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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491321/thermotolerance-capacities-of-native-and-exotic-coastal-plants-will-lead-to-changes-in-species-composition-under-increased-heat-waves
#1
Kris French, Sharon A Robinson, Jodie Lia
With an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events, plants are likely to reach their thermal limits and show slower growth or increased mortality. We investigated differences amongst coastal native and invasive shrubs and grasses to investigate if particular species might be more at risk in the future. Using an ecologically relevant experimental set of heat waves over a month, we assessed changes in biomass and photosynthetic efficiency in a laboratory setting using 25 coastal Australian species divided into native and exotic shrubs, and native and exotic grasses...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468072/-impact-of-daily-mean-temperature-cold-spells-and-heat-waves-on-stroke-mortality-a-multivariable-meta-analysis-from-12-counties-of-hubei-province-china
#2
Y Q Zhang, C H Yu, J Z Bao
Objective: To assess the acute effects of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to daily mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between daily mean temperature, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between temperature and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship)...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465307/the-impact-of-temperature-extremes-on-mortality-a-time-series-study-in-jinan-china
#3
Jing Han, Shouqin Liu, Jun Zhang, Lin Zhou, Qiaoling Fang, Ji Zhang, Ying Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between temperature extremes and daily number of deaths in Jinan, a temperate city in northern China. METHODS: Data ondaily number of deaths and meteorological variables over the period of 2011-2014 were collected. Cold spells or heat waves were defined as ≥3 consecutive days with mean temperature ≤5th percentile or ≥95th percentile, respectively. We applied a time-series adjusted Poisson regression to assess the effects of extreme temperature on deaths...
May 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464106/breeding-and-genetics-symposium-breeding-heat-tolerant-dairy-cattle-the-case-for-introgression-of-the-slick-prolactin-receptor-variant-into-dairy-breeds
#4
S R Davis, R J Spelman, M D Littlejohn
Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. Crossbreeding is undertaken to combine the heat tolerance and tick resistance of zebu with the productivity of temperate dairy breeds...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421177/variation-in-population-vulnerability-to-heat-wave-in-western-australia
#5
Jianguo Xiao, Tony Spicer, Le Jian, Grace Yajuan Yun, Changying Shao, John Nairn, Robert J B Fawcett, Andrew Robertson, Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri
Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388909/hospitalizations-for-heat-stress-illness-varies-between-rural-and-urban-areas-an-analysis-of-illinois-data-1987-2014
#6
Jyotsna S Jagai, Elena Grossman, Livia Navon, Apostolis Sambanis, Samuel Dorevitch
BACKGROUND: The disease burden due to heat-stress illness (HSI), which can result in significant morbidity and mortality, is expected to increase as the climate continues to warm. In the United States (U.S.) much of what is known about HSI epidemiology is from analyses of urban heat waves. There is limited research addressing whether HSI hospitalization risk varies between urban and rural areas, nor is much known about additional diagnoses of patients hospitalized for HSI. METHODS: Hospitalizations in Illinois for HSI (ICD-9-CM codes 992...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384570/effect-modification-of-individual-and-regional-scale-characteristics-on-heat-wave-related-mortality-rates-between-2009-and-2012-in-seoul-south-korea
#7
REVIEW
E-Jin Kim, Ho Kim
Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384428/stress-responses-to-heat-exposure-in-three-species-of-australian-desert-birds
#8
Shangzhe Xie, L Michael Romero, Zaw Win Htut, Todd J McWhorter
Birds need to respond to weather changes quickly and appropriately for their own well-being and survival. The inability to respond appropriately to heat waves can be fatal to individual birds and can translate into large-scale mortality events. We investigated corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil∶lymphocyte (H∶L) ratio responses of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and diamond doves (Geopelia cuneata) to heat exposures. The birds were exposed to a temperature similar to what they experience during a typical summer day (35°C) and a higher temperature (45°C) similar to that experienced during a heat wave...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321590/extreme-climatic-conditions-and-health-service-utilisation-across-rural-and-metropolitan-new-south-wales
#9
Edward Jegasothy, Rhydwyn McGuire, John Nairn, Robert Fawcett, Benjamin Scalley
Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319715/small-area-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-heatwave-impacts-on-elderly-mortality-in-paris-a-cluster-analysis-approach
#10
Tarik Benmarhnia, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite, Martina S Ragettli, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267585/disturbances-of-thirst-and-fluid-balance-associated-with-aging
#11
REVIEW
Denovan P Begg
During heat waves, significant mortality and morbidity occurs in elderly populations due to heat-stress and dehydration. The dehydration is primarily attributable to inadequate water intake caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system mechanisms controlling thirst. The phenomenon of a reduced thirst in response to dehydration in aging was first observed decades ago and has been examined extensively since. The reduced thirst and ingestive behavior have been reported consistently in response to hyperosmotic stimuli, hypovolemic stimuli and dehydration in both elderly humans and animal models of aging...
