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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334078/high-prf-ultrafast-sliding-compound-doppler-imaging-fully-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-blood-flow
#1
Jinbum Kang, Won Seuk Jang, Yangmo Yoo
Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it leverages between the number of plane-wave angles (<i>N</i>) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis...
January 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332563/multi-target-directed-drugs-as-a-modern-approach-for-drug-design-towards-alzheimer-s-disease-an-update
#2
Matheus de Freitas Silva, Kris Simone Tranches Dias, Vanessa Silva Gontijo, Cindy Juliet Cristancho Ortiz, Claudio Viega
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. Currently, no effective treatment is available and this is due to multiple factors involved in pathophysiology and severity of AD. A recent approach for the rational design of new drug candidates, also called multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL) strategy, has been used to develop a variety of hybrid compounds capable to act simultaneously in diverse biological targets. The discovery of drug molecules capable of targeting multiple factors involved in AD pathogenesis would greatly facilitate in improving therapeutic strategies...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#3
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330585/potentially-inappropriate-medications-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-undertaken-as-a-comprehensive-geriatric-risk-assessment
#4
Sharmin S Bala, Sujita W Narayan, Prasad S Nishtala
PURPOSE: The prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) is associated with an increase in adverse events, prescribing cascades, high health-care costs, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly. The overarching objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of PIMs in the elderly, applying the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers criteria for the study period 2012-2014, and the updated 2015 Beers criteria for 2015. METHODS: The study population (N = 70,479) included a continuously recruited national cohort of community-dwelling older (aged ≥ 65 years) New Zealanders who had undertaken the International Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (interRAI-HC) assessments between September 2012 and October 2015...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330100/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2017-updates-on-imaging-advancements
#5
REVIEW
Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Shadpour Demehri, Ali Guermazi, John A Carrino
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review covers original research publications related to imaging advancements in osteoarthritis (OA) published in the English language between 1st April 2016 and 30th April 2017. METHODS: Relevant human studies (excluding pre-clinical and in-vitro studies), were searched and selected from PubMed database using the search terms of "osteoarthritis (OA)" in combination with "radiography", "magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)", "computed tomography (CT)", "ultrasound", "positron emission tomography (PET)," "single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)," and "scintigraphy"...
January 9, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#6
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329431/a-validated-method-for-the-screening-of-320-forensically-significant-compounds-in-blood-by-lc-qtof-with-simultaneous-quantification-of-selected-compounds
#7
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott, Chris Kostakis
A broad drug screening method for toxicologically significant drugs and metabolites in whole blood using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF) was developed and comprehensively validated. The method qualitatively screens for 320 compounds while simultaneously quantifying 39. Compounds were extracted from the blood using alkaline liquid/liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved in 12 min. The QTOF was operated using positive mode electrospray ionization using data dependent acquisition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329235/a-review-of-the-biological-activities-of-microalgal-carotenoids-and-their-potential-use-in-healthcare-and-cosmetic-industries
#8
REVIEW
Ramaraj Sathasivam, Jang-Seu Ki
Carotenoids are natural pigments that play pivotal roles in many physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids, their effects on health, and the cosmetic benefits of their usage have been under investigation for a long time; however, most reviews on this subject focus on carotenoids obtained from several microalgae, vegetables, fruits, and higher plants. Recently, microalgae have received much attention due to their abilities in producing novel bioactive metabolites, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can provide for health and cosmetic benefits...
January 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329118/ce-managing-sepsis-and-septic-shock-current-guidelines-and-definitions
#9
Mary Beth Flynn Makic, Elizabeth Bridges
Recent updates emphasize early recognition and prompt intervention. ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a leading cause of critical illness and hospital mortality. Early recognition and intervention are essential for the survival of patients with this syndrome. In 2002, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) launched the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) to reduce overall patient morbidity and mortality from sepsis and septic shock by driving practice initiatives based on current best evidence...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327820/gastroenterology-today-between-certainties-and-news-a-meeting-held-in-turin-on-may-27-2017
#10
Rinaldo Pellicano, Davide G Ribaldone, Marco Astegiano, Luca Dughera, Edda Battaglia, Anna Morgando, Arrigo Arrigoni, Mauro Spandre, Mario Grassini, Giorgio M Saracco, Francis Mégraud
This special article reports on two crucial issues discussed during a meeting. The first was the updated management of Helicobacter pylori infection. This was approached taking into account the recent European Guidelines, with a focus on novelties in treatment. In particular, considering the increasing H. pylori antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin, in countries with a high clarithromycin resistance rate the bismuth-containing quadruple therapies should be preferred. The new formulation, with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline contained in a single capsule (three-in-one), has shown exciting results both in naive and in non-responder patients...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327680/mechanisms-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antimicrobial-agents
#11
Engeline van Duijkeren, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Marilyn C Roberts, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz
During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327271/-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes-a-current-summary
#12
REVIEW
D De Simoni, R Höftberger
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNNS) are remote effects of a tumor and mediated by an altered immune reaction. In the last ten years, the spectrum of PNNS has changed profoundly with the discovery of a new category of neurological diseases that are associated with antibodies against surface or synaptic antigens. In contrast to classical PNNS, patients with surface receptor autoimmunity are often highly responsive to immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an update on the most relevant PNNS, focusing on specific syndromes associated with antibodies against classical onconeuronal antigens as well as surface and synaptic proteins...
