinence, and difficulty urinating...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yuan-Qiang Lu, Feng Yao, An-Dong Shang, Jian Pan
BACKGROUND: Pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch is uncommonly associated with cancer, and is extremely rare in pulmonary cancer. Here, we report an unusual and successfully treated case of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm in a male patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A 64-year-old male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department, presenting with massive hemoptysis (>500 mL blood during the 12 hours prior to treatment). The diagnosis of aortic arch pseudoaneurysm was confirmed after inspection of computed tomographic angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aditya V Karhade, Viren S Vasudeva, Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Yi Lu, William B Gormley, Michael W Groff, John H Chi, Timothy R Smith
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to use a large national registry to evaluate the 30-day cumulative incidence and predictors of adverse events, readmissions, and reoperations after surgery for primary and secondary spinal tumors. METHODS Data from adult patients who underwent surgery for spinal tumors (2011-2014) were extracted from the prospective National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of reoperation, readmission, and major complications (death, neurological, cardiopulmonary, venous thromboembolism [VTE], surgical site infection [SSI], and sepsis)...
August 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Dara Bakar, Joseph E Tanenbaum, Kevin Phan, Vincent J Alentado, Michael P Steinmetz, Edward C Benzel, Thomas E Mroz
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on reported outcomes following decompression surgery for spinal metastases. METHODS The authors conducted MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science database searches for studies reporting clinical outcomes and complications associated with decompression surgery for metastatic spinal tumors. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included. After meeting inclusion criteria, articles were categorized based on the following reported outcomes: survival, ambulation, surgical technique, neurological function, primary tumor histology, and miscellaneous outcomes...
August 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Ellen G Hoeffner
Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed...
August 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Daniel R Couriel, Holly Ricker, Mary Steinbach, Catherine J Lee
Neurologic manifestations are common in blood diseases, and they can be caused by the hematologic disorder or its treatment. This article discusses hematologic diseases in adult patients, and categorizes them into benign and malignant conditions. The more common benign hematologic diseases associated with neurologic manifestations include anemias, particularly caused by B12 deficiency and sickle cell disease, and a variety of disorders of hemostasis causing bleeding or thrombosis, including thrombotic microangiopathy...
August 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Filipa Fontes, Susana Pereira, José Manuel Castro-Lopes, Nuno Lunet
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of neurological complications among breast cancer patients at one and three years after diagnosis, and to identify factors associated with neuropathic pain (NP) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study including 475 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, recruited among those proposed for surgical treatment (Portuguese Institute of Oncology, Porto). Patients underwent a neurological evaluation and had their cognitive function assesses with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, before treatment and at one and three years after enrollment...
October 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Michel Reich, Edwina Girard, Emilie Le Rhun
OBJECTIVE: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a neurooncological complication of advanced cancer that has a poor prognosis. The incidence of LM is increasing due to advances in neuroimaging. At the same time, the development of new systemic treatments with poor central nervous system penetration has improved outcomes and survival. However, diagnosis of LM remains quite difficult due to clinical polymorphism, inconsistent imaging abnormalities, and the inconsistent presence of neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid...
June 27, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
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