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Barbara Schmidt, Hannah Kanis, Clay B Holroyd, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Johannes Hewig
In this study, we address the effect of anxiety measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on EEG and risk decisions. We selected 20 high and 20 low anxious participants based on their STAI trait scores in the upper or lower quartile of the norm distribution and implemented a risk game developed in our laboratory. We investigate if high anxious individuals exert more cognitive control, reflected in higher frontal midline theta (FMT) power when they make a risky decision, and if they act less risky compared to low anxious individuals...
June 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Ryan A McManamay, Matthew J Troia, Christopher R DeRolph, Arlene Olivero Sheldon, Analie R Barnett, Shih-Chieh Kao, Mark G Anderson
Describing the physical habitat diversity of stream types is important for understanding stream ecosystem complexity, but also prioritizing management of stream ecosystems, especially those that are rare. We developed a stream classification system of six physical habitat layers (size, gradient, hydrology, temperature, valley confinement, and substrate) for approximately 1 million stream reaches within the Eastern United States in order to conduct an inventory of different types of streams and examine stream diversity...
2018: PloS One
A Bruzda-Zwiech, J Szczepańska, R Zwiech
BACKGROUND: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, xerostomia and hyposalivation may intensify sensations of thirst, and contribute to the intake of fluids and excessive inter-dialytic weight gain (IWG). Since IWG is regarded to be higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetics HD enhancing their mortality, it is crucial to define plausible underlying causes. Therefore, the study investigates factors contributing to the increased IWG in diabetic HD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 97 HD patients (38 diabetics) receiving hemodialysis...
June 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Eliora Porter, Erin G Romero, Melissa D Barone
Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is traditionally delivered individually to patients. To engage more veterans in care, an in vivo exposure group treatment was developed in an urban VA medical center. This treatment represented a modification of the in vivo exposure portion of PE, with the addition of in-session, therapist-assisted in vivo exposures. Here, we describe this 12-week treatment and present preliminary outcome data. Demographics and pre- and posttreatment scores on the PTSD Checklist-Specific (PCL-S) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were extracted from a program evaluation database...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
L A Paes, O H Della Torre, T B Henriques, M P de Mello, E H R V Celeri, P Dalgalarrondo, G Guerra Júnior, A Dos Santos Júnior
Serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2C) are involved in serotonin-driven dynamic equilibrium adjustments responsible for homeostatic stability in brain structures that modulate behavior and emotions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the serotonin 2C receptor gene (HTR2C) have been associated with several neurological and mental disorders, including abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene and behavioral characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18) inventory...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Neel S Bhatt, Ruta Brazauskas, Heather R Tecca, Jenny Vogel, Deborah Mattila, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, J Douglas Rizzo, Bronwen E Shaw
To study the factors associated with poorer health-related quality of life at 1-year post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), a secondary analysis of a prospective feasibility study was performed. Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaires were collected in 76 children undergoing alloHCT at baseline (within 30 d before transplantation), day 100, 6 months, and 12 months posttransplantation. The global score improved post-HCT (baseline: 67.1, 12 mo: 76.6). Females (odds ratio, 6...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
A David McGuire, Hélène Genet, Zhou Lyu, Neal Pastick, Sarah Stackpoole, Richard Birdsey, David D'Amore, Yujie He, T Scott Rupp, Robert Striegl, Bruce K Wylie, Xiaoping Zhou, Qianlai Zhuang, Zhiliang Zhu
We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr-1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10-3 W m-2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance...
June 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
D Erritzoe, L Roseman, M M Nour, K MacLean, M Kaelen, D J Nutt, R L Carhart-Harris
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether psilocybin with psychological support modulates personality parameters in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHOD: Twenty patients with moderate or severe, unipolar, TRD received oral psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, one week apart) in a supportive setting. Personality was assessed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), the subjective psilocybin experience with Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) scale, and depressive symptoms with QIDS-SR16...
June 19, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Rose M Collard, Sanne Wassink-Vossen, Aart H Schene, Paul Naarding, Peter Verhaak, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Hannie C Comijs
OBJECTIVES: Functional limitations give an indication of the total impact of diseases, such as depression, on individuals health and recovery. This study examines the change in several domains of functioning over 2 years in older persons depressed at baseline (non-remitted group and remitted group after 2 years) and in a non-depressed comparison group. METHODS: Data were used from a cohort study (Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons [NESDO]) consisting of depressed older persons ≥ 60 years (N = 378) and a non-depressed comparison group (N = 132) with 2 years of follow-up (attrition rate 24%)...