January 11, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327217/cryobiotechnology-of-apple-malus-spp-development-progress-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Min-Rui Wang, Long Chen, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Gayle M Volk, Qiao-Chun Wang
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids...
January 11, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326278/an-update-on-the-management-of-gout
#14
(no author information available yet)
Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and its incidence in the UK has steadily increased from 1.5% in 1997 to 2.5% in 2012.1,2 It is characterised by deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and tissues and usually presents with intermittent painful attacks followed by long periods of remission.3 It has been suggested that the management of gout in the UK remains suboptimal.1 In 2004, we concluded that there was a woeful lack of evidence to guide treatment or prophylaxis for gout, particularly with regard to choice of drug or doses...
January 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326004/health-care-associated-infections-in-iran-a-national-update-for-the-year-2015
#15
Babak Eshrati, Hossein Masoumi Asl, Shirin Afhami, Zahra Pezeshki, Arash Seifi
BACKGROUND: A national surveillance system for health care-associated infections (HAIs) in Iran is relatively new, and an update on incidence and mortality rates can aid clinicians and stakeholders in development of new guidelines and imperative modifications to be made. METHODS: Data were extracted from the national HAIs surveillance software for more than 7 million hospitalizations during 2015. Data regarding age, gender, deaths, ward of admission, and microbiologic findings were collected and analyzed...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#16
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325693/updates-in-the-eighth-edition-of-the-tumor-node-metastasis-staging-classification-for-urologic-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Gladell P Paner, Walter M Stadler, Donna E Hansel, Rodolfo Montironi, Daniel W Lin, Mahul B Amin
The Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification on cancer staging, jointly developed by the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), has been updated to its 8th edition with two contemporaneous versions published by the AJCC and UICC. While the goal of the AJCC and UICC is to have identical TNM staging systems, differences exist between these two publications including in the staging of urologic cancers. Among several new facets in the AJCC staging manual, a select few of greater import include an expanded section on imaging, presentation of levels of evidence for significant changes, and endorsement of risk assessment models that pass the AJCC quality criteria such as in prostate cancer...
January 8, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325469/current-update-of-a-thermosensitive-liposomes-composed-of-dppc-and-brij78
#18
Laurence Ho, Mehrdad Bokharaei, Shyh-Dar Li
Thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have been a prominent area of study in the discipline of tumor-targeted chemotherapeutics. The representative product of TSLs is ThermoDox® (DPPC/lyso-PC/PEG-lipid), which has advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Various groups have sought to develop a new TSL to improve upon the LTSL (lyso-lipid temperature sensitive liposomes) formulation that is used to prepare ThermoDOX®. This review focuses on the development and recent update of an innovative TSL formulation, HaT-liposomes composed of DPPC and Brij78...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325347/-opportunities-and-challenges-in-the-development-of-pancreatic-surgery
#19
T P Zhang, Y P Zhao
Pancreatic surgery is characteristic of various and complicated diseases and difficult surgeries. Pancreatic surgeons are required to grasp the new concept, apply new techniques and comprehend the study trends of pancreatic diseases. Otherwise, pancreatic surgeons should fully realize the opportunities and challenges resulted from application of new concept and techniques as well as learning new concept and techniques. Meanwhile, they should grasp the updating guidelines and research progress, intensively promote the development of prospective multicenter research involved in multidisciplinary team, and then promote the rapid development of pancreas surgery in China...
January 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325284/-risk-factors-and-therapeutic-strategies-for-primary-biliary-cholangitis-patients-with-poor-prognosis
#20
Y W Shi, H Ma
With the progress in detection methods and the update of diagnostic and therapeutic concepts, more and more patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have been diagnosed and treated. A high proportion of PBC patients, however, progress to liver decompensation, with an increased risk of liver transplantation and death and a significant reduction in long-term survival. These patients need early diagnosis and urgent treatment. This article discusses how to identify the PBC patients with poor prognosis early from the aspects of biochemical response, disease features, and biomarkers, and reviews the progress in related complementary therapies and new drugs including Ocaliva, Fibrates, UDCA-derived drugs, and molecular targeted drugs...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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