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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786616/derivation-of-new-diagnostic-reference-levels-for-neuro-paediatric-computed-tomography-examinations-in-switzerland
#1
Franca Wagner, Julie Bize, Damien Racine, Regis Le Coultre, Verdun Francis, Philipp Trueb, Reto Treier
Definition of new national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for neuro-paediatric CT examinations depending on the medical indication.
 Methods: Paediatric cranial CT data sets acquired between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively collected between July 2016 and March 2017 from the eight largest university and cantonal hospitals that perform most of the neuro-paediatric CTs in Switzerland. A consensus review of CTDIvol and DLP was undertaken for the three defined anatomical regions: brain, facial bone and petrous bone; each with and without contrast medium application...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785151/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-on-diagnosis
#2
REVIEW
Dan L Dumitrascu, Manuela G Neuman
Background and aim: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its sub-entity, the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represent a field of a tremendous progress in recent years. Clinicians need to remain updated with new data on pathogenesis and therapy. The present mini review aims to present some new scientific reports on the diagnosis of NAFLD and NASH for clinical practitioners. Methods: A systematic literature search of the main international databases was performed...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784745/updates-to-the-management-of-kidney-cancer
#3
Eric Jonasch
Several updates were made to the 2018 NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer. Adjuvant sunitinib is the first adjuvant therapy to be endorsed by the panel for patients with stage II and III clear cell histology renal cell carcinoma (RCC; category 2B). A promising new treatment-ipilimumab plus nivolumab for patients at intermediate and poor risk in the frontline setting-was added to the guidelines as well. Cabozantinib was added as a first-line option for poor- and intermediate-risk patients with advanced RCC.
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784743/new-therapies-for-ovarian-cancer
#4
Deborah K Armstrong
In the latest NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer, the histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer are described in more depth as they vary by frequency, typical age and disease stage at presentation, treatment recommendations, and survival probabilities. The less common subtypes are also discussed. The update with the greatest impact on the treatment of ovarian cancer, however, is probably the use of maintenance therapy with poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, and 3 PARP inhibitors are now included in the guidelines...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784740/nccn-guidelines-updates-prostate-cancer-and-prostate-cancer-early-detection
#5
Peter H Carroll, James L Mohler
Peter H. Carroll, MD, MPH, and James L. Mohler, MD, updated attendees on what is new in the 2018 NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection and for Prostate Cancer, respectively. Their presentations touched on new screening recommendations, shared decision-making, risk stratification, the role of genomic and molecular testing, active surveillance, and newer systemic treatments.
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784736/targeted-therapy-for-patients-with-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Karen L Reckamp
Molecular testing is recommended for initial diagnosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the updated NCCN Guidelines, because targeted therapies are available that can improve patient outcomes. Targeted therapies are currently approved for EGFR mutations, ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangements, and BRAF mutations, with the list of emerging "actionable" targets growing. The 2018 NCCN Guidelines for NSCLC incorporate new therapies, including the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib and the ALK inhibitor alectinib, as first-line preferences...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783987/an-updated-review-of-the-genotoxicity-of-respirable-crystalline-silica
#7
REVIEW
Paul J A Borm, Paul Fowler, David Kirkland
Human exposure to (certain forms of) crystalline silica (CS) potentially results in adverse effects on human health. Since 1997 IARC has classified CS as a Group 1 carcinogen [1], which was confirmed in a later review in 2012 [2]. The genotoxic potential and mode of genotoxic action of CS was not conclusive in either of the IARC reviews, although a proposal for mode of actions was made in an extensive review of the genotoxicity of CS by Borm, Tran and Donaldson in 2011 [3]. The present study identified 141 new papers from search strings related to genotoxicity of respirable CS (RCS) since 2011 and, of these, 17 relevant publications with genotoxicity data were included in this detailed review...
May 21, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782954/comparison-between-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-methods-to-determine-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-corynebacterium-spp-clinical-isolates-and-update-of-their-susceptibility
#8
Claudia Barberis, Eugenia Sandoval, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, María Soledad Ramírez, Angela Famiglietti, Marisa Almuzara, Carlos Vay
INTRODUCTION: Although Corynebacterium species are part of the skin and mucous membranes microbiota, human infections caused by Corynebacterium spp. have been reported and the multidrug resistance pattern of the recovered isolates was emphasized. Due to the usefulness of disk diffusion in daily practice, the purpose of this work was to compare disk diffusion against agar dilution to determine disk diffusion breakpoints and to review the antimicrobial susceptibility of the most frequent Corynebacterium spp...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782485/evaluation-and-application-of-summary-statistic-imputation-to-discover-new-height-associated-loci
#9
Sina Rüeger, Aaron McDaid, Zoltán Kutalik
As most of the heritability of complex traits is attributed to common and low frequency genetic variants, imputing them by combining genotyping chips and large sequenced reference panels is the most cost-effective approach to discover the genetic basis of these traits. Association summary statistics from genome-wide meta-analyses are available for hundreds of traits. Updating these to ever-increasing reference panels is very cumbersome as it requires reimputation of the genetic data, rerunning the association scan, and meta-analysing the results...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782382/an-update-on-pcos-in-adolescents
#10
Shannon Fitzgerald, Amy DiVasta, Holly Gooding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy which can be difficult to treat in adolescents. Fortunately, early identification and treatment can help mitigate some of the metabolic complications. In this review, we reflect on recent literature regarding PCOS diagnosis, associated complications, and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are three well known criteria to diagnose PCOS, they can be difficult to translate to adolescence...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781839/modeling-the-skeleton-weight-of-an-adult-caucasian-man
#11
Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height...