March 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228117/the-association-between-consecutive-days-heat-wave-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-beijing-china
#12
Qian Yin, Jinfeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have examined the effects of heat waves on the excess mortality risk (ER) posed by cardiovascular disease (CVD), scant attention has been paid to the effects of various combinations of differing heat wave temperatures and durations. We investigated such effects in Beijing, a city of over 20 million residents. METHODS: A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the ER of consecutive days' exposure to extreme high temperatures...
February 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216585/effect-of-indoor-temperature-on-physical-performance-in-older-adults-during-days-with-normal-temperature-and-heat-waves
#13
Ulrich Lindemann, Anja Stotz, Nina Beyer, Juha Oksa, Dawn A Skelton, Clemens Becker, Kilian Rapp, Jochen Klenk
Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185608/effect-of-heat-waves-on-embryo-mortality-in-the-pine-processionary-moth
#14
S Rocha, C Kerdelhué, M L Ben Jamaa, S Dhahri, C Burban, M Branco
Extreme climate events such as heat waves are predicted to become more frequent with climate change, representing a challenge for many organisms. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa is a Mediterranean pine defoliator, which typically lays eggs during the summer. We evaluated the effects of heat waves on egg mortality of three populations with different phenologies: a Portuguese population with a classical life cycle (eggs laid in summer), an allochronic Portuguese population reproducing in spring, and a Tunisian population from the extreme southern limit of T...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101750/mortuary-operations-following-mass-fatality-natural-disasters-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Madelyn Anderson, Jodie Leditschke, Richard Bassed, Stephen M Cordner, Olaf H Drummer
This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#16
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933447/indian-summer-heat-wave-of-2015-a-biometeorological-analysis-using-half-hourly-automatic-weather-station-data-with-special-reference-to-andhra-pradesh
#17
M A Sarath Chandran, A V M Subba Rao, V M Sandeep, V P Pramod, P Pani, V U M Rao, V Visha Kumari, Ch Srinivasa Rao
Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810225/effects-of-the-2015-heat-wave-on-benthic-invertebrates-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-tabarca%C3%A2-marine-protected-area-southeast-spain
#18
Esther Rubio-Portillo, Andrés Izquierdo-Muñoz, Juan F Gago, Ramon Rosselló-Mora, Josefa Antón, Alfonso A Ramos-Esplá
In the late summer of 2015, extensive mortality of scleratinian corals, gorgonians, and sponges was observed in the Marine Protected Area of Tabarca (southeast Spain). Quantitative data indicated that at 25 m depth the sea fan Eunicella singularis was the most affected species (50% of colonies affected by partial mortality); while in shallow waters more than 40% of the endemic scleractinian coral Cladocora caespitosa population showed tissue lesions that affected more than 10% of their surfaces. Other affected species were the scleractinian corals Oculina patagonica and Phyllangia mouchezii, the sea fan Leptogorgia sarmentosa and the sponge Sarcotragus fasciculatus...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736896/response-of-two-mytilids-to-a-heatwave-the-complex-interplay-of-physiology-behaviour-and-ecological-interactions
#19
Celia Olabarria, Ignacio Gestoso, Fernando P Lima, Elsa Vázquez, Luc A Comeau, Filipa Gomes, Rui Seabra, José M F Babarro
Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620887/cardiac-electrical-and-structural-changes-during-bacterial-infection-an-instructive-model-to-study-cardiac-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#20
Michael A Makara, Ky V Hoang, Latha P Ganesan, Elliot D Crouser, John S Gunn, Joanne Turner, Larry S Schlesinger, Peter J Mohler, Murugesan V S Rajaram
BACKGROUND: Sepsis patients with cardiac dysfunction have significantly higher mortality. Although several pathways are associated with myocardial damage in sepsis, the precise cause(s) remains unclear and treatment options are limited. This study was designed to develop a new model to investigate the early events of cardiac damage during sepsis progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (Ft.n) is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen causing severe sepsis syndrome in mice...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
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