June 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Mark Wilberforce, David Challis, Linda Davies, Michael P Kelly, Chris Roberts
PURPOSE: Researchers investigating person-centredness in older people's long-term community care are hindered by the lack of appropriate measures. Studies have tended to rely on proxy indicators or generic instruments, risking invalid results. This new research aimed to develop and psychometrically test a person-centredness scale for use in older people's community services. METHODS: Questionnaire items were sourced from groups of older people and mapped to a conceptual framework of person-centredness...
June 19, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Young Gi Min, Seung Ho Ham, Yoon Seok Jung, Sangchun Choi
In recent years, various kinds of non-indigenous snakes have become popular as domestic pets globally. If the snake is highly venomous, this would be a potentially life-threatening emergency for breeders. In such a case, the specific antidote should be administered immediately for saving the life. "Salmusa" genus (e.g. Gloydius genus) is a representative indigenous venomous snake in South Korea. Therefore, only one antidote for the "Salmusa" genus is commercially available in South Korea...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Vahid Farnia, Abdulzahra Naami, Yadollah Zargar, Iran Davoodi, Safora Salemi, Faezeh Tatari, Ashraf Kazemi, Behrad Basanj, Touraj Ahmadi Jouybari, Mostafa Alikhani
BACKGROUND: Assessing various therapeutic methods with the intention to decrease the problems relevant to abused children is of high significance. Accordingly, the present study seeks to compare the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF.CBT) with an emphasis on the theory of mind on posttraumatic growth and emotional regulation strategies in abused children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quasi-randomized clinical trial study was done on 39 abused children who referred to welfare organization centers in Ahvaz - Iran...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Hossam A Shaltout, Sung W Lee, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Sean L Simpson, Lee Gerdes, Charles H Tegeler
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of dynamic adaptability of the autonomic nervous system. Few interventions target upstream, cerebral cortex components of the heart-brain system for autonomic management. We report changes in HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), associated with use of a noninvasive, closed-loop, allostatic, computer-guided, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology. Methods: Over 5 years, 220 subjects with heterogeneous neurological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological conditions consecutively enrolled in a naturalistic, single-arm study exploring clinical effects associated with use of the neurotechnology...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Kyle S Gabrick, Nickolay P Markov, Fouad Chouairi, Robin Wu, Sarah M Persing, Paul Abraham, Tomer Avraham, Michael Alperovich
Background: Two-stage tissue expander (TE)/permanent implant (PI) breast reconstruction remains the most commonly performed technique in breast reconstruction. Predictions for the PI size preoperatively impact on the number and range of implants made available at TE exchange. This study aims to identify critical preoperative variables and create a predictive model for PI size. Methods: Patients who underwent 2-stage implant breast reconstruction from 2011 to 2017 were included in the study...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Thomas P Lillicrap, Christopher R Levi, Elizabeth Holliday, Mark William Parsons, Andrew Bivard
Background: The phase-II modafinil in debilitating fatigue after stroke trial demonstrated that modafinil improves fatigue and quality of life in severely fatigued stroke survivors. For this study, we sought to examine the interaction between fatigue and quality of life after stroke and determine whether reducing fatigue resulted in improved quality of life. In addition, we followed up a subset of patients 12-months after the trial to assess the long-term outcomes of modafinil therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Astrid Lebert-Charron, Géraldine Dorard, Emilie Boujut, Jaqueline Wendland
Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman's life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
S Narita, Y Onozawa, E Yoshihara, D Nishizawa, M Numajiri, K Ikeda, K Iwahashi
OBJECTIVE: The N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) is involved in regulation of anxiety and depression and nervous activity in the brain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the GluN2B gene ( GRIN2B ) are associated with human mental function and behaviour. We investigated whether four GRIN2B polymorphisms (rs7301328, rs1806201, rs1805247, and rs1805502) affect characterisation of personality traits. METHODS: In 248 young people, GRIN2B polymorphisms were analysed, and personality traits were assessed using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
June 2018: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
N Wang, H Zhou, H L Huang
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of automatic to manual reposition treatment for patients with horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Sixty patients diagnosed with BPPV were equally and randomly divided into either a manual reposition treatment group or an automatic reposition treatment group. The groups were compared regarding difference in pain [visual analog scale (VAS)], extent of vertigo disorder [dizziness handicap inventory (DHI)], quality of life (SF-36), and therapeutic effect...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Duncan Henry, Travis Vesel, Christy Boscardin, Sandrijn van Schaik
BACKGROUND: For effective self-directed life-long learning physicians need to engage in feedback-seeking, which means fostering such behavior during training. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that intrinsic motivation is fostered when the environment optimizes the individual's experience of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Educational settings meeting these psychological needs may foster intrinsic motivation in trainees, enhance their desire for feedback, and promote feedback-seeking...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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