May 17, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781819/staging-of-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#12
Robert J Steffner, Eugene S Jang
The purpose of staging in orthopaedic oncology is to provide a framework for classifying tumors based on their risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis to guide treatment decisions. Two separate systems are commonly used to categorize bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society system for bone sarcomas and the Enneking system for soft-tissue sarcomas are the original staging systems developed by orthopaedic surgeons. The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas are periodically updated based on new data, and they are currently on their eighth edition...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781757/molecular-diagnosis-of-coenzyme-q-10-deficiency-an-update
#13
Delia Yubero, Raquel Montero, Carlos Santos-Ocaña, Leonardo Salviati, Placido Navas, Rafael Artuch
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) deficiency syndromes comprise a growing number of genetic disorders. While primary CoQ deficiency syndromes are rare diseases, secondary deficiencies have been related to both genetic and environmental conditions, which are the main causes of biochemical CoQ deficiency. The diagnosis is the essential first step for planning future treatment strategies, as the potential treatability of CoQ deficiency is the most critical issue for the patients. Areas covered: While the quickest and most effective tool to define a CoQ-deficient status is its biochemical determination in biological fluids or tissues, this quantification does not provide a definite diagnosis of a CoQ-deficient status nor insight about the genetic etiology of the disease...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781330/management-of-pleural-infections
#14
Lucía Ferreiro, José M Porcel, Silvia Bielsa, María Elena Toubes, José Manuel Álvarez-Dobaño, Luis Valdés
The management of infected pleural effusion is complex. Therapeutic resolution requires determining the following: appropriate antibiotic regimen, the need for pleural drainage, the optimal drainage tube size, and the need for intrapleural therapy or surgery. Areas covered: An updating of the latest advances in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusion based on the best evidence available is provided. Expert commentary: The correct management of parapneumonic pleural effusion is based on selecting an antibiotic regimen according to the origin of the pleural infection (community-acquired or nosocomial)...
May 20, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780339/your-co-author-received-150-citations-pride-but-not-envy-mediates-the-effect-of-system-generated-achievement-messages-on-motivation
#15
Sonja Utz, Nicole L Muscanell
ResearchGate, a social network site for academics, prominently displays the achievements of people one follows ("With 150 new reads, X was the most read author from their institute"). The goal of this paper was to examine the emotional and motivational effects of these system-generated messages, thereby extending prior research on envy-evoking status updates on Facebook to a professional context. We also extend the research on social comparisons and more broadly, on emotional responses elicited by social media...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780238/update-on-new-biologics-for-intractable-eosinophilic-asthma-impact-of-reslizumab
#16
REVIEW
Jagdeep Sahota, Douglas S Robinson
A small percentage of patients with asthma have uncontrolled symptoms and frequent exacerbations, despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and other agents. It has become clear that different subtypes of this severe, treatment-resistant group exist due to different mechanisms of the disease. All such patients require detailed assessment in specialist centers to characterize the disease and assess treatment adherence. Recently, monoclonal antibodies have become available, which target specific pathways that may contribute to persistent inflammation and asthma exacerbations...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779849/how-much-progress-has-there-been-in-the-second-line-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-2017-update
#17
REVIEW
A Maarouf, C Boutière, A Rico, B Audoin, J Pelletier
In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug specifically for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). More than two decades later, a dozen such treatments are now available. Of these, four are considered second-line treatments for use in escalation strategies and two new drugs are currently undergoing accreditation procedures. Soon, they will provide clinicians with a range of six effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) to thwart the inflammatory processes in MS patients with active disease...
May 17, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779723/checking-the-potential-shift-to-perceived-usefulness-the-analysis-of-users-response-to-the-updated-electronic-health-record-core-features
#18
Petar Rajković, Dejan Aleksić, Dragan Janković, Aleksandar Milenković, Ivan Petković
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this paper is to identify the main factors which have an impact on the users' attitude towards the functionalities representing the perceived ease of use and to those representing the perceived usefulness. Another objective is to examine whether there occurred a shift towards the perceived usefulness of users' behavior over a period of time. To support these objectives, two different cases are examined - the case in which users are simultaneously offered basic and updated functionalities, and the one in which users are offered a completely new set of features...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779206/old-new-and-emerging-immunohistochemical-markers-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#19
REVIEW
Veronica K Y Cheung, Anthony J Gill, Angela Chou
The evolution of genetic research over the past two decades has greatly improved the understanding of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. It is now accepted that more than one third of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas arise in the context of syndromic disease, usually hereditary. The genetic profile of these tumors also has important prognostic implications which may help guide treatment. Accompanying the changing molecular landscape is the development of new immunohistochemical markers. Initially used in assisting with diagnosis, immunohistochemical markers have now become an important adjunct to screening programs for inherited conditions and subsequently as prognostic markers...
May 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778762/object-spatial-and-social-recognition-testing-in-a-single-test-paradigm
#20
Bin Lian, Jun Gao, Nan Sui, Tingyong Feng, Ming Li
Animals have the ability to process information about an object or a conspecific's physical features and location, and alter its behavior when such information is updated. In the laboratory, the object, spatial and social recognition are often studied in separate tasks, making them unsuitable to study the potential dissociations and interactions among various types of recognition memories. The present study introduced a single paradigm to detect the object and spatial recognition, and social recognition of a familiar and novel conspecific...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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